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!!Notable monarch:

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!!Notable monarch:monarchs:


* '''King You of Zhou''' (795 BC 771 BC): Legends say that he [[CryingWolf repeatedly sent false alarms to his vassal]] [[LoveRuinsTheRealm just to make his queen laugh]]. When actual enemies came, the vassal ignored him and thus the capital was sacked. This disaster prompted the Eastern Zhou period and the steady decline of Zhou authority.

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* '''King You of Zhou''' (795 BC 771 BC): Legends say that he [[CryingWolf repeatedly sent false alarms to his vassal]] vassals]] [[LoveRuinsTheRealm just to make his queen laugh]]. When actual enemies came, the vassal vassals ignored him and thus the capital was sacked. This disaster prompted the Eastern Zhou period and the steady decline of Zhou authority.
* '''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_Hegemons The Five Hegemons]]''': "vassals" who, at different times during the Spring and Autumn period, managed to consolidate power and coax other lords into an alliance. Their attitude toward the Zhou kings varied among loyalty, defiance, lip service and thinly-veiled ambition. The dominance of their state usually didn't outlive them for long.



* '''Emperor Wu of Han''' (157 BC 87 BC): continued the golden age since his grandfather's peaceful reign with expansionism, conquering what is now Korea and Vietnam. Often gets compared to Qin Shi Huangdi for his military achievements, strict use of rewards and punishments as well as attempts to gain immortality in his final years.

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* '''Emperor Wu of Han''' (157 BC 87 BC): continued the golden age since his grandfather's peaceful reign with expansionism, conquering what is now Korea and Vietnam. He elevated Confucianism as the official doctrine while practicing pragmatic policies similar to Legalist teachings. Often gets compared to Qin Shi Huangdi for his military achievements, strict use of rewards and punishments as well as attempts to gain immortality in his final years.


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* '''Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei''' (467 499): of the nomadic Xianbei origin, he [[GoingNative adopted Han culture]], [[MeaningfulRename changed his own family name to Yuan]][[note]]the same character Yuan 元 that the Mongols would later use to name their own dynasty[[/note]]and [[YouWillBeAssimilated commanded his people to do the same]], resulting in Chinese surnames that are still in use to this day.


* '''Wang Mang''' (45 BC 23 AD): Usurped the throne from the Han and enacted radical reforms which prove Useful Notes/Socialism is OlderThanFeudalism: land redistribution, income tax, state monopoly of key commodities. Angering the [[BarbarianTribe northern]] [[BornInTheSaddle nomads]] didn't help. [[YouFailEconomicsForever Ended in utter failure]] and [[BackFromTheBrink the restoration of the Han]], he became the stock figure for usurpers and the fate that befalls them.

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* '''Wang Mang''' (45 BC 23 AD): Usurped the throne from the Han and enacted radical reforms which prove Useful Notes/Socialism is OlderThanFeudalism: land redistribution, income tax, state monopoly of key commodities. Angering the [[BarbarianTribe northern]] [[BornInTheSaddle nomads]] didn't help. [[YouFailEconomicsForever Ended in utter failure]] failure and [[BackFromTheBrink the restoration of the Han]], he became the stock figure for usurpers and the fate that befalls them.


* '''Emperor Gaozu of Han''' (256 BCE 195 BCE): [[RagsToRich came from a peasant family]], contended against [[BoisterousBruiser Xiang Yu]] for domination of China, and after victory [[YouHaveOutlivedYourUsefulness disposed his most talented generals]].
* '''Wang Mang''' (45 BC 23 AD): Usurped the throne from the Han and enacted radical reforms which prove Useful Notes/Socialism is OlderThanFeudalism: land redistribution, income tax, state monopoly of key commodities. Angering the [[Barbarian Tribe northern]] [[BornInTheSaddle nomads]] didn't help. [[YouFailEconomicForever Ended in utter failure]].

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* '''Emperor Gaozu of Han''' (256 BCE 195 BCE): [[RagsToRich [[RagsToRiches came from a peasant family]], contended against [[BoisterousBruiser Xiang Yu]] for domination of China, and after victory [[YouHaveOutlivedYourUsefulness disposed his most talented generals]].
* '''Emperor Wu of Han''' (157 BC 87 BC): continued the golden age since his grandfather's peaceful reign with expansionism, conquering what is now Korea and Vietnam. Often gets compared to Qin Shi Huangdi for his military achievements, strict use of rewards and punishments as well as attempts to gain immortality in his final years.
* '''Wang Mang''' (45 BC 23 AD): Usurped the throne from the Han and enacted radical reforms which prove Useful Notes/Socialism is OlderThanFeudalism: land redistribution, income tax, state monopoly of key commodities. Angering the [[Barbarian Tribe [[BarbarianTribe northern]] [[BornInTheSaddle nomads]] didn't help. [[YouFailEconomicForever [[YouFailEconomicsForever Ended in utter failure]].
failure]] and [[BackFromTheBrink the restoration of the Han]], he became the stock figure for usurpers and the fate that befalls them.


* '''Emperor Gaozu of Han''' (256 BCE 195 BCE): [[FromRagsToRich came from a peasant family]], contended against [[BolsterousBruiser Xiang Yu]] for domination of China, and after victory [[YouHaveOutlivedYourUsefulness disposed his most talented generals.]]

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* '''Emperor Gaozu of Han''' (256 BCE 195 BCE): [[FromRagsToRich [[RagsToRich came from a peasant family]], contended against [[BolsterousBruiser [[BoisterousBruiser Xiang Yu]] for domination of China, and after victory [[YouHaveOutlivedYourUsefulness disposed his most talented generals.]]
generals]].
* '''Wang Mang''' (45 BC 23 AD): Usurped the throne from the Han and enacted radical reforms which prove Useful Notes/Socialism is OlderThanFeudalism: land redistribution, income tax, state monopoly of key commodities. Angering the [[Barbarian Tribe northern]] [[BornInTheSaddle nomads]] didn't help. [[YouFailEconomicForever Ended in utter failure]].


The Han also gave imperial China her first empress and empress dowager, Lv Zhi. [[note]]Both Qin emperors left the position empty.[[/note]] Lv Zhi proved to be an ambitious woman, and dominated court politics from her husband Liu Bang's death to her own, a period of about 15 years. [[note]]While Lv's son, Emperor Hui, did inherit the throne, no one was in any doubt on who the real ruler was.[[/note]] Emperor Wu himself faced pressure from his grandmother, Grand Empress Dowager Dou during the first years of his reign.

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The Han also gave imperial China her first empress and empress dowager, Lv Lu Zhi. [[note]]Both Qin emperors left the position empty.[[/note]] Lv Lu Zhi proved to be an ambitious woman, and dominated court politics from her husband Liu Bang's death to her own, a period of about 15 years. [[note]]While Lv's Lu Zhi's son, Emperor Hui, did inherit the throne, no one was in any doubt on who the real ruler was.[[/note]] Emperor Wu himself faced pressure from his grandmother, Grand Empress Dowager Dou during the first years of his reign.


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* '''Emperor Gaozu of Han''' (256 BCE 195 BCE): [[FromRagsToRich came from a peasant family]], contended against [[BolsterousBruiser Xiang Yu]] for domination of China, and after victory [[YouHaveOutlivedYourUsefulness disposed his most talented generals.]]

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* '''UsefulNotes/QinShiHuangdi''' (259 BC 210 BC): "the first Emperor of Qin", famous for reasons stated above. He [[TropeCodifier coined]] the Chinese word of "[[TheEmperor Emperor]]" and [[ThousandYearReign intended to live on by that name]]. His dynasty ended shortly however, thus the "of Qin" part.


Notable monarch:

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Notable !!Notable monarch:


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* '''King Wen of Zhou''' (1075 BC - 1046 BC): [[TheGoodKing the Civilizing King]]. Actually not a king and only posthumously named so by his son. He is praised ''a lot'' in the ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classic_of_Poetry Classic of Poetry]] as a model ruler.
* '''King You of Zhou''' (795 BC 771 BC): Legends say that he [[CryingWolf repeatedly sent false alarms to his vassal]] [[LoveRuinsTheRealm just to make his queen laugh]]. When actual enemies came, the vassal ignored him and thus the capital was sacked. This disaster prompted the Eastern Zhou period and the steady decline of Zhou authority.


* FengshenYanyi: A work detailing the final days of the Shang dynasty, in which the corrupt and lecherous King Zhou of Shang was eventually overthrown by the virtuous King Wu of Zhou. In the war, a great many generals, Taoist and Buddhist immortals, and heroes of all sorts were slain and promoted to deities, hence the name of the story.

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* FengshenYanyi: ''Literature/FengshenYanyi'': A work detailing the final days of the Shang dynasty, in which the corrupt and lecherous King Zhou of Shang was eventually overthrown by the virtuous King Wu of Zhou. In the war, a great many generals, Taoist and Buddhist immortals, and heroes of all sorts were slain and promoted to deities, hence the name of the story.

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* '''King Zhou of Shang''' (1075 BC - 1046 BC): the fact that his death year is on this folder's title and that he is known as "the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crupper crupper]] king" should tell you something. Despite a promising early reign, his [[TheCaligula immoral behaviors]] in later years earned him the place as a proverbial terrible ruler.


States which were historically important due to their links with the Sui-Tang dynasties were the Northern Wei (which united the northern kingdoms), Western Wei (which split from Northern Wei; the western and eastern partitions of the former Northern Wei fought each other as rivals.) and Northern Zhou (successor of Western Wei, which assimilated Eastern Wei's successor, Northern Qi). While the south kept deteriorating from the military coups that started new, short-lived dynasties.

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States which were historically important due to their links with the Sui-Tang dynasties were the Northern Wei (which united unified the northern kingdoms), Western Wei (which split from Northern Wei; the western and eastern partitions of the former Northern Wei fought each other as rivals.) and Northern Zhou (successor of Western Wei, which assimilated Eastern Wei's successor, Northern Qi). While the south kept deteriorating from the military coups that started new, short-lived dynasties.


States which were historically important due to their links with the Sui-Tang dynasties were the Northern Wei, Western Wei (which split from Northern Wei; the western and eastern partitions of the former Northern Wei fought each other as rivals.) and Northern Zhou (successor of Western Wei, which assimilated Eastern Wei's successor, Northern Qi). While the south kept deteriorating from the military coups that started new, short-lived dynasties.

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States which were historically important due to their links with the Sui-Tang dynasties were the Northern Wei, Wei (which united the northern kingdoms), Western Wei (which split from Northern Wei; the western and eastern partitions of the former Northern Wei fought each other as rivals.) and Northern Zhou (successor of Western Wei, which assimilated Eastern Wei's successor, Northern Qi). While the south kept deteriorating from the military coups that started new, short-lived dynasties.


Founded by the Sima family, descendants of the Wei strategist Sima Yi, who was himself a descendant of Sima Ang, a warlord during the Chu-Han Contention era after the end of the Qin Dynasty. [[note]]Sima Ang was given the title "King of Yin" by Xiang Yu. Ang later surrendered to Liu Bang, aka Han Gaozu, the founder of the Han Dynasty.[[/note]] Famous for its DeadlyDecadentCourt and incompetent line of emperors. Confucianism became disregarded while Taoism was in turn embraced. The Jin dynasty underwent a civil war called the War of the Eight Princes in which eight rival Jin princes hired foreign nomads as mercenaries in the civil war. As they all defeated each other and wiped each other out, the power vacuum in northern China led to a wholesale evacuation from northern China, leading to the establishment of the Eastern Jin. The power vacuum left by the Jin was filled by sixteen kingdoms (304-439).

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Founded by the Sima family, descendants of the Wei strategist Sima Yi, who was himself a descendant of Sima Ang, a warlord during the Chu-Han Contention era after the end of the Qin Dynasty. [[note]]Sima Ang was given the title "King of Yin" by Xiang Yu. Ang later surrendered to Liu Bang, aka Han Gaozu, the founder of the Han Dynasty.[[/note]] Famous for its DeadlyDecadentCourt and incompetent line of emperors. Confucianism became disregarded while Taoism was in turn embraced. The Jin dynasty underwent a civil war called the War of the Eight Princes in which eight rival Jin princes hired foreign nomads as mercenaries in the civil war. As they all defeated each other and wiped each other out, the power vacuum in northern China as well as [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uprising_of_the_Five_Barbarians northern ethnics uprisings]] led to a wholesale evacuation from northern China, leading to the establishment of the Eastern Jin. The power vacuum left by the Jin was filled by sixteen kingdoms (304-439).



States which were historically important due to their links with the Sui-Tang dynasties were the Northern Wei, Western Wei (which split from Northern Wei; the western and eastern partitions of the former Northern Wei fought each other as rivals.) and Northern Zhou (successor of Western Wei).

to:

States which were historically important due to their links with the Sui-Tang dynasties were the Northern Wei, Western Wei (which split from Northern Wei; the western and eastern partitions of the former Northern Wei fought each other as rivals.) and Northern Zhou (successor of Western Wei).
Wei, which assimilated Eastern Wei's successor, Northern Qi). While the south kept deteriorating from the military coups that started new, short-lived dynasties.



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'''[[UsefulNotes/ThreeKingdomsShuWeiWu Three Kingdoms Era (AD 220-280)]]'''

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'''[[UsefulNotes/ThreeKingdomsShuWeiWu Three
[[folder:Three
Kingdoms Era (AD 220-280)]]'''
220-280)]]
'''UsefulNotes/ThreeKingdomsShuWeiWu'''




'''Jin Dynasty (Western period 265-316, Eastern period 317-420)'''
Founded by the Sima family, descendants of the Wei strategist Sima Yi, who was himself a descendant of Sima Ang, a warlord during the Chu-Han Contention era after the end of the Qin Dynasty. [[note]]Sima Ang was given the title "King of Yin" by Xiang Yu. Ang later surrendered to Liu Bang, aka Han Gaozu, the founder of the Han Dynasty.[[/note]] Famous for its DeadlyDecadentCourt and incompetent line of emperors. Confucianism became disregarded while Taoism was in turn embraced. The Jin dynasty underwent a civil war called the War of the Eight Princes in which eight rival Jin princes hired foreign nomads as mercenaries in the civil war. As they all defeated each other and wiped each other out, the power vacuum in northern China led to a wholesale evacuation from northern China, leading to the establishment of the Eastern Jin. The power vacuum left by the Jin was filled by sixteen kingdoms (304-439).

'''Southern and Northern Dynasties (420-589)'''

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\n'''Jin [[/folder]]

[[folder:Jin
Dynasty (Western period 265-316, Eastern period 317-420)'''
317-420)]]
Founded by the Sima family, descendants of the Wei strategist Sima Yi, who was himself a descendant of Sima Ang, a warlord during the Chu-Han Contention era after the end of the Qin Dynasty. [[note]]Sima Ang was given the title "King of Yin" by Xiang Yu. Ang later surrendered to Liu Bang, aka Han Gaozu, the founder of the Han Dynasty.[[/note]] Famous for its DeadlyDecadentCourt and incompetent line of emperors. Confucianism became disregarded while Taoism was in turn embraced. The Jin dynasty underwent a civil war called the War of the Eight Princes in which eight rival Jin princes hired foreign nomads as mercenaries in the civil war. As they all defeated each other and wiped each other out, the power vacuum in northern China led to a wholesale evacuation from northern China, leading to the establishment of the Eastern Jin. The power vacuum left by the Jin was filled by sixteen kingdoms (304-439).

'''Southern
(304-439).
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Southern
and Northern Dynasties (420-589)'''(420-589)]]







'''Sui Dynasty (581-618)'''

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\n'''Sui [[/folder]]

[[folder:Sui
Dynasty (581-618)'''
(581-618)]]




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[[/folder]]






'''Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907-960)'''

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'''Five
[[folder:Five
Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907-960)'''
(907-960)]]




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Domestically the Ming were known for a fair bit more than all that, of course. Economically the stability of their rule and lightness of their taxes allowed a lot of Smithian/pre-modern commercialisation and growth, which taken together with the tripling of the population (c.80 to c.250 million) gave the Ming more than twice the wealth of the Song (peak Song population was c.120 million)[[note]] Do note that commercialisation (producing goods for sale rather than subsistence farming, aka 'industrious revolution') has nothing to do with 'industrial revolution' (use of steam engines, petrochemicals, electricity). That is something that only happened in one place, once, in the history of the world (19th century Britain, which then exported the new devices and techniques they'd developed and started a cycle of device+technique research and development). Cycles of Commercialisation and de-Commercialisation have happened lots of times[[/note]]. Politically they were more famous for retaining the anti-aristocratic policies of the Yuan and the Civil Service system (including examinations) of the Song, which ensured that a centralised state (with only minimal recourse to nobles and aristocrats) in which the monarchy and its civil service played the most important roles would be around to stay. They also oversaw a huge flowering of culture, which was helped in large part by their unprecedented wealth and the expansion in literacy (with up to 10% of men and 1% of women -- yes, ''women'' -- being literate) and printing (to the point that there were literally books and pamphlets on ''every'' subject[[note]]History, Literature, Poetry, Philosophy, Religion, Art, Water-Management, Agronomy, Medicine, Astrology, Gardening, Antiques, Martial Arts, Foreign lands, Travel-Guides, 'How-to' guides, Songbooks, Plays, Musicals, Flower-arranging, [[TheRuleOfFirstAdopters Smutty romance]], etc.[[/note]], something that had never happened before). Prose was still not really regarded as a 'proper' artistic field in the Ming, but some pretty awesome novels were produced, including 3 of 4 novels commonly regarded as the best in imperial Chinese canon: ''Literature/WaterMargin'', ''Literature/JourneyToTheWest'' and ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms''.

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Domestically the Ming were known for a fair bit more than all that, of course. Economically the stability of their rule and lightness of their taxes allowed a lot of Smithian/pre-modern commercialisation and growth, which taken together with the tripling of the population (c.80 to c.250 million) gave the Ming more than twice the wealth of the Song (peak Song population was c.120 million)[[note]] Do note that commercialisation (producing goods for sale rather than subsistence farming, aka 'industrious revolution') has nothing to do with 'industrial revolution' (use of steam engines, petrochemicals, electricity). That is something that only happened in one place, once, in the history of the world (19th century Britain, which then exported the new devices and techniques they'd developed and started a cycle of device+technique research and development). Cycles of Commercialisation and de-Commercialisation have happened lots of times[[/note]]. Politically they were more famous for retaining the anti-aristocratic policies of the Yuan and the Civil Service system (including examinations) of the Song, which ensured that a centralised state (with only minimal recourse to nobles and aristocrats) in which the monarchy and its civil service played the most important roles would be around to stay. They also oversaw a huge flowering of culture, which was helped in large part by their unprecedented wealth and the expansion in literacy (with up to 10% of men and 1% of women -- yes, ''women'' -- being literate) and printing (to the point that there were literally books and pamphlets on ''every'' subject[[note]]History, Literature, Poetry, Philosophy, Religion, Art, Water-Management, Agronomy, Medicine, Astrology, Gardening, Antiques, Martial Arts, Foreign lands, Travel-Guides, 'How-to' guides, Songbooks, Plays, Musicals, Flower-arranging, [[TheRuleOfFirstAdopters Smutty romance]], etc.[[/note]], something that had never happened before). Prose was still not really regarded as a 'proper' artistic field in the Ming, but some pretty awesome novels were produced, including 3 of 4 novels commonly regarded as the best in imperial Chinese canon: ''Literature/WaterMargin'', ''Literature/JourneyToTheWest'' and ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms''.
''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms''. This period's dressing may remind people of Korea's due to Joseon Korea's inspiration by the Ming.

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