Jamaica? No, it was her own decision... Now that that bad joke is out of the way, let's discuss the country. It was discovered (or re-discovered) by Christopher Columbus on his second trip to the West Indies in 1493. It was wrested from the Spaniards by the British in 1655 during Oliver Cromwell's administration, and was a British colony until its independence in 1962. It was one of the world's leading producers of sugar during the days of slavery, in its first 200 years of British rule; between 1820 and 1824, it produced up to 77,000 tons of sugar annually for export. Gave the world Reggae, Ska, mento, Harry Belafonte, Bob Marley, Grace Jones, Sheryl Lee Ralph, Anthony Winkler, Oliver Samuels, Usain Bolt, the Twin Of Twins, Courtney Walsh, Keith Arthurton (these two being members or past members of the West Indies cricket team), the Reggae Boyz football/soccer team, Rastafari, the "jerk" cooking style, Blue Mountain Coffee, its trademark beef patties, Red Stripe beer, bulla cakes, bammies, and its immediately recognizable patois dialect. Famous for its national fruit, ackee (although the fruit is actually originally native to West Africa), and for the national dish of ackee and saltfish, the latter item being salted codfish. (Recipes for the dish can be found here.) Its national tree is the Blue Mahoe (used widely in cabinet-making, furniture-building and wood carvings); its national flower is the Lignum Vitae (used to treat coughs and arthritis, and also brewed into a kind of tea, and its incredibly hard and rot-resistant wood is used to make a variety of items); and its national bird is Red-Billed Streamertail hummingbird (nicknamed the "Doctor Bird" and featured in Ian Fleming's James Bond short story "For Your Eyes Only"). Also famous (or infamous) for being the site of the piracy capital of the 17th century, Port Royal, which was then governed by former privateer Henry Morgan, before being ripped apart by two earthquakes, fires, hurricanes, floods, and epidemics. The city got rebuilt, though. Unfortunately, Jamaica also has a reputation for having a violently homophobic culture and society, to the point that descriptions of the level of homophobic violence and discrimination within the country make it sound like it would be approved by Fred Phelps. (Terry McMillan's husband fled the country for this reason.) However, the former Prime Minister, Portia Simpson-Miller, declared that she is in favour of civil rights for LGBT citizens, while the current Prime Minister, Andrew Holness, stated that he would have no problem employing LGBT citizens to serve in his parliamentary cabinet. Jamaica is divided into fourteen parishes, which are in turn separated into three main counties:
- Hanover (capital: Lucea)
- Westmoreland (capital: Savanna-la-mar)
- St. James (capital: Montego Bay)
- Trelawny (capital: Falmouth)
- St. Elizabeth (capital: Black River)
- St. Ann (capital: St. Ann's Bay)
- Manchester (capital: Mandeville)
- Clarendon (capital: May Pen)
- St. Mary (capital: Port Maria)
- St. Catherine (capital: Spanish Town, the original nation capital)
- The parish of Kingston (capital: the city of Kingston, the current nation capital)
- St. Andrew (capital: Half Way Tree)
- Portland (capital: Port Antonio)
- St. Thomas (capital: Morant Bay)
- Marcus Mosiah Garvey, who was influential in the Back To Africa movement; Marcus Garvey Drive in Kingston is named after him, he has several statues of his likeness throughout Jamaica, and his likeness is on the Jamaican $20 and 25 cent coins.
- Samuel Sharpe, a Baptist deacon who led the 1831 Christmas Rebellion; Sam Sharpe Square and Sam Sharpe Teacher's College in Montego Bay, St. James are named after him, and his face is on the Jamaican $50 bill.
- Paul Bogle, a Baptist deacon who led Jamaica's 1865 Morant Bay rebellion; the Paul Bogle High School in St. Thomas is named after him, and he is featured on the Jamaican 10 cent coin and the (now defunct) Jamaican $2 bill.
- George William Gordon, a businessman, government critic, and head of the Baptist church of which Paul Bogle was a deacon; Jamaica's house of legislature, George William Gordon House, is named after him, and his face was featured on the (now-defunct) Jamaican $10 bill and is currently on the Jamaican $10 coin.
- Nanny of the Maroons, a leader of the Jamaican Maroons who fought against the British; the local community Nanny Town in Portland is named after her, and her face is featured on the Jamaican $500 bill.
- Sir Alexander Bustamante, Jamaica's first Prime Minister and founder of the Jamaica Labour Party; the Bustamante backbone (a local sweet treat) is named after him, as is the local pediatric hospital (the only one of its kind in the Caribbean), and he is featured on the (now-defunct) Jamaican $1 bill and the (current) Jamaican $1 coin.
- Norman Washington Manley, cousin of Bustamante and founder of the People's National Party; the Norman Manley International Airport in Kingston is named after him, and his face was on the (now-defunct) Jamaican $5 bill and is currently on the Jamaican $5 coin.
- As of this article, the island has the record for the most books donated to charity within a seven-day period—657,061.
- According to the Guinness World Record News, Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt ran the 200-meter sprint race in the 2009 World Athletics championships in 19.19 seconds. He also ran the 100-meter sprint race earlier in the competition in 9.58 seconds.
Jamaica in fiction:
- Ian Fleming liked Jamaica a lot, building Goldeneye, a house, there. As such it features quite a bit in his James Bond novels like Live and Let Die (San Monique is played by the island in the film version), Dr. No (which film version was also filmed there), The Man with the Golden Gun and the short stories "Octopussy" and "Quantum of Solace".
- The Harder They Come was the first Jamaican movie ever and has become a Cult Classic both in Jamaica and the West. Its Cult Soundtrack too.
- Cool Runnings is a comedy about the aforementioned bobsled team, loosely based on reality).
- Jamaica has been the location/setting for a lot of movies over the years, mon. These include the Steven Seagal film Marked for Death, and also The Lunatic, Old Story Time, Smile Orange, Third World Cop and Dancehall Queen.
- Anthony Winkler, mentioned above, bases his novels' settings in Jamaica. On this wiki, his listed works are: The Painted Canoe (set in Port Antonio), The Lunatic (set in St. Ann locale Moneague), The Great Yacht Race (set in Montego Bay), Going Home to Teach and The Duppy.
- Out to Lunch!: The third world takes place here.
- Dee Jay from Street Fighter and Hermes from Futurama hail from here.
- The Island Fiction series of young adult novels (inclusive of Timeswimmer and Night of the Indigo) has Jamaica as its primary setting.
See also:the Jamaican flag
The flag's colors combines the Ethiopian and Marcus Garvey versions of the Pan-African colors (but removing red). The golden saltire of the shining sun divides the field into black and green quarters symbolizing the Jamaicans' strength and creativity, and the vegetation, respectively. It is the only national flag to not contain the colors red, white or blue.