Literature / Looking Backward
Written by Edward Bellamy in 1888, Looking Backward: 2000-1887
was one of the first real Utopia novels in America. The author's brother Francis Bellamy wrote the Pledge of Allegiance. He also had the same political views (an interesting fact not mentioned in most histories).
The novel is about Julian West, a Fish out of Temporal Water
, who falls asleep in the year 1887 and wakes up in the year 2000, having slept for 113 years, three months and 11 days (a clever palindrome, 113311). When he awakes, he finds his country has undergone a (supposedly) bloodless socialist revolution. He proceeds to get lectured on how everything works for a majority of the book by the condescending Dr. Leete, who apparently doesn't do anything else. These lectures comprise entire chapters and discuss things like education, jobs, shopping and such in the year 2000, and how obviously better this utopia is than backward 1887.
Oh, and there's a cheap love story, as Leete's daughter is named Edith, as was Julian's former fiancée. Instant romance, just add water.
Whether it is actually a novel is debatable, as the elements that typically make up a story are underrepresented (aside from pure chapters of exposition). With no real conflict, Looking Backward
actually comes off more as a socialist treatise with plot tacked on in order to make it sell more copies.
Available online at Project Gutenberg
. A sequel, Equality
was published in 1897, fleshing out Bellamy's socialist utopia further with more chapter-length lectures on various subjects. Also available online
- All Just a Dream: Subverted by the ending. West thinks this is what happened when he returns to 1887, but it turns out the return itself, and not the rest of the novel, was a dream.
- Author Tract: The entire book is essentially Bellamy's explanation of what he felt society should be like, with a minimal plot set around it.
- Bomb Throwing Anarchist: Discussed by Dr. Leete and Julian, the latter saying the anarchists in the late 1800s were actually subsidized by the capitalists to scare people off socialism from its association with terrorist violence. This was a big issue at the time the book was written in 1888. A year prior to this, for instance, four anarchists were hanged for conspiracy to murder police with a bomb in Chicago, though it's doubtful which (if any) actually did it (four others had also been convicted-one killed himself, the rest were pardoned).
- No Name Given: Dr. Leete's first name is never revealed.
- The Reveal: Edith Bartlett is the great-grandmother of Edith Leete.
- Outgrown Such Silly Superstitions: Averted. In contrast to most socialist ideologies (Marxism most particularly), Bellamy's socialism was explicitly Christian based on his interpretation of the Bible, which his fictional society reflects. Bellamy and his brother were actually both Baptist ministers.
- Straw Character:
- The Verse: The world is further explored with the sequel, Equality, and various other authors of the time wrote spin-offs.
- What Year Is This?: Inverted. Dr. Leete asks Julian what year he fell asleep, which... startles him.
- Zeerust: In 2000, information is carried through a nationwide series of pneumatic tubes. "Radiotelephone" is used to broadcast music.