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Second, the lower classes of China were very annoyed at the Western incursions, and one group of peasants got it into their heads that it was their destiny to save China by getting rid of all the Westerners. They also believed that they were ImmuneToBullets. Despite [[TooDumbToLive this]], this group, known fully as the Harmonious Society of Righteous Fists but more commonly as the 'Boxers', travelled across China attacking the foreign powers until they reached Beijing. There they besieged foreign buildings (primarily the embassies), opposed by the foreign-power armies called the League of 8. Cixi ''supported'' the Boxers; she even demanded that the Chinese armies come to Beijing to help them fight the foreigners. By this point, the armies were all 'suuure, right' and did virtually nothing to help out.

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Second, the lower classes of China were very annoyed at the Western incursions, and one group of peasants got it into their heads that it was their destiny to save China by getting rid of all the Westerners. They also believed that they were ImmuneToBullets. Despite [[TooDumbToLive this]], this, this group, known fully as the Harmonious Society of Righteous Fists but more commonly as the 'Boxers', travelled across China attacking the foreign powers until they reached Beijing. There they besieged foreign buildings (primarily the embassies), opposed by the foreign-power armies called the League of 8. Cixi ''supported'' the Boxers; she even demanded that the Chinese armies come to Beijing to help them fight the foreigners. By this point, the armies were all 'suuure, right' and did virtually nothing to help out.


Surname of kings of the dynasty is "Ji". Perhaps better remembered for events and people at the beginning and towards the end of the period and their influence on later Chinese culture than for anything the dynasty actually did. Generally characterised as feudal since the Zhou kings were nominally rulers of a pretty large territory, but only directly ruled a relatively small royal domain, which everything else farmed out to ''de facto'' independent feudal dukes. According to tradition, the foundations of the Zhou state were laid by King Wen; his son King Wu then defeated the Shang and established the Zhou Dynasty. Both kings were regarded as "sage kings" by later Confucians. While not a king himself, Duke Dan (the younger son of King Wen and thus brother of King Wu) was also regarded as a sagely ruler due to his regency when his nephew King Cheng was a minor. Dan is also a Chinese culture hero credited with writing the "I Ching" and the "Book of Poetry", establishing the "Rites of Zhou", and creating the ''yayue'' of Chinese classical music. The concept of the "Son of Heaven" (''tian zi'') appeared during this dynasty. One reason why Confucius was so "obsessed" with Duke Dan was that Duke Dan's descendants became the dukes of Lu (Confucius was a native of the state of Lu, although his ancestor was originally from the state of Song.).

On 771 BC, the capital moved from Haojing to Chengzhou, which demarcates the Western and Eastern periods. According to tradition, this was due to the incompetence of King You, which allowed a vassal, the Marquess of Shen, and his allies to invade Haojing.

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Surname of kings of the dynasty is "Ji". Perhaps better remembered for events and people at the beginning and towards the end of the period and their influence on later Chinese culture than for anything the dynasty actually did. Generally characterised as feudal since the Zhou kings were nominally rulers of a pretty large territory, but only directly ruled a relatively small royal domain, which everything else farmed out to ''de facto'' independent feudal dukes. According to tradition, the foundations of the Zhou state were laid by King Wen; his son King Wu then defeated the Shang and established the Zhou Dynasty. Both kings were regarded as "sage kings" by later Confucians. While not a king himself, Duke Dan (the younger son of King Wen and thus brother of King Wu) was also regarded as a sagely ruler due to his regency when his nephew King Cheng was a minor. Dan is also a Chinese culture hero credited with writing the "I Ching" and the "Book of Poetry", establishing the "Rites of Zhou", and creating the ''yayue'' of Chinese classical music. The concept of the "Son of Heaven" (''tian zi'') appeared during this dynasty. One reason why Confucius was so "obsessed" with for Confucius's respect towards Duke Dan was that Duke Dan's descendants became the dukes of Lu (Confucius was a native of the state of Lu, although his ancestor was originally from the state of Song.).

On 771 BC, the capital moved from Haojing (also known as Zongzhou, near present-day Xi'an) to Chengzhou, Chengzhou (near present-day Luoyang), which demarcates the Western and Eastern periods. According to tradition, this was due to the incompetence of King You, which allowed a vassal, the Marquess of Shen, and his allies to invade Haojing.


A brother of the last king of Shang was later given a piece of land named "Song", and thus his descendants became dukes of Song during the Zhou Dynasty.



Surname of kings of the dynasty is "Ji". Perhaps better remembered for events and people at the beginning and towards the end of the period and their influence on later Chinese culture than for anything the dynasty actually did. Generally characterised as feudal since the Zhou kings were nominally rulers of a pretty large territory, but only directly ruled a relatively small royal domain, which everything else farmed out to ''de facto'' independent feudal dukes. According to tradition, the foundations of the Zhou state were laid by King Wen; his son King Wu then defeated the Shang and established the Zhou Dynasty. Both kings were regarded as "sage kings" by later Confucians. While not a king himself, Duke Dan (the younger son of King Wen and thus brother of King Wu) was also regarded as a sagely ruler due to his regency when his nephew King Cheng was a minor. Dan is also a Chinese culture hero credited with writing the "I Ching" and the "Book of Poetry", establishing the "Rites of Zhou", and creating the ''yayue'' of Chinese classical music. The concept of the "Son of Heaven" (''tian zi'') appeared during this dynasty.

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Surname of kings of the dynasty is "Ji". Perhaps better remembered for events and people at the beginning and towards the end of the period and their influence on later Chinese culture than for anything the dynasty actually did. Generally characterised as feudal since the Zhou kings were nominally rulers of a pretty large territory, but only directly ruled a relatively small royal domain, which everything else farmed out to ''de facto'' independent feudal dukes. According to tradition, the foundations of the Zhou state were laid by King Wen; his son King Wu then defeated the Shang and established the Zhou Dynasty. Both kings were regarded as "sage kings" by later Confucians. While not a king himself, Duke Dan (the younger son of King Wen and thus brother of King Wu) was also regarded as a sagely ruler due to his regency when his nephew King Cheng was a minor. Dan is also a Chinese culture hero credited with writing the "I Ching" and the "Book of Poetry", establishing the "Rites of Zhou", and creating the ''yayue'' of Chinese classical music. The concept of the "Son of Heaven" (''tian zi'') appeared during this dynasty.
dynasty. One reason why Confucius was so "obsessed" with Duke Dan was that Duke Dan's descendants became the dukes of Lu (Confucius was a native of the state of Lu, although his ancestor was originally from the state of Song.).


The feudal system broke down entirely and, as the name indicates, the seven resulting states went to war. Eventually, the state of Qin united the land and a new dynasty began. Many historians believe that Creator/{{Laozi}} really lived at this time, if he existed at all. Creator/{{Zhuangzi}} definitely did. The period started when the state of Jin was carved up between three families, who later formed the states of Han, Zhao and Wei. In 256 B.C., the last king of Zhou was deposed by the state of Qin. Legalism saw its development during this period; thinkers of the school include Shang Yang, Han Fei and Li Si.


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The feudal system broke down entirely and, as the name indicates, the seven resulting strongest states went to into constant war. Eventually, the state of Qin united the land in 221 B.C. and a new dynasty began. Many historians believe that Creator/{{Laozi}} really lived at this time, if he existed at all. Creator/{{Zhuangzi}} definitely did. The period started when the state of Jin was carved up between three families, who later formed the states of Han, Zhao and Wei. In 256 B.C., the last king of Zhou was deposed by the state of Qin. Legalism saw its development during this period; thinkers of the school include Shang Yang, Han Fei and Li Si.



Tang represented an exceptionally cosmopolitan period of Chinese civilization. Merchants, missionaries, and other visitors came from all over the known world and resided in its capital Chang'an (now called Xi'an), at the time the largest city in the world. The Imperial family was itself part-foreign; the second Tang Emperor, Taizong, (and thus all subsequent Tang rulers) was of partial Turkic ancestry on his mother's side. [[note]]Taizong's mother Lady Dou was a granddaughter of Yuwen Tai, a largely sinicized Xianbei and the ''de facto'' founder of Northern Zhou.[[/note]] Taizong was also part-foreign in the male line as well; his paternal grandmother Lady Dugu being the daughter of Dugu Xin, another largely sinicized Xianbei. [[note]]Both Yuwen Tai and Dugu Xin are part of the 8 "Pillars" of the Western Wei, the predecessor of Northern Zhou. In any case, Taizong added more non-Han blood to the Li clan, his empress Lady Zhangsun (yet another largely sinicized Xianbei) being the mother of his eventual heir Li Zhi (Tang Gaozong).[[/note]] At any rate, the steppe peoples of the northwest--by then led by the Turks--proclaimed Taizong their ''Tengri Kaghan'' (Heavenly Emperor/Chieftain).

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Tang represented an exceptionally cosmopolitan period of Chinese civilization. Merchants, missionaries, and other visitors came from all over the known world and resided in its capital Chang'an (now called Xi'an), at the time the largest city in the world. The Imperial family was itself part-foreign; the second Tang Emperor, Taizong, Taizong (and thus all subsequent Tang rulers) was of partial Turkic ancestry on his mother's side. [[note]]Taizong's mother Lady Dou was a granddaughter of Yuwen Tai, a largely sinicized Xianbei and the ''de facto'' founder of Northern Zhou.[[/note]] Taizong was also part-foreign in the male line as well; his paternal grandmother Lady Dugu being the daughter of Dugu Xin, another largely sinicized Xianbei. [[note]]Both Yuwen Tai and Dugu Xin are part of the 8 "Pillars" of the Western Wei, the predecessor of Northern Zhou. In any case, Taizong added more non-Han blood to the Li clan, his empress Lady Zhangsun (yet another largely sinicized Xianbei) being the mother of his eventual heir Li Zhi (Tang Gaozong).[[/note]] At any rate, the steppe peoples of the northwest--by then led by the Turks--proclaimed Turkics--proclaimed Taizong their ''Tengri Kaghan'' (Heavenly Emperor/Chieftain).


Tang represented an exceptionally cosmopolitan period of Chinese civilization. Merchants, missionaries, and other visitors came from all over the known world and resided in its capital Chang'an (now called Xi'an), at the time the largest city in the world. The Imperial family was itself part-foreign; the second Tang Emperor, Taizong, (and thus all subsequent Tang rulers) was of partial Turkic ancestry on his mother's side. [[note]]Taizong's mother Lady Dou was a daughter of Yuwen Tai, a largely sinicized Xianbei and the ''de facto'' founder of Northern Zhou.[[/note]] Taizong was also part-foreign in the male line as well; his paternal grandmother Lady Dugu being the daughter of Dugu Xin, another largely sinicized Xianbei. [[note]]Both Yuwen Tai and Dugu Xin are part of the 8 "Pillars" of the Western Wei, the predecessor of Northern Zhou. In any case, Taizong added more non-Han blood to the Li clan, his empress Lady Zhangsun (yet another largely sinicized Xianbei) being the mother of his eventual heir Li Zhi (Tang Gaozong).[[/note]] At any rate, the steppe peoples of the northwest--by then led by the Turks--proclaimed Taizong their ''Tengri Kaghan'' (Heavenly Emperor/Chieftain).

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Tang represented an exceptionally cosmopolitan period of Chinese civilization. Merchants, missionaries, and other visitors came from all over the known world and resided in its capital Chang'an (now called Xi'an), at the time the largest city in the world. The Imperial family was itself part-foreign; the second Tang Emperor, Taizong, (and thus all subsequent Tang rulers) was of partial Turkic ancestry on his mother's side. [[note]]Taizong's mother Lady Dou was a daughter granddaughter of Yuwen Tai, a largely sinicized Xianbei and the ''de facto'' founder of Northern Zhou.[[/note]] Taizong was also part-foreign in the male line as well; his paternal grandmother Lady Dugu being the daughter of Dugu Xin, another largely sinicized Xianbei. [[note]]Both Yuwen Tai and Dugu Xin are part of the 8 "Pillars" of the Western Wei, the predecessor of Northern Zhou. In any case, Taizong added more non-Han blood to the Li clan, his empress Lady Zhangsun (yet another largely sinicized Xianbei) being the mother of his eventual heir Li Zhi (Tang Gaozong).[[/note]] At any rate, the steppe peoples of the northwest--by then led by the Turks--proclaimed Taizong their ''Tengri Kaghan'' (Heavenly Emperor/Chieftain).


The period's name derives from the ''Spring and Autumn Annals'', a chronicle of the state of Lu between 722 and 479 BC. The supremacy of the central Zhou government goes into terminal decline. Being the golden age of Chinese philosophy (the so-called "Hundred Schools of Thought")., the period gave us Creator/{{Confucius}} (traditionally attributed as the author of the ''Annals'' mentioned above), allegedly Creator/{{Laozi}} (founder of {{UsefulNotes/Taoism}}), Sunzi (author of Literature/{{The Art of War}}), and many other thinkers. A turbulent period when 148 regional rulers (many connected to the imperial family) and their petty dukedoms (mostly city states) contested with one another for influence and hegemony.

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The period's name derives from the ''Spring and Autumn Annals'', a chronicle of the state of Lu between 722 and 479 BC. The supremacy of the central Zhou government goes into terminal decline. Being the golden age of Chinese philosophy (the so-called "Hundred Schools of Thought")., Thought"), the period gave us Creator/{{Confucius}} (traditionally attributed as the author of the ''Annals'' mentioned above), allegedly Creator/{{Laozi}} (founder of {{UsefulNotes/Taoism}}), Sunzi (author of Literature/{{The Art of War}}), and many other thinkers. A turbulent period when 148 regional rulers (many connected to the imperial family) and their petty dukedoms (mostly city states) contested with one another for influence and hegemony.



The feudal system broke down entirely and, as the name indicates, the seven resulting states went to war. Eventually, the state of Qin united the land and a new dynasty began. Many historians believe that Creator/{{Laozi}} really lived at this time, if he existed at all. Creator/{{Zhuangzi}} definitely did. The period started when the state of Jin was carved up between three families, who later formed the states of Han, Zhao and Wei. In 256 B.C., the last king of Zhou was deposed by the state of Qin.


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The feudal system broke down entirely and, as the name indicates, the seven resulting states went to war. Eventually, the state of Qin united the land and a new dynasty began. Many historians believe that Creator/{{Laozi}} really lived at this time, if he existed at all. Creator/{{Zhuangzi}} definitely did. The period started when the state of Jin was carved up between three families, who later formed the states of Han, Zhao and Wei. In 256 B.C., the last king of Zhou was deposed by the state of Qin. Legalism saw its development during this period; thinkers of the school include Shang Yang, Han Fei and Li Si.



The period's name derives from the ''Spring and Autumn Annals'', a chronicle of the state of Lu between 722 and 479 BC. The supremacy of the central Zhou government goes into terminal decline. Being the golden age of Chinese philosophy, the period gave us Creator/{{Confucius}} (traditionally attributed as the author of the ''Annals'' mentioned above), allegedly Creator/{{Laozi}} (founder of {{UsefulNotes/Taoism}}), Sunzi (author of Literature/{{The Art of War}}), and many other thinkers. A turbulent period when 148 regional rulers (many connected to the imperial family) and their petty dukedoms (mostly city states) contested with one another for influence and hegemony.

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The period's name derives from the ''Spring and Autumn Annals'', a chronicle of the state of Lu between 722 and 479 BC. The supremacy of the central Zhou government goes into terminal decline. Being the golden age of Chinese philosophy, philosophy (the so-called "Hundred Schools of Thought")., the period gave us Creator/{{Confucius}} (traditionally attributed as the author of the ''Annals'' mentioned above), allegedly Creator/{{Laozi}} (founder of {{UsefulNotes/Taoism}}), Sunzi (author of Literature/{{The Art of War}}), and many other thinkers. A turbulent period when 148 regional rulers (many connected to the imperial family) and their petty dukedoms (mostly city states) contested with one another for influence and hegemony.


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Wei, Shu, Wu. Wei is often referred to as Cao Wei after its founder Cao Pi, son of Cao Cao; Shu was founded by Liu Bei, a kinsman of the Han emperors and called itself Shu Han as successors to the Han; Wu was also called Eastern Wu or Dong Wu after its location to the east. Very famous period, the setting of [[RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms a major Chinese novel]] (well, one ''very'' famous one and presumably others), many Chinese operas, movies, TV series, and all those games from [[VideoGame/DynastyWarriors Koei]].

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Wei, Shu, Wu. Wei is often referred to as Cao Wei after its founder Cao Pi, son of Cao Cao; Shu was founded by Liu Bei, a kinsman of the Han emperors and called itself Shu Han as successors to the Han; Wu was also called Eastern Wu or Dong Wu after its location to the east. Very famous period, the setting of [[RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms [[Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms a major Chinese novel]] (well, one ''very'' famous one and presumably others), many Chinese operas, movies, TV series, and all those games from [[VideoGame/DynastyWarriors Koei]].


* ''Series/KingsWar''


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* ''Series/KingsWar''

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* ''Series/KingsWar''


Confucianism became solidly entrenched as the official philosophy (during Emperor Wu's reign) [[note]]Liu Bang did not have a coherent state ideology during his reign, while his son and grandson followed an early form of Taoism. The first few years of Emperor Wu's reign saw the continuation of this form of Taoism, until the death of Wu's grandmother Grand Emperor Dowager Dou.[[/note]]. This was also the time when many Chinese inventions came forward: paper (a must for bureaucrats), advances in metallurgy (mostly in casting iron and producing steel), and other stuff. Noteworthy emperors during this era are Emperors Wen and Jing (father and son ushered in what was arguably imperial China's first golden age, "The Reign of Wen & Jing") and Emperor Wu (Jing's son, who sent men to explore the Silk Road and warred with the Xiongnu). [[note]]Emperor Wu's 54 years on the throne was a record which stood for more than 1700 years, until Emperor Kangxi during the Qing Dynasty.[[/note]] The first attempt to record Chinese history from the era of the legendary 3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors to the then present day was undertaken by Sima Tan, but it was his son Sima Qian who completed the task. The resulting work, ''Shiji'' (''Records of the Grand Historian''), was regarded as a literary and historical masterpiece, and Sima Qian himself became known as ''the'' Grand Historian.

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Confucianism became solidly entrenched as the official philosophy (during Emperor Wu's reign) [[note]]Liu Bang did not have a coherent state ideology during his reign, while although he did adapt Qin rites to suit the Han imperial court under the advice of Shusun Tong, a Confucian. His wife, his son Emperor Wen and grandson Emperor Jing followed an early form of Taoism. The first few years of Emperor Wu's reign saw the continuation of this form of Taoism, until the death of Wu's grandmother Grand Emperor Dowager Dou.[[/note]]. This was also the time when many Chinese inventions came forward: paper (a must for bureaucrats), advances in metallurgy (mostly in casting iron and producing steel), and other stuff. Noteworthy emperors during this era are Emperors Wen and Jing (father and son ushered in what was arguably imperial China's first golden age, "The Reign of Wen & Jing") and Emperor Wu (Jing's son, who sent men to explore the Silk Road and warred with the Xiongnu). [[note]]Emperor Wu's 54 years on the throne was a record which stood for more than 1700 years, until Emperor Kangxi during the Qing Dynasty.[[/note]] The first attempt to record Chinese history from the era of the legendary 3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors to the then present day was undertaken by Sima Tan, but it was his son Sima Qian who completed the task. The resulting work, ''Shiji'' (''Records of the Grand Historian''), was regarded as a literary and historical masterpiece, and Sima Qian himself became known as ''the'' Grand Historian.


Much like many other regions, Chinese history is commonly divided into 'dynastic' periods corresponding to the strongest Empire present at the time. Generally speaking, each 'dynasty' denotes a period when a multi-national Empire dominated the region for a bit - and among the educated elite they eventually succeeded in creating an alternative pan-Chinese national identity (that began to catch on among normal people during the long nights of The UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar). The rise and fall of each empire generally meant a lot of crime, debt, death, and general suffering. Between a Dynasty's rise and fall were often times of relative prosperity and stability.

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Much like many other regions, Chinese history is commonly divided into 'dynastic' periods corresponding to the strongest Empire present at the time. Generally speaking, each 'dynasty' denotes a period when a multi-national Empire dominated the region for a bit - and among the educated elite they eventually succeeded in creating an alternative pan-Chinese national identity (that began to catch on among normal people during the long nights of The UsefulNotes/SecondSinoJapaneseWar). The rise and fall of each empire generally meant a lot of crime, debt, death, natural disasters, and general suffering. Between a Dynasty's rise and fall were often times of relative prosperity and stability.
stability.

Also much like many other regions, the Chinese definition of "barbarian" changed throughout the centuries as the area being considered as part of "China" increased. E.g. during the Eastern Zhou period, the states of Chu and Qin were considered semi-barbaric due to their locations at the then-southern and western boundaries respectively.


The Tang was briefly interrupted by the Zhou Dynasty of UsefulNotes/WuZetian, China's only female emperor, from 690-705. Even after her reign, the Tang had no shortage of intriguing women who held massive influence on the empire, most infamous after Wu herself being [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yang_Guifei Yang Guifei]], one of China's [[WorldsMostBeautifulWoman Four Ancient Beauties]] and held to be one of the [[LoveRuinsTheRealm causes of the An Lushan Rebellion]] that nearly brought the dynasty to its knees. [[note]]Of course, the more important person in the whole affair was Tang Xuanzong, Li Longji. By the time of the An-Shi Rebellion ("Shi" referring to An's partner Shi Siming), Xuanzong had already reigned for over 40 years and presided over a period of prosperity known as "the Glorious Age of Kaiyuan" (his era name when the prosperity took place). By the late Kaiyuan era, Xuanzong had already grown tired of proper administration of the empire. More damning was his misallocation of troops, placing most of them in the outer regions of the empire while leaving almost none for the capitals of Chang'an and Luoyang; when An rebelled, he had ''40%'' of the entire realm's soldiers under him, and most were veterans of many campaigns against the non-Han enemies of the empire. On her part, Yang Guifei never actively interfered in state politics.[[/note]]

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The Tang was briefly interrupted by the Zhou Dynasty of UsefulNotes/WuZetian, China's only female emperor, from 690-705. Even after her reign, the Tang had no shortage of intriguing women who held massive influence on the empire, most infamous after Wu herself being [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yang_Guifei Yang Guifei]], one of China's [[WorldsMostBeautifulWoman Four Ancient Beauties]] and held to be one of the [[LoveRuinsTheRealm causes of the An Lushan Rebellion]] that nearly brought the dynasty to its knees. [[note]]Of course, the more important person in the whole affair was Tang Xuanzong, Li Longji. By the time of the An-Shi Rebellion ("Shi" referring to An's partner partner-in-crime Shi Siming), Xuanzong had already reigned for over 40 years and presided over a period of prosperity known as "the Glorious Age of Kaiyuan" (his era name when the prosperity took place). By the late Kaiyuan era, Xuanzong had already grown tired of proper administration of the empire. More damning was his misallocation of troops, placing most of them in the outer regions of the empire while leaving almost none for the capitals of Chang'an and Luoyang; when An rebelled, he had ''40%'' of the entire realm's soldiers under him, and most were veterans of many campaigns against the non-Han enemies of the empire. On her part, Yang Guifei never actively interfered in state politics.politics, although her cousin Yang Guozhong did manage to secure his first audience with Xuanzong because of her.[[/note]]


The Han Dynasty was briefly overthrown by Wang Mang (who had already been ruling as regent of three different child emperors for several years) in 9 AD, but his self-proclaimed Xin Dynasty lasted only 14 years before he was killed in a peasant rebellion and the Han Dynasty was restored 2 years after Wang's death. [[note]]Emperor Gengshi Liu Xuan, who reigned from 23 to 25 C.E. over a small part of the empire, was not considered part of the Han Dynasty even though he, like Liu Xiu, was a descendant of Emperor Jing.[[/note]] As the restored Han Dynasty moved its capital to the east from Chang'an to Luoyang, historians divide it into the Western Han (prior to Wang's usurpation) and Eastern Han (after restoration) periods. [[note]]Besides Wang Mang, there was a period of 27 days in 74 B.C. where there was no emperor. This period was after Liu He was deposed by Huo Guang, Emperor Zhao's regent and an immensely powerful official, and before the ascension of Emperor Xuan. Liu He, who took over after Emperor Zhao died, also only reigned for 27 days.[[/note]]

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The Han Dynasty was briefly overthrown by Wang Mang (who (nephew of the last grand empress dowager of the Western Han, Wang Zhengjun, and had already been ruling as regent of three different child emperors for several years) in 9 AD, but his self-proclaimed Xin Dynasty lasted only 14 years before he was killed in a peasant rebellion and the Han Dynasty was restored 2 years after Wang's death. [[note]]Emperor Gengshi Liu Xuan, who reigned from 23 to 25 C.E. over a small part of the empire, was not considered part of the Han Dynasty even though he, like Liu Xiu, was a descendant of Emperor Jing.[[/note]] As the restored Han Dynasty moved its capital to the east from Chang'an to Luoyang, historians divide it into the Western Han (prior to Wang's usurpation) and Eastern Han (after restoration) periods. [[note]]Besides Wang Mang, there was a period of 27 days in 74 B.C. where there was no emperor. This period was after Liu He was deposed by Huo Guang, Emperor Zhao's regent and an immensely powerful official, and before the ascension of Emperor Xuan. Liu He, who took over after Emperor Zhao died, also only reigned for 27 days.[[/note]]



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