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* ''ComicBook/WonderWoman1987'': The Amazon nation split in antiquity with those willing to accept the Olympians' punishment going to Themyscira and gaining immortality and those who weren't eventually making their way to Egypt and becoming the Bana tribe. The two tribes go to war with each other after Gaia destroys the Bana's home, but eventually call an uneasy truce with the Bana joining their immortal sisters on Themyscira.

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* Practically a staple of the VideoGame/HeartsOfIron mod ''VideoGame/KaiserreichLegacyOfTheWeltkrieg'', presenting a unusual alternate world as a result of Germany winning World War I:
** China is embroiled in civil war at the very start of the game, not too dissimilarly to how China was in 1936 in RealLife.
** The United States usually sees itself in a Second American Civil War between the Federal Government, [[ChummyCommies the Combined Syndicalists of America]], [[DeepSouth the American Union State]] and [[MyFriendsAndZoidberg the Pacific States of America]].
** Like China, Spain is also likely to fall into civil war, but a three way one between the Alfonsists, the Carlists and the CNT-FAI.
** The collapse of British imperial rule in India sees the subcontinent divided into three states: the pro-Entente Dominion of India, the monarchist Princely Federation, and the syndicalist Bharatiya Commune.
** Russia can see a [[TheRemnant second uprising of the Bolsheviks]] if whoever is in charge of Russia handles things poorly enough (in this timeline, the first uprising failed massively, which discredited Leninism as the chief ideology of the political left and syndicalism - which was successful in Britain, France and Italy, replaced it).

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* ''[[https://www.deviantart.com/e350tb/art/An-Ordeal-of-the-Most-Grevious-Kind-Prologue-788018673 An Ordeal of the Most Grievous Kind]]'' is a novelization of a run-through of ''VideoGame/HeartsOfIron IV'', and features a Second American Civil War break out as the result of President Alf Landon (who beat FDR in the 1936 election thanks to a smear campaign) being assassinated in 1938. Since the shooter was a journalist who was blacklisted for suspected communist ties, J. Edgar Hoover uses the assassination as a pretext for rooting out every communist in the country (along with everyone else he and his allies, including the fascist Silver Legion, don't like). When it becomes clear that Landon's vice president Frank Knox isn't going to support him, Hoover convinces Douglas [=MacArthur=] to stage a MilitaryCoup, dissolving Congress and declaring martial law; in response, Knox forms a new government in Boston, which quickly gains the allegiance of the governments and National Guards of all the New England states, New York, Pennsylvania, California, Oregon, and Washington, along with several army divisions under Dwight Eisenhower. And in addition to all the regular military, hundreds of militias rise up across the country in support of either the Loyalists ([=MacArthur's=] regime) or the Constitutionalists (Knox's government), which also have backing from the Axis and Allies, respectfully.


** Brazil breaks down into one after WWIII, between the military-backed Estado Novo regime in the south, Communist and Republican rebellions in the north, and indigenous peoples' rebellions in the Amazon territories. Eventually, the Estado Novo make peace with Republicans and grant the natives freedom in order to end the fighting and finish off the communists.

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** Brazil breaks down into one after WWIII, between the military-backed Estado Novo regime in the south, Communist and Republican rebellions in the north, and indigenous peoples' rebellions in the Amazon territories. Eventually, the Estado Novo make peace with Republicans and grant the natives freedom in order to end the fighting and finish off the communists.communists... which lasts until an Estado Novo plane is shot down over Republican territory, kicking the fighting off again.
** Peru erupts into this post-WWIII between loyalists of dictator Francisco Morales Bermudez's corrupt regime on one side, and the Neo-Incan revolutionary movement/cult led by Pachacuti on the other.

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* ''Literature/NewDealCoalitionRetained'':
** [[spoiler: The Soviet Union dissolves into infighting when it becomes clear it's losing WorldWarIII, which gets even worse after the peace terms forced on them by NATO. On top of numerous nationalist rebellions in the [=SSRs=], the major factions also include Zhirinovsky seizing power in Siberia and creating a fascist state, the democratic reformers who take over European Russia, and a Communist rump state in the Urals.]]
** Brazil breaks down into one after WWIII, between the military-backed Estado Novo regime in the south, Communist and Republican rebellions in the north, and indigenous peoples' rebellions in the Amazon territories. Eventually, the Estado Novo make peace with Republicans and grant the natives freedom in order to end the fighting and finish off the communists.

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* ''Fanfic/EarthsAlienHistory'': In the MirrorUniverse, the [[TheAlliance Terran Treaty Organization]] undergoes a civil war when Hoshi Sato and her supporters launch a military revolution to overthrow the various constituent governments, ultimately succeeding and creating the now unified [[TheEmpire Terran Empire]].


** The 40s also see a civil war in Russia, where republican and regional nationalist forces rise up against the Tsar across the empire. Further complicating things are military forces in Siberia, while technically Tsarist loyalists, set up their own ''de facto'' regimes thanks to the distance and chaos.

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** The 40s also see a civil war in Russia, where republican and regional nationalist forces rise up against the Tsar across the empire. Further complicating things are military forces in Siberia, while technically Tsarist loyalists, set up their own ''de facto'' regimes thanks to the distance and chaos. [[spoiler: Eventually, the Tsar's regime is overthrown, and the Russian Empire dissolves into several independent states (like the real life Soviet Union).]]
** The Ottoman Empire avoids collapse by several decades by means of reforming itself as a federation, with the various provinces having increased autonomy. But at the beginning of the 50s, the central government tries to rescind that and consolidate its own power. This causes nationalist and liberal movements across Ottoman territory to all rise up in revolt [[spoiler: and eventually overthrow the central government, causing the federation to dissolve into several independent nations]].


* The backstory for ''VideoGame/StarTrekOnline'' reveals that this is pretty much the state of affairs for the Romulans [[Film/StarTrekNemesis post-Shinzon]] that got worse [[Film/StarTrek post-Hobus Supernova]]. The backstory dealt with the war between Tal'Aura's Romulan Star Empire and Donatra's Imperial Romulan State in the aftermath of Shinzon's rebellion while the main bulk of the Romulan Player Character deals with Sela's Romulan Star Empire (ran by the Tal Shiar) going up against D'Tan's Romulan Republic.

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* The backstory for ''VideoGame/StarTrekOnline'' reveals that this is pretty much the state of affairs for the Romulans [[Film/StarTrekNemesis post-Shinzon]] that got worse [[Film/StarTrek [[Film/StarTrek2009 post-Hobus Supernova]]. The backstory dealt with the war between Tal'Aura's Romulan Star Empire and Donatra's Imperial Romulan State in the aftermath of Shinzon's rebellion while the main bulk of the Romulan Player Character deals with Sela's Romulan Star Empire (ran by the Tal Shiar) going up against D'Tan's Romulan Republic.

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** A civil war erupts in Spain in the 1940s, when a communalist uprising seizes control of Barcelona, and then [[MeleeATrois on top of that]], military forces in favor of a republican reform also rebel against the monarchy, driving them out of Madrid. This leads to both rebel forces fighting each other and the monarchist loyalists, who are backed by an international coalition [[spoiler: until the republicans and communalists [[EnemyMine join forces]], driving the monarchists out of the country]].
** The 40s also see a civil war in Russia, where republican and regional nationalist forces rise up against the Tsar across the empire. Further complicating things are military forces in Siberia, while technically Tsarist loyalists, set up their own ''de facto'' regimes thanks to the distance and chaos.


*** The Stormcloaks are the [[HornyVikings Nords]] who've chosen to secede from the Empire, believing that Skyrim stands a better chance without the Empire bogging them down and behind a strong leader ([[RebelLeader Ulfric Stormcloak]]). They find the Empire's decision to agree to lop-sided peace terms with the Dominion to be disgraceful and even offensive, to both the [[ProudWarriorRace warrior sensibilities]] of the Nords and to their [[RealMenLoveJesus religious beliefs]]. However, most Stormcloaks also display a noticeable degree of FantasticRacism against non-Nord races (with plenty of "Skyrim is for the Nords" rhetoric), and their rebellion is perceived by Empire-supporters as [[HonorBeforeReason ill-timed and short-sighted]], especially in the face of the [[BiggerBad true threat of the Dominion]].

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*** The Stormcloaks are the [[HornyVikings Nords]] who've chosen to secede from the Empire, believing that Skyrim stands a better chance without the Empire bogging them down and behind a strong leader ([[RebelLeader Ulfric Stormcloak]]). They find the Empire's decision to agree to lop-sided peace terms with the Dominion to be disgraceful and even offensive, to both the [[ProudWarriorRace warrior sensibilities]] of the Nords and to their [[RealMenLoveJesus religious beliefs]]. However, most Stormcloaks also display a noticeable degree of FantasticRacism against non-Nord races (with plenty of "Skyrim is for the Nords" rhetoric), and their rebellion is perceived by Empire-supporters as [[HonorBeforeReason ill-timed and short-sighted]], especially in the face of the [[BiggerBad true threat of the Dominion]].Dominion.


*** The continent of Yokuda, to the west of Tamriel, saw a bloody civil war waged between the [[TheOrder Ansei]], or "[[MasterSwordsman Sword Saints]]", and the forces of the Yokudan Emperor, Hira, who was attempting to consolidate power by eliminating the Ansei. After urging from his son and fellow Ansei, the legendary Frandar Hunding (by this point a BadassGrandpa) reluctantly led the "greatly outnumbered" forces of the Ansei against the corrupt Yokudan Emperor Hira. Frandar and the Ansei were victorious, but were considered "red with blood" by the citizens and chose to self-exile to Tamriel following the conflict. (Yokuda itself would be "sunk beneath the sea" not long after.)

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*** The continent of Yokuda, to the west of Tamriel, saw a bloody civil war waged between the [[TheOrder Ansei]], or "[[MasterSwordsman Sword Saints]]", and the forces of the Yokudan Emperor, Hira, who was attempting to consolidate power by eliminating the Ansei. After urging from his son and fellow Ansei, the legendary Frandar Hunding (by this point a BadassGrandpa) reluctantly led the "greatly outnumbered" forces of the Ansei against the corrupt Yokudan Emperor Hira. Frandar and the Ansei were victorious, but were considered "red with blood" by the citizens and chose to self-exile to Tamriel following the conflict. (Yokuda itself would be "sunk beneath the sea" not long after.)


* The UsefulNotes/MeijiRestoration, which served as the culmination of a period of conflict in {{UsefulNotes/Japan}} known as the ''Bakumatsu'' (1853-1867)

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* The UsefulNotes/MeijiRestoration, which served as the culmination of a period of conflict in {{UsefulNotes/Japan}} known as the ''Bakumatsu'' (1853-1867)(1853-1869)


* The "Divided we fall" arc in ComicBook/UltimateMarvel features an actual civil war in the US. Washington DC is blown up, and the president and all the Congress are killed in the blast. The US falls in anarchy, Sentinels take over the west, Texas declares independence, etc. Kitty Pryde and the X-Men fight against the Sentinels, and Captain America is elected president and makes all the rogue states rejoin the Union, by force if needed be.

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* The "Divided we fall" We Fall" arc in ComicBook/UltimateMarvel features an actual civil war in the US. Washington DC is blown up, and the president and all the Congress are killed in the blast. The US falls in anarchy, Sentinels take over the west, Texas declares independence, etc. Kitty Pryde and the X-Men fight against the Sentinels, and Captain America is elected president and makes all the rogue states rejoin the Union, by force if needed be.


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* In the ''Fanfic/ChildOfTheStorm'' universe, Krypton is revealed to have entered one of these in its final days. On one side were the Science Council (who [[HeadInTheSandManagement refused to believe]] Jor-El's warnings of the planet's encroaching doom), on the other was General Zod (who believed Jor-El and felt that overthrowing the Council would somehow save the planet), and opposed to both was the [[ApocalypseCult Cult of the Eradicator]] (who also believed Jor-El, but also felt that their world blowing up would be a ''good'' thing).

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* ''FanFic/TheRavensPlan'' has this happen to Dorne as a consequence of the [[PeggySue Remembering]]. First off, Doran and his loyalists remember how Ellaria and the Sand Snakes betrayed them in the original timeline and kill them, which enrages Oberyn causes the confused guards to turn on each other (since they assume that there's either a coup or counter coup going on). By the time the fighting ends when Doran makes peace with Oberyn and explains things, many visiting members of lesser Dornish Houses have been killed, enraging their families into rising against the Martells in revenge. Meanwhile, several other Houses are rebelling, simply because they smell the blood in the water and think that the Martells have been weakened.


** In Brazil, anti-slavery/pro

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** In Brazil, anti-slavery/proanti-slavery/pro-democracy forces within the military eventually stage a coup against the royal family, who escape with support from the Americans, resulting in the country being divided between an American puppet state in the north and a republic in the south.
** Near the end of the timeline, their losses in the Great War cause [[spoiler: Britain and France]] to break apart into a number of bickering smaller nations.
** Also near the end of the timeline, there's a civil war in Canada (here an autonomous kingdom instead of a dominion) between supporters of the monarchy and a democracy movement. This one isn't resolved by story's end, but it's speculated in-universe that the republicans will succeed in breaking western Canada away, leaving a rump kingdom in Ontario; left unresolved is the fate of Wisconsin, which is the most heavily divided between the two sides.
* In ''Literature/TheFalconCannotHear'', the assassination of President-elect UsefulNotes/FranklinDRoosevelt in 1933 means there's no New Deal to help the United States successfully recover from the Great Depression, causing tensions to continue to rise between various left- and right-wing groups and the government, coming to a head when the Bonus Army [[spoiler: kills the President and Vice-President]] in 1937. Army Chief-Of-Staff Douglas [=MacArthur=] subsequently stages a MilitaryCoup to try and stabilize the situation, but that just ignites the powder keg and kicks off the Second American Civil War, which has no less than ''five'' major factions -- [=MacArthur=]'s "Khaki" military government, which controls D.C., the Rockies, Alaska, and the overseas territories; the American Soviet Republic, which stretches from Chicago to NYC; the "White" coalition of fascists and business interests led by Huey Long, which control the South, Texas, part of the Southwest, and eastern New England; the Provisional Government, or "Blues", an alliance of prewar liberals and democratic socialists, who control upstate New York, the Upper Midwest, western New England, and the West Coast; and the Continental Congress, an alliance of farmers dissatisfied with the other factions, which controls the Midwest and Plains. And that's not mentioning smaller players -- North Dakota, which declares independence; Maine, which becomes highly autonomous and plays the other factions for greater independence for itself; B.R.O.W.N. (the Bannerman Revolutionary Organization of Willing Negroes), a black militia in White territory; and Henry Ford, whose private armies turn Detroit into his personal fiefdom.
** And all of the above is pretty much just the basic set up. Things get a bit more complicated later on: [[spoiler: after [=MacArthur=] dies in a hurricane, the Whites take control of D.C., the Japanese seize the Pacific possessions, and the rest of Khaki territory dissolves into warlordism, leaving a rump government in the Alaskan panhandle. The Blues defeat Ford, and then form the [[TheAlliance Red Oak Pact]] with the Congress and Maine. This inspires the Blue-friendly East Coast soviets to break away and form the American Workers Collective, which forms the Popular Front with the Blues. Later, the Japanese invade the West Coast in support of the Whites, causing the Red Oak Pact/Popular Front, the ASR, most of the Khaki warlords, B.R.O.W.N. and a [[NeutralNoLonger no longer neutral Canada]] to band together. They drive back the Japanese, defeat the Whites, bring North Dakota to heel, and then defeat the ASR and the remaining independent warlords]]. With these final acts, the remaining factions gather for a PeaceConference in Toronto, officially ending the war and forging a new United States federal government.
* In ''Literature/TheRuinsOfAnAmericanPartySystem'', a three-way civil war breaks out in Germany in the 1920s between the Nazis, the Communists, and a more centrist authoritarian government that supports a restored monarchy. [[spoiler: The latter eventually wins.]]
** During the partial decolonization of Africa in the 40s following the conclusion of the Second Great European War, civil wars break out in Libya and Ethiopia between their pre-war royal governments and strong Soviet-backed Communist movements.
** After [[spoiler: Gandhi's assassination]], tensions in India boil over, leading to open conflict between the British and their loyalists, Hindu and Muslim nationalists, and Communist revolutionaries.
* ''Literature/NoW'' has a few examples:
** Venezuela, after a coup against Hugo Chavez. The US initially backs the military junta that removed him, but eventually pulls out, restoring momentum to the communists.
** [[spoiler: Russia, after Moscow is targeted by a nuclear attack by Chechen terrorists, which results in the death of most of the top government. After that, Russia falls into a civil war between several rival factions.]]
** In Egypt, one breaks out after Mubarak's death, and the Muslim Brotherhood being blocked from the subsequent elections. [[spoiler: Eventually, they nuke Cairo, and take over the country.]]
** Several commentators are worried that the United States is heading towards one as well, in reaction to President [[spoiler: Santorum]]'s increasingly fundamentalist tyranny.
* The ''[[https://www.alternatehistory.com/forum/threads/washington-burns-a-story-of-alternate-america.413571/ Washington Burns]]'' timeline has a few examples:
** Due to the slaveholding South gaining more control over the federal government, while simultaneously a very aggressive abolitionist movement takes hold in the North, sparks naturally fly, with the final nail being the draconian measures taken by President James Hawthorne to enforce slavery. In 1859, New England and New York break with the Union and form the Confederation of American States, with the intent of seceding fully if Hawthorne isn't removed and the government isn't reformed. And things get more complicated when several state governments object to Hawthorne trying to militarily crush the CAS rather than negotiates, leading to clashes between state militias and the Union army; this leads to Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kentucky and Appalachia (OTL West Virginia) denouncing Hawthorne as unfit to be President and forming the Free States Alliance, declaring themselves the legitimate US government and allying with the CAS, with the intent of reconciling them once Hawthorne is defeated. Then the slave and Native American revolts in the South start on top of this... [[spoiler: The war ends when the Union angers Britain by violating their neutrality, leading to them aiding the FSA/CAS/slave/Native alliance in crushing the Union forces, leading to Hawthorne's surrender and the reunification of the US in 1862.]]
** A second American civil war breaks out in the early 1900's, when the hard-right wing Nationalist governments of several Western states grow dissatisfied with Liberal and Federalist rule and declare independence. [[spoiler: This lasts less than two years, before the Union utterly crushes the rebels and reabsorbs their states.]]
** There's a civil war in the 1850's in Texas between those who want independence and those who want to stay part of Mexico. Though this quickly becomes a sideshow to a Mexican civil war between Republicans and Imperialists. [[spoiler: Thanks to American intervention, it ends with a compromise that sees Mexico divided between a Republican north and Imperial South, and Texas divided between an independent east and a west that stays in Mexico as part of the new republic.]]
** A brief one occurs in Britain in 1900 after it's revealed that Prince Edward and his conservative allies has attempted to seize power from his sister Queen Victoria II and her reformists by keeping her locked up (for her "health") and using her son Victor as a [[PuppetKing Puppet Regent]]. Once she's broken free by her husband and word gets out of what's happened, Scotland and half of England flock to her and turn on Edward's forces. [[spoiler: Edward ultimately loses, killing his nephew and himself rather than let himself be captured and Victor be freed.]]
** Mexico undergoes a second civil war in the 1910's, with its root cause being the fallout between Emperor Jorge II and his son Raul, which leads to Jorge disinheriting Raul and naming his daughter Gabriella as his heir instead. When Jorge dies, Raul crowns himself Raul IV, and his followers go to war with Gabriella's loyalists. The war carries on until Raul dies, with his generals then crowning his pampered son as Raul V; as he's viewed as a PuppetKing, the Raulists lose support, until the younger Raul is finally killed by Loyalist forces. After that, the war essentially ends, though it takes time to hunt down the remaining Raulist leaders.
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[[folder:Western Animation]]
* The war for Mobius on the ''WesternAnimation/SonicSatAM'' cartoon.
* In ''Franchise/{{Transformers}}'' in general, the default state of Cybertron seems to be a state of civil war to provide a reason for robots to shoot each other. There have also been various internal conflicts within both Autobot and Decepticon, and occasionally Maximal, Predacon, and Vehicon ranks.
* Book 2 of ''WesternAnimation/TheLegendOfKorra'' starts off with the Northern Water Tribe imposing martial law on the Southern Water Tribe. Considering that the Southern Water Tribe does not recognize Northern leadership and has been allowed to self-govern for almost a century or even longer, this predictably resulted in an insurgency.
** The end of Book 2 revealed that [[spoiler: the civil war was built on false pretenses. Northern Chief Unalaq ([[AlternativeCharacterInterpretation probably]]) didn't give a crap about what the South was doing. He instead wanted unfettered, exclusive access to the Southern Spirit Portal located in Southern Water Tribe territory, and the simplest way to do that was to impose martial law as justification to plant a military base around the portal.]]
** The [[BalkanizeMe balkanization]] of the Earth Kingdom happened off-screen shortly after the events of Book 3. The reunification of the Earth Kingdom led by Kuvira also happened off-screen and was mostly glossed over. However, considering that Kuvira had an ''army'' and used it to [[GunboatDiplomacy intimidate city leaders to submit to her leadership]] makes it easy to speculate that the reunification of the Earth Kingdom likely wasn't gentle.
* In the ''WesternAnimation/SouthPark'' Imaginationland Trilogy, the war between the Good and Evil Imaginary characters orchestrated by a terrorist cell. Each side had their own separate territory in Imaginationland.
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