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States which were historically important due to their links with the Sui-Tang dynasties were the Northern Wei (which united the northern kingdoms), Western Wei (which split from Northern Wei; the western and eastern partitions of the former Northern Wei fought each other as rivals.) and Northern Zhou (successor of Western Wei, which assimilated Eastern Wei's successor, Northern Qi). While the south kept deteriorating from the military coups that started new, short-lived dynasties.

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States which were historically important due to their links with the Sui-Tang dynasties were the Northern Wei (which united unified the northern kingdoms), Western Wei (which split from Northern Wei; the western and eastern partitions of the former Northern Wei fought each other as rivals.) and Northern Zhou (successor of Western Wei, which assimilated Eastern Wei's successor, Northern Qi). While the south kept deteriorating from the military coups that started new, short-lived dynasties.


States which were historically important due to their links with the Sui-Tang dynasties were the Northern Wei, Western Wei (which split from Northern Wei; the western and eastern partitions of the former Northern Wei fought each other as rivals.) and Northern Zhou (successor of Western Wei, which assimilated Eastern Wei's successor, Northern Qi). While the south kept deteriorating from the military coups that started new, short-lived dynasties.

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States which were historically important due to their links with the Sui-Tang dynasties were the Northern Wei, Wei (which united the northern kingdoms), Western Wei (which split from Northern Wei; the western and eastern partitions of the former Northern Wei fought each other as rivals.) and Northern Zhou (successor of Western Wei, which assimilated Eastern Wei's successor, Northern Qi). While the south kept deteriorating from the military coups that started new, short-lived dynasties.


Founded by the Sima family, descendants of the Wei strategist Sima Yi, who was himself a descendant of Sima Ang, a warlord during the Chu-Han Contention era after the end of the Qin Dynasty. [[note]]Sima Ang was given the title "King of Yin" by Xiang Yu. Ang later surrendered to Liu Bang, aka Han Gaozu, the founder of the Han Dynasty.[[/note]] Famous for its DeadlyDecadentCourt and incompetent line of emperors. Confucianism became disregarded while Taoism was in turn embraced. The Jin dynasty underwent a civil war called the War of the Eight Princes in which eight rival Jin princes hired foreign nomads as mercenaries in the civil war. As they all defeated each other and wiped each other out, the power vacuum in northern China led to a wholesale evacuation from northern China, leading to the establishment of the Eastern Jin. The power vacuum left by the Jin was filled by sixteen kingdoms (304-439).

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Founded by the Sima family, descendants of the Wei strategist Sima Yi, who was himself a descendant of Sima Ang, a warlord during the Chu-Han Contention era after the end of the Qin Dynasty. [[note]]Sima Ang was given the title "King of Yin" by Xiang Yu. Ang later surrendered to Liu Bang, aka Han Gaozu, the founder of the Han Dynasty.[[/note]] Famous for its DeadlyDecadentCourt and incompetent line of emperors. Confucianism became disregarded while Taoism was in turn embraced. The Jin dynasty underwent a civil war called the War of the Eight Princes in which eight rival Jin princes hired foreign nomads as mercenaries in the civil war. As they all defeated each other and wiped each other out, the power vacuum in northern China as well as [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uprising_of_the_Five_Barbarians northern ethnics uprisings]] led to a wholesale evacuation from northern China, leading to the establishment of the Eastern Jin. The power vacuum left by the Jin was filled by sixteen kingdoms (304-439).



States which were historically important due to their links with the Sui-Tang dynasties were the Northern Wei, Western Wei (which split from Northern Wei; the western and eastern partitions of the former Northern Wei fought each other as rivals.) and Northern Zhou (successor of Western Wei).

to:

States which were historically important due to their links with the Sui-Tang dynasties were the Northern Wei, Western Wei (which split from Northern Wei; the western and eastern partitions of the former Northern Wei fought each other as rivals.) and Northern Zhou (successor of Western Wei).
Wei, which assimilated Eastern Wei's successor, Northern Qi). While the south kept deteriorating from the military coups that started new, short-lived dynasties.



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'''[[UsefulNotes/ThreeKingdomsShuWeiWu Three Kingdoms Era (AD 220-280)]]'''

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'''[[UsefulNotes/ThreeKingdomsShuWeiWu Three
[[folder:Three
Kingdoms Era (AD 220-280)]]'''
220-280)]]
'''UsefulNotes/ThreeKingdomsShuWeiWu'''




'''Jin Dynasty (Western period 265-316, Eastern period 317-420)'''
Founded by the Sima family, descendants of the Wei strategist Sima Yi, who was himself a descendant of Sima Ang, a warlord during the Chu-Han Contention era after the end of the Qin Dynasty. [[note]]Sima Ang was given the title "King of Yin" by Xiang Yu. Ang later surrendered to Liu Bang, aka Han Gaozu, the founder of the Han Dynasty.[[/note]] Famous for its DeadlyDecadentCourt and incompetent line of emperors. Confucianism became disregarded while Taoism was in turn embraced. The Jin dynasty underwent a civil war called the War of the Eight Princes in which eight rival Jin princes hired foreign nomads as mercenaries in the civil war. As they all defeated each other and wiped each other out, the power vacuum in northern China led to a wholesale evacuation from northern China, leading to the establishment of the Eastern Jin. The power vacuum left by the Jin was filled by sixteen kingdoms (304-439).

'''Southern and Northern Dynasties (420-589)'''

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\n'''Jin [[/folder]]

[[folder:Jin
Dynasty (Western period 265-316, Eastern period 317-420)'''
317-420)]]
Founded by the Sima family, descendants of the Wei strategist Sima Yi, who was himself a descendant of Sima Ang, a warlord during the Chu-Han Contention era after the end of the Qin Dynasty. [[note]]Sima Ang was given the title "King of Yin" by Xiang Yu. Ang later surrendered to Liu Bang, aka Han Gaozu, the founder of the Han Dynasty.[[/note]] Famous for its DeadlyDecadentCourt and incompetent line of emperors. Confucianism became disregarded while Taoism was in turn embraced. The Jin dynasty underwent a civil war called the War of the Eight Princes in which eight rival Jin princes hired foreign nomads as mercenaries in the civil war. As they all defeated each other and wiped each other out, the power vacuum in northern China led to a wholesale evacuation from northern China, leading to the establishment of the Eastern Jin. The power vacuum left by the Jin was filled by sixteen kingdoms (304-439).

'''Southern
(304-439).
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Southern
and Northern Dynasties (420-589)'''(420-589)]]







'''Sui Dynasty (581-618)'''

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\n'''Sui [[/folder]]

[[folder:Sui
Dynasty (581-618)'''
(581-618)]]




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[[/folder]]






'''Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907-960)'''

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'''Five
[[folder:Five
Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907-960)'''
(907-960)]]




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[[/folder]]





















[[/folder]]

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[[/folder]][[/folder]]
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Domestically the Ming were known for a fair bit more than all that, of course. Economically the stability of their rule and lightness of their taxes allowed a lot of Smithian/pre-modern commercialisation and growth, which taken together with the tripling of the population (c.80 to c.250 million) gave the Ming more than twice the wealth of the Song (peak Song population was c.120 million)[[note]] Do note that commercialisation (producing goods for sale rather than subsistence farming, aka 'industrious revolution') has nothing to do with 'industrial revolution' (use of steam engines, petrochemicals, electricity). That is something that only happened in one place, once, in the history of the world (19th century Britain, which then exported the new devices and techniques they'd developed and started a cycle of device+technique research and development). Cycles of Commercialisation and de-Commercialisation have happened lots of times[[/note]]. Politically they were more famous for retaining the anti-aristocratic policies of the Yuan and the Civil Service system (including examinations) of the Song, which ensured that a centralised state (with only minimal recourse to nobles and aristocrats) in which the monarchy and its civil service played the most important roles would be around to stay. They also oversaw a huge flowering of culture, which was helped in large part by their unprecedented wealth and the expansion in literacy (with up to 10% of men and 1% of women -- yes, ''women'' -- being literate) and printing (to the point that there were literally books and pamphlets on ''every'' subject[[note]]History, Literature, Poetry, Philosophy, Religion, Art, Water-Management, Agronomy, Medicine, Astrology, Gardening, Antiques, Martial Arts, Foreign lands, Travel-Guides, 'How-to' guides, Songbooks, Plays, Musicals, Flower-arranging, [[TheRuleOfFirstAdopters Smutty romance]], etc.[[/note]], something that had never happened before). Prose was still not really regarded as a 'proper' artistic field in the Ming, but some pretty awesome novels were produced, including 3 of 4 novels commonly regarded as the best in imperial Chinese canon: ''Literature/WaterMargin'', ''Literature/JourneyToTheWest'' and ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms''.

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Domestically the Ming were known for a fair bit more than all that, of course. Economically the stability of their rule and lightness of their taxes allowed a lot of Smithian/pre-modern commercialisation and growth, which taken together with the tripling of the population (c.80 to c.250 million) gave the Ming more than twice the wealth of the Song (peak Song population was c.120 million)[[note]] Do note that commercialisation (producing goods for sale rather than subsistence farming, aka 'industrious revolution') has nothing to do with 'industrial revolution' (use of steam engines, petrochemicals, electricity). That is something that only happened in one place, once, in the history of the world (19th century Britain, which then exported the new devices and techniques they'd developed and started a cycle of device+technique research and development). Cycles of Commercialisation and de-Commercialisation have happened lots of times[[/note]]. Politically they were more famous for retaining the anti-aristocratic policies of the Yuan and the Civil Service system (including examinations) of the Song, which ensured that a centralised state (with only minimal recourse to nobles and aristocrats) in which the monarchy and its civil service played the most important roles would be around to stay. They also oversaw a huge flowering of culture, which was helped in large part by their unprecedented wealth and the expansion in literacy (with up to 10% of men and 1% of women -- yes, ''women'' -- being literate) and printing (to the point that there were literally books and pamphlets on ''every'' subject[[note]]History, Literature, Poetry, Philosophy, Religion, Art, Water-Management, Agronomy, Medicine, Astrology, Gardening, Antiques, Martial Arts, Foreign lands, Travel-Guides, 'How-to' guides, Songbooks, Plays, Musicals, Flower-arranging, [[TheRuleOfFirstAdopters Smutty romance]], etc.[[/note]], something that had never happened before). Prose was still not really regarded as a 'proper' artistic field in the Ming, but some pretty awesome novels were produced, including 3 of 4 novels commonly regarded as the best in imperial Chinese canon: ''Literature/WaterMargin'', ''Literature/JourneyToTheWest'' and ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms''.
''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms''. This period's dressing may remind people of Korea's due to Joseon Korea's inspiration by the Ming.


Founded by the Sima family, descendants of the Wei strategist Sima Yi, who was himself a descendant of Sima Ang, a warlord during the Chu-Han Contention era after the end of the Qin Dynasty. [[note]]Sima Ang was given the title "King of Yin" by Xiang Yu. Ang later surrendered to Liu Bang, aka Han Gaozu, the founder of the Han Dynasty.[[/note]] Famous for its DeadlyDecadentCourt and incompetent line of emperors. The Jin dynasty underwent a civil war called the War of the Eight Princes in which eight rival Jin princes hired foreign nomads as mercenaries in the civil war. As they all defeated each other and wiped each other out, the power vacuum in northern China led to a wholesale evacuation from northern China, leading to the establishment of the Eastern Jin. The power vacuum left by the Jin was filled by sixteen kingdoms (304-439). Confucianism became disregarded while Taoism was in turn embraced.

to:

Founded by the Sima family, descendants of the Wei strategist Sima Yi, who was himself a descendant of Sima Ang, a warlord during the Chu-Han Contention era after the end of the Qin Dynasty. [[note]]Sima Ang was given the title "King of Yin" by Xiang Yu. Ang later surrendered to Liu Bang, aka Han Gaozu, the founder of the Han Dynasty.[[/note]] Famous for its DeadlyDecadentCourt and incompetent line of emperors. Confucianism became disregarded while Taoism was in turn embraced. The Jin dynasty underwent a civil war called the War of the Eight Princes in which eight rival Jin princes hired foreign nomads as mercenaries in the civil war. As they all defeated each other and wiped each other out, the power vacuum in northern China led to a wholesale evacuation from northern China, leading to the establishment of the Eastern Jin. The power vacuum left by the Jin was filled by sixteen kingdoms (304-439). Confucianism became disregarded while Taoism was in turn embraced.\n


Only two emperors, but the first one was UsefulNotes/QinShiHuangdi and that one was really enough for at least two dynasties in any lesser country. Among other things, he unified the country (perhaps a quarter to a third the size of modern China) in a swift 9 year campaign; built the Great Wall of China (later rebuilt by the Ming); created that famous Terracotta Army as part of his burial complex; and standardized the laws, coinage, and writing system. He is also known for being rather authoritarian, especially in his later years. Being a fan of the harsh legalist philosophy of jurisprudence, many of his more bloody actions (especially those against the Confucians, who later came to power and [[WrittenByTheVictors wrote all the history books]]) sealed his legacy as '''THE''' tyrant of China. Qin Shi Huang's successor was not nearly as capable and the dynasty soon ended when the third ruler (who styled himself as "king") was killed by Xiang Yu.

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Only two emperors, but the first one was UsefulNotes/QinShiHuangdi and that one was really enough for at least two dynasties in any lesser country. Among other things, he unified the country (perhaps a quarter to a third the size of modern China) in a swift 9 year campaign; built the Great Wall of China (later rebuilt by the Ming); created that famous Terracotta Army as part of his burial complex; and standardized the laws, coinage, and writing system. He is also known for being rather authoritarian, especially in his later years. Being a fan of the harsh legalist philosophy of jurisprudence, many of his more bloody actions (especially those against the Confucians, who later came to power and [[WrittenByTheVictors wrote all the history books]]) sealed his legacy as '''THE''' tyrant of China. Qin Shi Huang's successor was not nearly as capable and the dynasty soon ended when the third ruler (who styled himself as "king") was killed by Xiang Yu.
Yu. One general, Wei Man, defected to Gojoseon in north-western Korea and later usurped power from its king.


The feudal system broke down entirely and, as the name indicates, the seven strongest states went into constant war. Eventually, the state of Qin united the land in 221 B.C. and a new dynasty began. Many historians believe that Creator/{{Laozi}} really lived at this time, if he existed at all. Creator/{{Zhuangzi}} definitely did. The period started when the state of Jin was carved up between three families, who later formed the states of Han, Zhao and Wei resulting in the 7 kingdoms of the period. In 256 B.C., the last king of Zhou was deposed by the state of Qin. Legalism saw its development during this period; thinkers of the school include Shang Yang, Han Fei and Li Si.


to:

The feudal system broke down entirely and, as the name indicates, the seven strongest states went into constant war. Eventually, the state of Qin united the land in 221 B.C. and a new dynasty began. Many historians believe that Creator/{{Laozi}} really lived at this time, if he existed at all. Creator/{{Zhuangzi}} definitely did. The period started when the state of Jin was carved up between three families, who later formed the states of Han, Zhao and Wei resulting in Wei. States pro and against Qin made alliances known as the 7 kingdoms of horizontal and vertical alliances with the period.School of Diplomacy dominating the stage. In 256 B.C., the last king of Zhou was deposed by the state of Qin. Legalism saw its development during this period; thinkers of the school include Shang Yang, Han Fei and Li Si.



The feudal system broke down entirely and, as the name indicates, the seven strongest states went into constant war. Eventually, the state of Qin united the land in 221 B.C. and a new dynasty began. Many historians believe that Creator/{{Laozi}} really lived at this time, if he existed at all. Creator/{{Zhuangzi}} definitely did. The period started when the state of Jin was carved up between three families, who later formed the states of Han, Zhao and Wei. In 256 B.C., the last king of Zhou was deposed by the state of Qin. Legalism saw its development during this period; thinkers of the school include Shang Yang, Han Fei and Li Si.


to:

The feudal system broke down entirely and, as the name indicates, the seven strongest states went into constant war. Eventually, the state of Qin united the land in 221 B.C. and a new dynasty began. Many historians believe that Creator/{{Laozi}} really lived at this time, if he existed at all. Creator/{{Zhuangzi}} definitely did. The period started when the state of Jin was carved up between three families, who later formed the states of Han, Zhao and Wei.Wei resulting in the 7 kingdoms of the period. In 256 B.C., the last king of Zhou was deposed by the state of Qin. Legalism saw its development during this period; thinkers of the school include Shang Yang, Han Fei and Li Si.



Founded by the Sima family, descendants of the Wei strategist Sima Yi, who was himself a descendant of Sima Ang, a warlord during the Chu-Han Contention era after the end of the Qin Dynasty. [[note]]Sima Ang was given the title "King of Yin" by Xiang Yu. Ang later surrendered to Liu Bang, aka Han Gaozu, the founder of the Han Dynasty.[[/note]] Famous for its DeadlyDecadentCourt and incompetent line of emperors. The Jin dynasty underwent a civil war called the War of the Eight Princes in which eight rival Jin princes hired foreign nomads as mercenaries in the civil war. As they all defeated each other and wiped each other out, the power vacuum in northern China led to a wholesale evacuation from northern China, leading to the establishment of the Eastern Jin. The power vacuum left by the Jin was filled by sixteen kingdoms (304-439).

to:

Founded by the Sima family, descendants of the Wei strategist Sima Yi, who was himself a descendant of Sima Ang, a warlord during the Chu-Han Contention era after the end of the Qin Dynasty. [[note]]Sima Ang was given the title "King of Yin" by Xiang Yu. Ang later surrendered to Liu Bang, aka Han Gaozu, the founder of the Han Dynasty.[[/note]] Famous for its DeadlyDecadentCourt and incompetent line of emperors. The Jin dynasty underwent a civil war called the War of the Eight Princes in which eight rival Jin princes hired foreign nomads as mercenaries in the civil war. As they all defeated each other and wiped each other out, the power vacuum in northern China led to a wholesale evacuation from northern China, leading to the establishment of the Eastern Jin. The power vacuum left by the Jin was filled by sixteen kingdoms (304-439).
(304-439). Confucianism became disregarded while Taoism was in turn embraced.


* ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms'' and all adaptations thereof.
* ''Film/RedCliff''

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* ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms'' and all adaptations thereof.
* ''Film/RedCliff''
thereof such as ''Film/RedCliff''.


* ''Literature/TheLegendOfTheCondorHeroes''


Also much like many other regions, the Chinese definition of "barbarian" changed throughout the centuries as the area being considered as part of "China" increased. E.g. during the Eastern Zhou period, the states of Chu and Qin were considered semi-barbaric due to their locations at the then-southern and western boundaries respectively, but today they are considered the heart of China.

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Also much like many other regions, the Chinese definition of "barbarian" changed throughout the centuries as the area being considered as part of "China" increased. E.g. during the Eastern Zhou period, the states of Chu and Qin were considered semi-barbaric due to their locations at the then-southern and western boundaries respectively, but today they their territories (in Hubei and Hunan for Chu, in Shaanxi for Qin) are considered part of the heart of China.


Also much like many other regions, the Chinese definition of "barbarian" changed throughout the centuries as the area being considered as part of "China" increased. E.g. during the Eastern Zhou period, the states of Chu and Qin were considered semi-barbaric due to their locations at the then-southern and western boundaries respectively.

to:

Also much like many other regions, the Chinese definition of "barbarian" changed throughout the centuries as the area being considered as part of "China" increased. E.g. during the Eastern Zhou period, the states of Chu and Qin were considered semi-barbaric due to their locations at the then-southern and western boundaries respectively.respectively, but today they are considered the heart of China.


->''"Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han. Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han. Sui, Tang, Song. Sui, Tang, Song. Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic. Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic.[[UsefulNotes/MaoZedong Mao Zedong]]. [[TheLastOfTheseIsNotLikeTheOthers Mao Zedong.]]"''

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->''"Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han. Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han. Sui, Tang, Song. Sui, Tang, Song. Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic. Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic. [[UsefulNotes/MaoZedong Mao Zedong]]. [[TheLastOfTheseIsNotLikeTheOthers Mao Zedong.]]"''

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