Accidental Hero: During the climax, Jake grabs a phaser rifle and starts firing blindly at the Klingons out of sheer panic. It turns out he caused a cave-in that gave the hospital enough time to get everyone out, and he's hailed as a hero.
As the Good Book Says: The title of the episode is an abbreviated quote from Ecclesiastes, Chapter 9, Verse 11.
I returned, and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to the intelligent, nor yet favor to men of knowledge; but time and chance happeneth to them all
Be Careful What You Wish For: While on the runabout Jake laments how boring the medical conference he was supposed to be writing about was, and wishes for something more exciting. He certainly gets it.
Blue and Orange Morality: The Klingons deliberately target hospitals and kill wounded enemies in their beds. They honestly think they're doing them a favor by giving them an honorable death.
Captain's Log: Jake gets his own version as he's a journalist writing down what he witnesses.
Damn You, Muscle Memory: In a failed Offscreen Moment of Awesome, Odo jumped off a flight of stairs when pursuing two Yridians, planning to morph in mid-air. Unfortunately, he's no longer a Changeling, and his little stunt landed him in the infirmary.
Died Standing Up: Well, sitting up. Burke was determined to see the sky when he died.
Family-Unfriendly Death: Burke's death is rather gruesome by the standards of Star Trek. In a franchise where people tend to simply be vaporized and fade away, Burke chokes to death on his own blood after getting shot.
Oblivious Guilt Slinging: When Jake returns to the hospital, he's told that Bashir (despite being wounded and abandoned by Jake) still retrieved the generator they were sent to get (despite it supposedly being too heavy to be carried by one man). When a guilty Jake visits Bashir in his sickbed, Bashir doesn't even think of recriminations because he's just glad Jake is alive.
Offscreen Moment of Awesome: After Jake ran away, Bashir managed to make it to the runabout and somehow hauled the generator a kilometer back to the hospital all by himself, picking up serious phaser burns along the way.
"I have absolutely no idea what he's talking about."
This Is Reality: Burke calls out Jake's wish for redemption, noting that in real life that sort of thing doesn't happen the way it does in books.
Uncoffee: Decaffinated raktajino. It tastes awful.
War Is Hell: Jake goes into the episode eager to see what the front-lines are like and look for new writing material. Then he gets to experience all the pointless violence, bloodshed and psychological scarring.
The issue of Cardassian engineering and medical trades being dominated by women (mentioned in "Destiny") was going to be followed up, with the male Starfleet doctors conflicting with the female Cardassian doctors.
Whole Plot Reference: To The Red Badge of Courage, about a soldier in the American Civil War who runs from his first battle and struggles to redeem himself when a wound he picked up causes his regiment to think he heroically fought to the last.