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# Late Period (26th-31st Dynasties, 664-332 BC): The last gasp of Ancient Egypt, with two periods of rule by UsefulNotes/TheAchaemenidEmpire known in Egyptian historiography as the Twenty-Seventh and Thirty-First Dynasties. The defeat of the Egyptians against the Achaemenids in the Battle of Pelusium in 343 BC, which closed the Thirtieth Dynasty, marked the loss of Egypt's independence for over two millennia.

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# Late Period (26th-31st Dynasties, 664-332 BC): The last gasp of Ancient Egypt, with two periods of rule by UsefulNotes/TheAchaemenidEmpire known in Egyptian historiography as the Twenty-Seventh and Thirty-First Dynasties. The Thirtieth Dynasty was the last time Egypt was ruled by someone of native stock, with the defeat of the Egyptians against the Achaemenids in the Battle of Pelusium in 343 BC, which closed BC marking the Thirtieth Dynasty, marked the loss start of Egypt's independence for over two millennia.
millennia rule by ForeignRulingClass.


AncientEgypt was the second civilization in the world (after ancient [[UsefulNotes/TheMiddleEast Mesopotamia]]) to invent writing, with bits of proto-hieroglyphs being dated to the ''33rd century BC''. As a result, its history is ''[[TimeAbyss extremely]]'' long. People tend to forget this: Egyptian history from the earliest extensive records in the 31st century BC to the Macedonian Conquest in 332 BC spans ''2700 years''. Consider this: to UsefulNotes/{{Jesus}} or [[UsefulNotes/JuliusCaesar Julius Caesar]], the first Pharaohs were ''1000 years more ancient'' than either of them is to us; to the builders of the Pantheon in Rome, the Great Pyramid was older than the Pantheon is to the designers of today's skyscrapers. Even the Ancient Egyptian "golden age" of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties was as far removed from them as [[TheLowMiddleAges the Early Middle Ages]] are to us--the world of UsefulNotes/RamsesII was as far back for UsefulNotes/{{Augustus}} as UsefulNotes/{{Charlemagne}} is to UsefulNotes/BarackObama. Almost any trope recorded in Ancient Egypt is therefore by definition OlderThanDirt.

Ancient Egyptian history is conventionally divided into ten periods. They are generally identified with dynasties, which unlike the dynasties of other states are [[YouAreNumberSix numbered rather than named]]. Not all dynasties are necessarily different families; different dynasties are often separated from each other for historical reasons. Moreover, sometimes members of the same "dynasty" were only related by marriage. The term refers more to a broad family and its followers rather than a specific [[LineageComesFromTheFather patrilineal line of descent]] (as was usually the case in medieval Europe and throughout history in East Asia). Some dynasties even overlapped with one dynasty reigning over part of the country and the other over another part, sometimes on friendly terms and sometimes at ''de facto'' war with one another.

Important note: names of Ancient Egyptian places are most often ''not'' what they were called in Ancient Egyptian. Most of the place names in English are actually Greek, as the Greeks seem to have had a collective case of [[ForeignCultureFetish Egyptomania]] (seriously, the Pharaoh gave the Greeks ''the entire city of Naucratis'', there were so many of them) and wrote incessantly about it (Creator/{{Herodotus}} in particular was a big fan). This extends to the name of Egypt itself, which derives from the Greek ''Aigyptos'' (via the Latin ''Aegyptus''). Egypt's true name was "Kemet", referring to the fertile Black Silt Land that the Nile delivered to them annually to sustain their lives. An example of this is the name of the city of Thebes--that was a Greek mishearing of an Egyptian term for the big temple, which they conveniently turned into the name of a city in Greece, but the Egyptians actually called the city ''Waset'' (or something similar). On the other hand, personal names tend to be modern guesses at the actual Egyptian--a somewhat problematic endeavor, as Egyptian writing leaves out even more vowels than modern Arabic and Hebrew--although some Greek names persist (e.g. Cheops for Khufu).

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AncientEgypt was the second civilization in the world (after ancient [[UsefulNotes/TheMiddleEast [[UsefulNotes/{{Iraq}} Mesopotamia]]) to invent writing, with bits of proto-hieroglyphs being dated to the ''33rd century BC''. As a result, its history is ''[[TimeAbyss extremely]]'' long. People tend to forget this: Egyptian history from the earliest extensive records in the 31st century BC to the Macedonian Conquest in 332 BC spans ''2700 years''. Consider this: to UsefulNotes/{{Jesus}} or [[UsefulNotes/JuliusCaesar Julius Caesar]], the first Pharaohs were ''1000 years more ancient'' than either of them is to us; to the builders of the Pantheon in Rome, the Great Pyramid was older than the Pantheon is to the designers of today's skyscrapers. Even the Ancient Egyptian "golden age" of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties was as far removed from them as [[TheLowMiddleAges the Early Middle Ages]] are to us--the world of UsefulNotes/RamsesII was as far back for UsefulNotes/{{Augustus}} as UsefulNotes/{{Charlemagne}} is to UsefulNotes/BarackObama. Almost any trope recorded in Ancient Egypt is therefore by definition OlderThanDirt.

Ancient Egyptian history is conventionally divided into ten periods. They are generally identified with dynasties, which unlike the dynasties of other states are were [[YouAreNumberSix numbered rather than named]]. Not all dynasties are were necessarily different families; different dynasties are were often separated from each other for historical reasons. Moreover, sometimes members of the same "dynasty" were only related by marriage. The term refers more to a broad family and its followers rather than a specific [[LineageComesFromTheFather patrilineal line of descent]] (as was usually the case in medieval Europe and throughout history in East Asia). Some dynasties even overlapped with one dynasty reigning over part of the country and the other over another part, sometimes on friendly terms and sometimes at ''de facto'' war with one another.

Important note: names of Ancient Egyptian places are most often ''not'' what they were called in Ancient Egyptian. Most of the place names in English are actually Greek, as the Greeks seem seemed to have had a collective case of [[ForeignCultureFetish Egyptomania]] (seriously, the Pharaoh gave the Greeks ''the entire city of Naucratis'', there were so many of them) and wrote incessantly about it (Creator/{{Herodotus}} in particular was a big fan). This extends to the name of Egypt itself, which derives from the Greek ''Aigyptos'' (via the Latin ''Aegyptus''). Egypt's true name was "Kemet", referring to the fertile Black Silt Land that the Nile delivered to them annually to sustain their lives. An example of this is the name of the city of Thebes--that was a Greek mishearing of an Egyptian term for the big temple, which they conveniently turned into the name of a city in Greece, but the Egyptians actually called the city ''Waset'' (or something similar). On the other hand, personal names tend to be modern guesses at the actual Egyptian--a somewhat problematic endeavor, as Egyptian writing leaves out even more vowels than modern Arabic and Hebrew--although some Greek names persist (e.g. Cheops for Khufu).



# Protodynastic Period (much of the 32nd and 31st centuries BC): More hieroglyphic writing is from this period, but records are very sketchy. Dynasties may or may not have existed.
# Early Dynastic Period (1st and 2nd Dynasties, c. 31st century BC-2686 BC): The capital moves from Abydos in Upper Egypt to Memphis where Upper and Lower Egypt meet (just south of modern UsefulNotes/{{Cairo}}). Writing develops and becomes more common. New technologies in copper and pottery appear, possibly arriving from the southern Levant (modern Israel/Palestine and Jordan). The state becomes increasingly centralized. Rich people start building ever-larger tombs.
# Old Kingdom (3rd-6th Dynasties, 2686-2181 BC): Centralization reaches its peak. Previously independent or semi-independent states become ''nomes'', i.e. provinces, ruled at the discretion of the Pharaoh in Memphis. This centralization makes massive projects possible; given the LensmanArmsRace in tomb-building among Egypt's nobles, the Pharaohs start building pyramids just to show who's boss. The Old Kingdom is therefore sometimes known as "the Age of Pyramids." However, this centralized state eventually falls apart, and the hereditary rulers of the nomes became increasingly rich and powerful.
# First Intermediate Period (6th-11th Dynasties, 2181-2055): [[VestigialEmpire Dynasties of Pharaohs continue to exist, but have little power outside their home territories]] (fans of Chinese history, think of the [[UsefulNotes/DynastiesFromShangToQing Zhou Dynasty]]). However, powerful families in Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt and Thebes in Upper Egypt succeeded in gradually uniting their respective parts of the country; inevitably, they clashed. In about 2055 BC, the Theban 11th Dynasty decisively defeated the Heracleopolitan Tenth Dynasty and founded the...

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# Protodynastic Period (much of the 32nd and 31st centuries BC): More hieroglyphic writing is from this period, but records are very sketchy. Dynasties may might or may might not have existed.
# Early Dynastic Period (1st and 2nd Dynasties, c. 31st century BC-2686 BC): The capital moves moved from Abydos in Upper Egypt to Memphis where Upper and Lower Egypt meet (just south of modern UsefulNotes/{{Cairo}}). Writing develops developed and becomes became more common. New technologies in copper and pottery appear, appeared, possibly arriving from the southern Levant (modern Israel/Palestine UsefulNotes/{{Israel}}/UsefulNotes/{{Palestine}} and Jordan). UsefulNotes/{{Jordan}}). The state becomes became increasingly centralized. Rich people start started building ever-larger tombs.
# Old Kingdom (3rd-6th Dynasties, 2686-2181 BC): Centralization reaches reached its peak. Previously independent or semi-independent states become became ''nomes'', i.e. provinces, ruled at the discretion of the Pharaoh in Memphis. This centralization makes made massive projects possible; given the LensmanArmsRace in tomb-building among Egypt's nobles, the Pharaohs start started building pyramids just to show who's boss. The Old Kingdom is therefore sometimes known as "the Age of Pyramids." However, this centralized state eventually falls fell apart, and the hereditary rulers of the nomes became increasingly rich and powerful.
# First Intermediate Period (6th-11th Dynasties, 2181-2055): [[VestigialEmpire Dynasties of Pharaohs continue continued to exist, but have had little power outside their home territories]] (fans of Chinese history, think of the [[UsefulNotes/DynastiesFromShangToQing Zhou Dynasty]]). However, powerful families in Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt and Thebes in Upper Egypt succeeded in gradually uniting their respective parts of the country; inevitably, they clashed. In about 2055 BC, the Theban 11th Dynasty decisively defeated the Heracleopolitan Tenth Dynasty and founded the...



# Third Intermediate Period (21st-25th Dynasties, 1069-664 BC): Yet another period of division. Several dynasties of foreigners--chiefly from Libya to the west and Nubia to the south--rule all or much of Egypt.
# Late Period (26th-31st Dynasties, 664-332 BC): The last gasp of Ancient Egypt, with two periods of rule by UsefulNotes/TheAchaemenidEmpire known in Egyptian historiography as the Twenty-Seventh and Thirty-First Dynasties.

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# Third Intermediate Period (21st-25th Dynasties, 1069-664 BC): Yet another period of division. Several dynasties of foreigners--chiefly from Libya to the west and Nubia to the south--rule south--ruled all or much of Egypt.
# Late Period (26th-31st Dynasties, 664-332 BC): The last gasp of Ancient Egypt, with two periods of rule by UsefulNotes/TheAchaemenidEmpire known in Egyptian historiography as the Twenty-Seventh and Thirty-First Dynasties. \n The defeat of the Egyptians against the Achaemenids in the Battle of Pelusium in 343 BC, which closed the Thirtieth Dynasty, marked the loss of Egypt's independence for over two millennia.


# Predynastic period (before 3150 BC): prehistoric Egypt. Not much is known. Tradition holds that Egypt was divided into small squabbling city-states that gradually merged together into the kingdoms of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt, which in turn were united by King Menes (also called Narmer in some sources) sometime around 3150 BC.
# Protodynastic period (much of the 32nd and 31st centuries BC): More hieroglyphic writing is from this period, but records are very sketchy. Dynasties may or may not have existed.

to:

# Predynastic period Period (before 3150 BC): prehistoric Egypt. Not much is known. Tradition holds that Egypt was divided into small squabbling city-states that gradually merged together into the kingdoms of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt, which in turn were united by King Menes (also called Narmer in some sources) (possibly the same as Narmer, for whom evidence exists from this period) sometime around 3150 BC.
# Protodynastic period Period (much of the 32nd and 31st centuries BC): More hieroglyphic writing is from this period, but records are very sketchy. Dynasties may or may not have existed.


In 332 BC, Egypt was conquered by UsefulNotes/AlexanderTheGreat and became part of Hellenistic civilization under the Ptolemy dynasty following the UsefulNotes/MacedonianSuccessionWars, the last (and arguably most famous) sovereign being UsefulNotes/CleopatraVII Philopator. Egypt would be part of various empires until the 19th century; while it fairly frequently hosted the capital of such empires, and was almost as frequently rather autonomous when it didn't, these empires were uniformly ruled by and for people of non-Egyptian stock. Egypt would not be ruled by someone of Egyptian stock (President Muhammad Naguib) until 1953. Egypt has since changed its religion twice (first to Christianity, then to Islam, though a Christian minority remains) and its language once (from Coptic, the descendant of Ancient Egyptian that still sees limited use as a liturgical language in Egyptian Coptic Christianity) but still markets itself as a continuation of the old pharaohs (just look at any tourism advert).

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In 332 BC, Egypt was conquered by UsefulNotes/AlexanderTheGreat and became part of Hellenistic civilization under the Ptolemy dynasty following the UsefulNotes/MacedonianSuccessionWars, the last (and arguably most famous) sovereign being UsefulNotes/CleopatraVII Philopator. Egypt would be part of various empires until the 19th century; while it fairly frequently hosted the capital of such empires, and was almost as frequently rather autonomous when it didn't, these empires were uniformly ruled by and for people of non-Egyptian stock. Egypt would not be ruled by someone of Egyptian stock (President Muhammad Naguib) until 1953. Egypt has since changed its religion twice (first to Christianity, then to Islam, though a Christian minority remains) and its language once (from Coptic, the descendant of Ancient Egyptian that still sees limited use as a liturgical language in Egyptian Coptic Christianity) Christianity, to Arabic) but still markets itself as a continuation of the old pharaohs (just look at any tourism advert).


In 332 BC, Egypt was conquered by UsefulNotes/AlexanderTheGreat and became part of Hellenistic civilization under the Ptolemy dynasty following the UsefulNotes/MacedonianSuccessionWars, the last (and arguably most famous) sovereign being UsefulNotes/CleopatraVII Philopator. Egypt would be part of various empires until the 19th century, and would not be ruled by someone of Egyptian stock (President Muhammad Naguib) until 1953. Egypt has since changed its religion twice (first to Christianity, then to Islam, though a Christian minority remains) and its language once (from Coptic, the descendant of Ancient Egyptian that still sees limited use as a liturgical language in Egyptian Coptic Christianity) but still markets itself as a continuation of the old pharaohs (just look at any tourism advert).

to:

In 332 BC, Egypt was conquered by UsefulNotes/AlexanderTheGreat and became part of Hellenistic civilization under the Ptolemy dynasty following the UsefulNotes/MacedonianSuccessionWars, the last (and arguably most famous) sovereign being UsefulNotes/CleopatraVII Philopator. Egypt would be part of various empires until the 19th century, century; while it fairly frequently hosted the capital of such empires, and was almost as frequently rather autonomous when it didn't, these empires were uniformly ruled by and for people of non-Egyptian stock. Egypt would not be ruled by someone of Egyptian stock (President Muhammad Naguib) until 1953. Egypt has since changed its religion twice (first to Christianity, then to Islam, though a Christian minority remains) and its language once (from Coptic, the descendant of Ancient Egyptian that still sees limited use as a liturgical language in Egyptian Coptic Christianity) but still markets itself as a continuation of the old pharaohs (just look at any tourism advert).


In 332 BC, Egypt was conquered by UsefulNotes/AlexanderTheGreat and became part of Hellenistic civilization under the Ptolemy dynasty, the last (and arguably most famous) sovereign being UsefulNotes/CleopatraVII Philopator. Egypt would be part of various empires until the 19th century, and would not be ruled by someone of Egyptian stock (President Muhammad Naguib) until 1953. Egypt has since changed its religion twice (first to Christianity, then to Islam, though a Christian minority remains) and its language once (from Coptic, the descendant of Ancient Egyptian that still sees limited use as a liturgical language in Egyptian Coptic Christianity) but still markets itself as a continuation of the old pharaohs (just look at any tourism advert).

to:

In 332 BC, Egypt was conquered by UsefulNotes/AlexanderTheGreat and became part of Hellenistic civilization under the Ptolemy dynasty, dynasty following the UsefulNotes/MacedonianSuccessionWars, the last (and arguably most famous) sovereign being UsefulNotes/CleopatraVII Philopator. Egypt would be part of various empires until the 19th century, and would not be ruled by someone of Egyptian stock (President Muhammad Naguib) until 1953. Egypt has since changed its religion twice (first to Christianity, then to Islam, though a Christian minority remains) and its language once (from Coptic, the descendant of Ancient Egyptian that still sees limited use as a liturgical language in Egyptian Coptic Christianity) but still markets itself as a continuation of the old pharaohs (just look at any tourism advert).


[[caption-width-right:350:The Abydos King List, one of the sources egyptologists have used to reconstruct the history of ancient Egyptian dynasties.]]

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[[caption-width-right:350:The Abydos King List, one of the sources egyptologists have used to reconstruct the history chronology of ancient Egyptian dynasties.]]


[[quoteright:350:https://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/4deb2855c94c0161c8a7bd45f8456f27.jpg]]
%%[[caption-width-right:350:some caption text]]

Egypt was the second civilization in the world (after ancient [[UsefulNotes/TheMiddleEast Mesopotamia]]) to invent writing, with bits of proto-hieroglyphs being dated to the ''33rd century BC''. As a result, its history is ''[[TimeAbyss extremely]]'' long. People tend to forget this: Egyptian history from the earliest extensive records in the 31st century BC to the Macedonian Conquest in 332 BC spans ''2700 years''. Consider this: to UsefulNotes/{{Jesus}} or [[UsefulNotes/JuliusCaesar Julius Caesar]], the first Pharaohs were ''1000 years more ancient'' than either of them is to us; to the builders of the Pantheon in Rome, the Great Pyramid was older than the Pantheon is to the designers of today's skyscrapers. Even the Ancient Egyptian "golden age" of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties was as far removed from them as [[TheLowMiddleAges the Early Middle Ages]] are to us--the world of UsefulNotes/RamsesII was as far back for UsefulNotes/{{Augustus}} as UsefulNotes/{{Charlemagne}} is to UsefulNotes/BarackObama. Almost any trope recorded in Ancient Egypt is therefore by definition OlderThanDirt.

to:

[[quoteright:350:https://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/4deb2855c94c0161c8a7bd45f8456f27.org/pmwiki/pub/images/abydos_king_list_1869.jpg]]
%%[[caption-width-right:350:some caption text]]

Egypt
[[caption-width-right:350:The Abydos King List, one of the sources egyptologists have used to reconstruct the history of ancient Egyptian dynasties.]]

AncientEgypt
was the second civilization in the world (after ancient [[UsefulNotes/TheMiddleEast Mesopotamia]]) to invent writing, with bits of proto-hieroglyphs being dated to the ''33rd century BC''. As a result, its history is ''[[TimeAbyss extremely]]'' long. People tend to forget this: Egyptian history from the earliest extensive records in the 31st century BC to the Macedonian Conquest in 332 BC spans ''2700 years''. Consider this: to UsefulNotes/{{Jesus}} or [[UsefulNotes/JuliusCaesar Julius Caesar]], the first Pharaohs were ''1000 years more ancient'' than either of them is to us; to the builders of the Pantheon in Rome, the Great Pyramid was older than the Pantheon is to the designers of today's skyscrapers. Even the Ancient Egyptian "golden age" of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties was as far removed from them as [[TheLowMiddleAges the Early Middle Ages]] are to us--the world of UsefulNotes/RamsesII was as far back for UsefulNotes/{{Augustus}} as UsefulNotes/{{Charlemagne}} is to UsefulNotes/BarackObama. Almost any trope recorded in Ancient Egypt is therefore by definition OlderThanDirt.

Added DiffLines:

[[quoteright:350:https://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/4deb2855c94c0161c8a7bd45f8456f27.jpg]]
%%[[caption-width-right:350:some caption text]]


Egypt was the second civilization in the world (after ancient Mesopotamia) to invent writing, with bits of proto-hieroglyphs being dated to the ''33rd century BC''. As a result, its history is ''[[TimeAbyss extremely]]'' long. People tend to forget this: Egyptian history from the earliest extensive records in the 31st century BC to the Macedonian Conquest in 332 BC spans ''2700 years''. Consider this: to UsefulNotes/{{Jesus}} or [[UsefulNotes/JuliusCaesar Julius Caesar]], the first Pharaohs were ''1000 years more ancient'' than either of them is to us; to the builders of the Pantheon in Rome, the Great Pyramid was older than the Pantheon is to the designers of today's skyscrapers. Even the Ancient Egyptian "golden age" of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties was as far removed from them as [[TheLowMiddleAges the Early Middle Ages]] are to us--the world of UsefulNotes/RamsesII was as far back for UsefulNotes/{{Augustus}} as UsefulNotes/{{Charlemagne}} is to UsefulNotes/BarackObama. Almost any trope recorded in Ancient Egypt is therefore by definition OlderThanDirt.

to:

Egypt was the second civilization in the world (after ancient Mesopotamia) [[UsefulNotes/TheMiddleEast Mesopotamia]]) to invent writing, with bits of proto-hieroglyphs being dated to the ''33rd century BC''. As a result, its history is ''[[TimeAbyss extremely]]'' long. People tend to forget this: Egyptian history from the earliest extensive records in the 31st century BC to the Macedonian Conquest in 332 BC spans ''2700 years''. Consider this: to UsefulNotes/{{Jesus}} or [[UsefulNotes/JuliusCaesar Julius Caesar]], the first Pharaohs were ''1000 years more ancient'' than either of them is to us; to the builders of the Pantheon in Rome, the Great Pyramid was older than the Pantheon is to the designers of today's skyscrapers. Even the Ancient Egyptian "golden age" of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties was as far removed from them as [[TheLowMiddleAges the Early Middle Ages]] are to us--the world of UsefulNotes/RamsesII was as far back for UsefulNotes/{{Augustus}} as UsefulNotes/{{Charlemagne}} is to UsefulNotes/BarackObama. Almost any trope recorded in Ancient Egypt is therefore by definition OlderThanDirt.


# Late Period (26th-31st Dynasties, 664-332 BC): The last gasp of Ancient Egypt, with two periods of rule by ThePersianEmpire known in Egyptian historiography as the Twenty-Seventh and Thirty-First Dynasties.

to:

# Late Period (26th-31st Dynasties, 664-332 BC): The last gasp of Ancient Egypt, with two periods of rule by ThePersianEmpire UsefulNotes/TheAchaemenidEmpire known in Egyptian historiography as the Twenty-Seventh and Thirty-First Dynasties.


Important note: names of Ancient Egyptian places are most often ''not'' what they were called in Ancient Egyptian. Most of the place names in English are actually Greek, as the Greeks seem to have had a collective case of [[ForeignCultureFetish Egyptomania]] (seriously, the Pharaoh gave the Greeks ''the entire city of Naucratis'', there were so many of them) and wrote incessantly about it (Creator/{{Herodotus}} in particular was a big fan). Egypt's true name was "Kemet", referring to the fertile Black Silt Land that the Nile delivered to them annually to sustain their lives. An example of this is the name of the city of Thebes--that was a Greek mishearing of an Egyptian term for the big temple, which they conveniently turned into the name of a city in Greece, but the Egyptians actually called the city ''Waset'' (or something similar). On the other hand, personal names tend to be modern guesses at the actual Egyptian--a somewhat problematic endeavor, as Egyptian writing leaves out even more vowels than modern Arabic and Hebrew--although some Greek names persist (e.g. Cheops for Khufu).

to:

Important note: names of Ancient Egyptian places are most often ''not'' what they were called in Ancient Egyptian. Most of the place names in English are actually Greek, as the Greeks seem to have had a collective case of [[ForeignCultureFetish Egyptomania]] (seriously, the Pharaoh gave the Greeks ''the entire city of Naucratis'', there were so many of them) and wrote incessantly about it (Creator/{{Herodotus}} in particular was a big fan). This extends to the name of Egypt itself, which derives from the Greek ''Aigyptos'' (via the Latin ''Aegyptus''). Egypt's true name was "Kemet", referring to the fertile Black Silt Land that the Nile delivered to them annually to sustain their lives. An example of this is the name of the city of Thebes--that was a Greek mishearing of an Egyptian term for the big temple, which they conveniently turned into the name of a city in Greece, but the Egyptians actually called the city ''Waset'' (or something similar). On the other hand, personal names tend to be modern guesses at the actual Egyptian--a somewhat problematic endeavor, as Egyptian writing leaves out even more vowels than modern Arabic and Hebrew--although some Greek names persist (e.g. Cheops for Khufu).


In 332 BC, Egypt was conquered by UsefulNotes/AlexanderTheGreat and became part of Hellenistic civilization under the Ptolemy dynasty, the last (and arguably most famous) sovereign being UsefulNotes/CleopatraVII Philopator. Egypt would be part of various empires until the 19th century, and would not be ruled by someone of Egyptian stock (President Muhammad Naguib) until 1953. Egypt has since changed its religion twice (first to Christianity, then to Islam, though a Christian minority remains) and its language once (from Coptic, the descendant of Ancient Egyptian that still sees limited use as a liturgical language in Egyptian Coptic Christianity) but still markets itself as a continuation of the old pharaohs (Just look at any tourism advert)

to:

In 332 BC, Egypt was conquered by UsefulNotes/AlexanderTheGreat and became part of Hellenistic civilization under the Ptolemy dynasty, the last (and arguably most famous) sovereign being UsefulNotes/CleopatraVII Philopator. Egypt would be part of various empires until the 19th century, and would not be ruled by someone of Egyptian stock (President Muhammad Naguib) until 1953. Egypt has since changed its religion twice (first to Christianity, then to Islam, though a Christian minority remains) and its language once (from Coptic, the descendant of Ancient Egyptian that still sees limited use as a liturgical language in Egyptian Coptic Christianity) but still markets itself as a continuation of the old pharaohs (Just (just look at any tourism advert)advert).


Egypt was the second civilization in the world (after ancient Mesopotamia) to invent writing, with bits of proto-hieroglyphs being dated to the ''33rd century BC''. As a result, its history is ''[[TimeAbyss extremely]]'' long. People tend to forget this: Egyptian history from the earliest extensive records in the 31st century BC to the Macedonian Conquest in 332 BC spans ''2700 years''. Consider this: To UsefulNotes/{{Jesus}} or [[UsefulNotes/JuliusCaesar Julius Caesar]], the first Pharaohs were ''1000 years more ancient'' than either of them is to us; to the builders of the Pantheon in Rome, the Great Pyramid was older than the Pantheon is to the designers of today's skyscrapers. Even the Ancient Egyptian "golden age" of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties was as far removed from them as [[TheLowMiddleAges the Early Middle Ages]] are to us--the world of UsefulNotes/RamsesII was as far back for UsefulNotes/{{Augustus}} as UsefulNotes/{{Charlemagne}} is to UsefulNotes/BarackObama. Almost any trope recorded in Ancient Egypt is therefore by definition OlderThanDirt.

Ancient Egyptian history is conventionally divided into ten periods. They are generally identified with dynasties, which unlike the dynasties of other states are [[YouAreNumberSix numbered rather than named]]. Not all dynasties are necessarily different families; different dynasties are often separated from each other for historical reasons. Moreover, sometimes members of the same "dynasty" were only related by marriage. The term refers more to a broad family and its followers rather than a specific [[LineageComesFromTheFather patrilineal line of descent]] (as was usually the case in medieval Europe and throughout history in East Asia). Some dynasties even overlapped with one dynasty reigning over part of the country and the other over another part, sometimes on friendly terms and sometimes at de facto war with one another.

Important note: Names of Ancient Egyptian places are most often ''not'' what they were called in Ancient Egyptian. Most of the placenames in English are actually Greek, as the Greeks seem to have had a collective case of [[ForeignCultureFetish Egyptomania]] (seriously, the Pharaoh gave the Greeks ''the entire city of Naucratis'', there were so many of them) and wrote incessantly about it (Creator/{{Herodotus}} in particular was a big fan). Egypt's true name was "Kemet", referring to the fertile Black Silt Land that the Nile delievered to them annually to sustain their lives. An example of this is the name of the city of Thebes--that was a Greek mishearing of an Egyptian term for the big temple, which they conveniently turned into the name of a city in Greece, but the Egyptians actually called the city ''Waset'' (or something similar). On the other hand, personal names tend to be modern guesses at the actual Egyptian--a somewhat problematic endeavor, as Egyptian writing leaves out even more vowels than modern Arabic and Hebrew--although some Greek names persist (e.g. Cheops for Khufu).

# Predynastic period (before 3150 BC): Prehistoric Egypt. Not much is known. Tradition holds that Egypt was divided into small squabbling city-states that gradually merged together into the kingdoms of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt, which in turn were united by King Menes (also called Narmer in some sources) sometime around 3150 BC.

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Egypt was the second civilization in the world (after ancient Mesopotamia) to invent writing, with bits of proto-hieroglyphs being dated to the ''33rd century BC''. As a result, its history is ''[[TimeAbyss extremely]]'' long. People tend to forget this: Egyptian history from the earliest extensive records in the 31st century BC to the Macedonian Conquest in 332 BC spans ''2700 years''. Consider this: To to UsefulNotes/{{Jesus}} or [[UsefulNotes/JuliusCaesar Julius Caesar]], the first Pharaohs were ''1000 years more ancient'' than either of them is to us; to the builders of the Pantheon in Rome, the Great Pyramid was older than the Pantheon is to the designers of today's skyscrapers. Even the Ancient Egyptian "golden age" of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties was as far removed from them as [[TheLowMiddleAges the Early Middle Ages]] are to us--the world of UsefulNotes/RamsesII was as far back for UsefulNotes/{{Augustus}} as UsefulNotes/{{Charlemagne}} is to UsefulNotes/BarackObama. Almost any trope recorded in Ancient Egypt is therefore by definition OlderThanDirt.

Ancient Egyptian history is conventionally divided into ten periods. They are generally identified with dynasties, which unlike the dynasties of other states are [[YouAreNumberSix numbered rather than named]]. Not all dynasties are necessarily different families; different dynasties are often separated from each other for historical reasons. Moreover, sometimes members of the same "dynasty" were only related by marriage. The term refers more to a broad family and its followers rather than a specific [[LineageComesFromTheFather patrilineal line of descent]] (as was usually the case in medieval Europe and throughout history in East Asia). Some dynasties even overlapped with one dynasty reigning over part of the country and the other over another part, sometimes on friendly terms and sometimes at de facto ''de facto'' war with one another.

Important note: Names names of Ancient Egyptian places are most often ''not'' what they were called in Ancient Egyptian. Most of the placenames place names in English are actually Greek, as the Greeks seem to have had a collective case of [[ForeignCultureFetish Egyptomania]] (seriously, the Pharaoh gave the Greeks ''the entire city of Naucratis'', there were so many of them) and wrote incessantly about it (Creator/{{Herodotus}} in particular was a big fan). Egypt's true name was "Kemet", referring to the fertile Black Silt Land that the Nile delievered delivered to them annually to sustain their lives. An example of this is the name of the city of Thebes--that was a Greek mishearing of an Egyptian term for the big temple, which they conveniently turned into the name of a city in Greece, but the Egyptians actually called the city ''Waset'' (or something similar). On the other hand, personal names tend to be modern guesses at the actual Egyptian--a somewhat problematic endeavor, as Egyptian writing leaves out even more vowels than modern Arabic and Hebrew--although some Greek names persist (e.g. Cheops for Khufu).

# Predynastic period (before 3150 BC): Prehistoric prehistoric Egypt. Not much is known. Tradition holds that Egypt was divided into small squabbling city-states that gradually merged together into the kingdoms of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt, which in turn were united by King Menes (also called Narmer in some sources) sometime around 3150 BC.


# Early Dynastic Period (1st and 2nd Dynasties, c. 31st century BC-2686 BC): The capital moves from Abydos in Upper Egypt to Memphis where Upper and Lower Egypt meet (just south of modern UsefulNotes/{{Cairo}}). Writing develops and becomes more common. New technologies in copper and pottery appear, possibly arriving from the southern Levant (modern Israel/Palestine and Jordan). The state becomes increasingly centralized. [[{{Foreshadowing}} Rich people start building ever-larger tombs]].

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# Early Dynastic Period (1st and 2nd Dynasties, c. 31st century BC-2686 BC): The capital moves from Abydos in Upper Egypt to Memphis where Upper and Lower Egypt meet (just south of modern UsefulNotes/{{Cairo}}). Writing develops and becomes more common. New technologies in copper and pottery appear, possibly arriving from the southern Levant (modern Israel/Palestine and Jordan). The state becomes increasingly centralized. [[{{Foreshadowing}} Rich people start building ever-larger tombs]].tombs.

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