- Hannibal Lecture: The Hard Faced Man attempts to justify the lottery to Scully.
- Healthcare Motivation
- Ill Girl
- Lottery of Doom: Rigged by the Hard Faced Man and his associates such that the "winner" of the initial draw and the harvested organ are predetermined.
- Mundanger: There are no aliens, monsters, or government conspiracy in this episode. Although the superstitions associated with "the Chinese Festival of the Hungry Ghosts" are addressed in the story, there are no èguǐ either; the events are entirely unsupernatural.
- Murder by Cremation:
- Redemption Equals Death: Detective Chao.
- Retroactive Recognition: B.D. Wong (of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit fame) makes an appearance in this episode as an American-born Chinese cop. Lucy Liu is also in this episode.
- Shut Up, Hannibal!: How Scully reacts to Hard Faced Man's Hannibal Lecture.