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In 1905, the British commissioned HMS ''Dreadnought'', whose design was nothing short of revolutionary. \\\

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In 1905, the British commissioned laid down HMS ''Dreadnought'', whose design was nothing short of revolutionary. \\\



** In fact, other nations (e.g. the United States) were working on the same concept at the same time, and she has been called "a ship whose time had come" (DK Brown, "Warrior to Dreadnought"). But being first has kudos, and going from laying of keel to a ship which could steam, if not quite yet fight, in ''a year and a day'' shocked the world, and is a capital-ship building record that has never been beaten.

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** In fact, other nations (e.g. the United States) were working on the same concept at the same time, and she has been called "a ship whose time had come" (DK Brown, "Warrior to Dreadnought"). And Italian naval architect Vittorio Cuniberti had presented his design for an "ideal battleship" (a fast 17,000 ton battleship armed solely with 12-inch guns, in other words very similar to ''Dreadnought'') in '''1903'''.[[note]]Italy couldn't even begin to afford such ships, so Cuniberti published an article in ''Jane's Fighting Ships'' recommending that Britain (not yet a formal ally of Italy, but much friendlier to Italy than to their arch-rival Austria-Hungary.[[/note]] But being first has kudos, and going from laying of keel to a ship which could steam, if not quite yet fight, in ''a year and a day'' shocked the world, and is a capital-ship building record that has never been beaten.



* Thanks to the slow construction of ''South Carolina'' and Japan's money problems, both the Americans and Japanese were beat to punch in fielding dreadnoughts not only by Germany but also by Brazil. This spurred [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_American_dreadnought_race a relatively little-known naval arms race in South America]], since if Brazil had dreadnoughts, they had to have their own. Since Brazil wanted to have dreadnoughts just for the sake of having them, and Argentina and Chile just to keep pace with their neighbor, this all turned out to be just a colossal waste of money.

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* Thanks to the slow construction of ''South Carolina'' and Japan's money problems, both the Americans and Japanese were beat to punch in fielding dreadnoughts not only by Germany but also by Brazil. This spurred [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_American_dreadnought_race a relatively little-known naval arms race in South America]], since if Brazil had dreadnoughts, they the other South American naval powers had to have their own. Since Brazil wanted to have dreadnoughts just for the sake of having them, and Argentina and Chile just to keep pace with their neighbor, this all turned out to be just a colossal waste of money.money.
* Some British officials at the time lamented that since ''Dreadnought'' rendered all existing battleships obsolete, '''including Britain's own''', this actually nullified the Royal Navy's quite large numerical advantage over any potential adversary. However, given that Britain was already demonstrably not the only nation to have come up with the idea, going first allowed them to take a head start in building dreadnoughts. Britain didn't just build the first dreadnought battleship, they built first '''four of them'''. By the time Germany had completed their first class of four dreadnoughts, Britain had built three different classes for a total of seven. All of them (even HMS ''Dreadnought'' herself) superior to their German counterparts. And by the time Germany was able to build a dreadnought that was unquestionably superior to these ships, Britain had already built the first [[UpToEleven super-dreadnought]] (armed with 10 13.5-inch main guns, all capable of firing broadside, whose heavier shells produced '''double''' weight of broadside that a first-generation dreadnought's 12-inch guns could manage).


* Carriers that fly the Russian ensign use this concept in a [[SureWhyNot blatant but generally accepted]] attempt to get around the aforementioned rule forbidding carriers from going through the Bosporus have formidable armament in their own right.

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* Carriers that fly the Russian ensign use this concept in a [[SureWhyNot [[SureLetsGoWithThat blatant but generally accepted]] attempt to get around the aforementioned rule forbidding carriers from going through the Bosporus have formidable armament in their own right.


* The French-designed ''Lafayette'' are frigates designed with stealth elements to minimize their radar signature. They are used by France, with variants used by Singapore, Saudi Arabia, and Taiwan.

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* The French-designed ''Lafayette'' ''La Fayette'' are frigates designed with stealth elements to minimize their radar signature. They are used by France, with variants used by Singapore, Saudi Arabia, and Taiwan.


Amphibs, or "gators" as they are referred to in the US Navy, are a sort of cross between aircraft carriers and troop transports. They are designed to take large groups of ground troops and their equipment and transport them long distances, then deploy them to shore using landing craft or helicopters. Most Amphibs have a stern gate[[note]]hence the nickname "gator" [[/note]] and "well deck" in the aft portion which they can flood, allowing landing craft to float in and out of the ship quickly. They also usually have a flight deck large enough to accommodate transport helos. Some, like US LHAs and LHDs, have flight decks and hangar bays which are large enough that they can transport their own helicopters and offensive aircraft, and are sometimes referred to as "assault carriers" for this reason. Like carriers, they usually have little defensive armament of their own and need to be protected. In navies without aircraft carriers, this is frequently the largest ship class around. In standard US practice, these ships do not operate alone, but instead are the lead ship of the landing force component of a larger fleet, often operating together (e.g.: an LHD, and LPD, and an LSD all together with the ground troops and aircraft distributed between them.)\\\

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Amphibs, or "gators" as they are referred to in the US Navy, are a sort of cross between aircraft carriers and troop transports. They are designed to take large groups of ground troops and their equipment and transport them long distances, then deploy them to shore using landing craft or helicopters. Most Amphibs have a stern gate[[note]]hence the nickname "gator" [[/note]] and "well deck" in the aft portion which they can flood, allowing landing craft to float in and out of the ship quickly. They also usually have a flight deck large enough to accommodate transport helos. Some, like US LHAs [=LHAs=] and LHDs, [=LHDs=], have flight decks and hangar bays which are large enough that they can transport their own helicopters and offensive aircraft, and are sometimes referred to as "assault carriers" for this reason. Like carriers, they usually have little defensive armament of their own and need to be protected. In navies without aircraft carriers, this is frequently the largest ship class around. In standard US practice, these ships do not operate alone, but instead are the lead ship of the landing force component of a larger fleet, often operating together (e.g.: an LHD, and LPD, and an LSD all together with the ground troops and aircraft distributed between them.)\\\


They are, it must be said, far, ''far'' better-looking and more characterful than the efficient but soulless aircraft carriers—which perhaps explains their enduring appeal to enthusiasts. Or perhaps it's just more visceral. When one looks at an aircraft carrier, one sees little more than a giant flat top: the ship itself is not imposing, and indeed it is the smaller planes that it launches that do all the work, with the ship itself perhaps not even within visual range. On the other hand, there's no mistaking the silhouette of the battleship and what that silhouette means: many, many, MANY [=BFGs=], and if you're close enough to tell they're pointed at you, then YouAreAlreadyDead. Aside from actual ship-to-ship combat, battleships were very effective at providing fire support for amphibious operations and destroying shore positions; in WWII, U.S. battleships fought more Japanese coastal forts than Japanese ships. A seaborne artillery barrage is also more frightening than aerial assault, as it cannot be predicted by any means, adding the psychological effect.\\\

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They are, it must be said, far, ''far'' better-looking and more characterful than the efficient but soulless aircraft carriers—which perhaps explains their enduring appeal to enthusiasts. Or perhaps it's just more visceral. When one looks at an aircraft carrier, one sees little more than a giant flat top: the ship itself is not imposing, and indeed it is the smaller planes that it launches that do all the work, with the ship itself perhaps not even within visual range. On the other hand, there's no mistaking the silhouette of the battleship and what that silhouette means: many, many, MANY [=BFGs=], and if you're close enough to tell they're pointed at you, then YouAreAlreadyDead. Aside from actual ship-to-ship combat, battleships were very effective at providing fire support for amphibious operations and destroying shore positions; in WWII, U.S. battleships fought more Japanese coastal forts than Japanese ships. A seaborne artillery barrage is also more frightening than aerial assault, as it cannot be predicted by any means, can come with little warning, adding the psychological effect.\\\


* The American ''Portland''-class, ''Northampton'', and ''New Orleans''-class. Their''Alaska''-class "large cruisers" were the largest heavy cruisers ever built, sometimes arguably considered battlecruisers. The last surviving heavy cruiser in the world, USS ''Salem'', is a postwar ''Des Moines''-class.

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* The American ''Portland''-class, ''Northampton'', and ''New Orleans''-class. Their''Alaska''-class Their ''Alaska''-class "large cruisers" were the largest heavy cruisers ever built, sometimes arguably considered battlecruisers. The last surviving heavy cruiser in the world, USS ''Salem'', is a postwar ''Des Moines''-class.


* The American ''Portland''-class, consisting of ''Portland'' and ''Indianapolis'', the latter of which delivered the first atomic bomb, and was sunk near the end of World War II
* The American ''Alaska''-class were the largest heavy cruisers ever built, sometimes arguably considered battlecruisers. They were designed specifically to destroy other heavy cruisers.
* The German ''Admiral Hipper''-class.

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* The American ''Portland''-class, consisting of ''Portland'' ''Northampton'', and ''Indianapolis'', the latter of which delivered the first atomic bomb, and was sunk near the end of World War II
* The American ''Alaska''-class
''New Orleans''-class. Their''Alaska''-class "large cruisers" were the largest heavy cruisers ever built, sometimes arguably considered battlecruisers. They were designed specifically to destroy other The last surviving heavy cruisers.
cruiser in the world, USS ''Salem'', is a postwar ''Des Moines''-class.
* The German ''Admiral Hipper''-class.
Hipper'' and ''Deutschland''-class. The latter were often considered "pocket battleships" due to their disproportionately heavy armament for their weight.
* The Japanese ''Myoko'', ''Takao'', ''Aoba'', ''Furutaka'', and ''Tone''-classes. The ''Mogami''s were also considered heavy cruisers after their reconstruction.


Added DiffLines:

* The Japanese ''Mogami''-class were considered light cruisers, before being reconstructed and reclassified as heavy cruisers.



!!Guided missile cruiser (CG, CGN)

Gun armed cruisers slowly disappeared after WWII. Today, cruisers are mainly armed with missiles and used as escorts for carriers, in the air defense role. The Aegis system, fitted on a number of types of cruisers and destroyers, is the USA's primary carrier protection system- an automated SAM system, for destroying anti-ship missiles. It allows for co-operative engagement- one ship can control the missiles of the others, and of other ships in the fleet whose missiles are compatible, reducing the number of radars that an anti-radar missile can home in on. Designed during the UsefulNotes/ColdWar, it was not combat-proven until the Gulf War of 1991.\\\

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\n!!Guided missile cruiser (CG, CGN)\n\nGun armed !!Scout cruiser

Scout
cruisers slowly disappeared after WWII. Today, were early cruisers are mainly armed with missiles that were smaller, faster, and lighter-armed than light cruisers, but larger than destroyers. As their name implied, they were mostly used as escorts for carriers, in the air defense role. The Aegis system, fitted on a number of types of scouting, or as flotilla leaders.

They became obsolete after WWI, when technological developments allowed destroyers and light
cruisers allowed them to catch up in terms of speed and destroyers, is the USA's primary carrier protection system- an automated SAM system, for destroying anti-ship missiles. It allows for co-operative engagement- one ship can control the missiles of the others, and of other ships in the fleet whose missiles are compatible, reducing the number of radars that an anti-radar missile can home in on. Designed during the UsefulNotes/ColdWar, it was not combat-proven until the Gulf War of 1991.\\\
armament.



* Only two nations today, the US and Russia, have actual cruisers in operational service. China is building several Type 055 class ([[ReportingNames NATO Reporting Name]]: "Renhai"), a 13,000 ton ship which is designated as destroyer by PLAN but as cruiser (CG) by the US (despite the US Navy's own 14,000 ton ''Zumwalt'' class being designated destroyers). They carry anti-ship and/or land-attack missiles,
* The best-known today and the most numerous is the US ''Ticonderoga'' class, a Guided Missile Cruiser. The original Aegis ships, they set the standards for modern air defense by which all other cruisers and destroyers are judged. Starting with the sixth ship, they are armed with a pair of 64-cell vertical launch tubes for their missiles (primarily from the "Standard" family of anti-aircraft missiles, but Tomahawk cruise missiles and VL-ASROC anti-submarine missiles can be mixed in as well). The first five had old-style twin-arm missile launchers that could only fire Standard-MR and ASROC, and as a result were retired early. They were built on a slightly modified version of the ''Spruance'' class destroyers' hull (side-by-side comparison [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spruance_and_Ticonderoga_lead_ships_in_class.jpg here]]), but with a completely new superstructure containing the Aegis system's SPY-1 phased-array radar (consisting of four distinctive flat-panel octagonal arrays, each covering one 90-degree angle around the ship) and its fire control system. Packing that much extra weight onto the ''Spruance'' design (they're 23% heavier than their ''Spruance'' predecessors) proved to put quite bit more stress on the hull than expected, but they've nonetheless held up through over 30 years of active service. One example, the USS ''Vincennes'', infamously shot down an Iranian passenger jet during the UsefulNotes/IranIraqWar, having mistaken it for Iranian Air Force fighter.
* The Russian ''Slava'' class, with three currently in service. Notable for having its long-range anti-ship missiles mounted in very prominent above-deck launchers along the sides of its superstructure.

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* Only two nations today, The Royal Navy built a number of scout cruiser classes, many of which served in WWI.
* Italy was also a fan of
the US and Russia, have actual cruisers in operational service. China is concept, building several Type 055 class ([[ReportingNames NATO Reporting Name]]: "Renhai"), a 13,000 ton ship which is designated as destroyer by PLAN but as cruiser (CG) by the US (despite the US Navy's own 14,000 ton ''Zumwalt'' class being designated destroyers). They carry anti-ship and/or land-attack missiles,
* The best-known today and the most numerous is the US ''Ticonderoga'' class, a Guided Missile Cruiser. The original Aegis ships, they set the standards for modern air defense by which all other cruisers and destroyers are judged. Starting with the sixth ship, they are armed with a pair
large number of 64-cell vertical launch tubes for their missiles (primarily from the "Standard" family of anti-aircraft missiles, but Tomahawk cruise missiles and VL-ASROC anti-submarine missiles can be mixed in as well). The first five had old-style twin-arm missile launchers that could only fire Standard-MR and ASROC, and as a result them. Most were retired early. They were built on a slightly modified version of the ''Spruance'' class destroyers' hull (side-by-side comparison [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spruance_and_Ticonderoga_lead_ships_in_class.jpg here]]), but with a completely new superstructure containing the Aegis system's SPY-1 phased-array radar (consisting of four distinctive flat-panel octagonal arrays, each covering one 90-degree angle around the ship) and its fire control system. Packing that much extra weight onto the ''Spruance'' design (they're 23% heavier than their ''Spruance'' predecessors) proved to put quite bit more stress on the hull than expected, but they've nonetheless held up through over 30 years of active service. One example, the USS ''Vincennes'', infamously shot down an Iranian passenger jet during the UsefulNotes/IranIraqWar, having mistaken it for Iranian Air Force fighter.
* The Russian ''Slava'' class, with three currently in service. Notable for having its long-range anti-ship missiles mounted in very prominent above-deck launchers along the sides of its superstructure.
later reclassified as destroyers.




!!Guided missile cruiser (CG, CGN)

Gun armed cruisers slowly disappeared after WWII. Today, cruisers are mainly armed with missiles and used as escorts for carriers, in the air defense role. The Aegis system, fitted on a number of types of cruisers and destroyers, is the USA's primary carrier protection system- an automated SAM system, for destroying anti-ship missiles. It allows for co-operative engagement- one ship can control the missiles of the others, and of other ships in the fleet whose missiles are compatible, reducing the number of radars that an anti-radar missile can home in on. Designed during the UsefulNotes/ColdWar, it was not combat-proven until the Gulf War of 1991.\\\

'''Examples''':

* Only two nations today, the US and Russia, have actual cruisers in operational service. China is building several Type 055 class ([[ReportingNames NATO Reporting Name]]: "Renhai"), a 13,000 ton ship which is designated as destroyer by PLAN but as cruiser (CG) by the US (despite the US Navy's own 14,000 ton ''Zumwalt'' class being designated destroyers). They carry anti-ship and/or land-attack missiles,
* The best-known today and the most numerous is the US ''Ticonderoga'' class, a Guided Missile Cruiser. The original Aegis ships, they set the standards for modern air defense by which all other cruisers and destroyers are judged. Starting with the sixth ship, they are armed with a pair of 64-cell vertical launch tubes for their missiles (primarily from the "Standard" family of anti-aircraft missiles, but Tomahawk cruise missiles and VL-ASROC anti-submarine missiles can be mixed in as well). The first five had old-style twin-arm missile launchers that could only fire Standard-MR and ASROC, and as a result were retired early. They were built on a slightly modified version of the ''Spruance'' class destroyers' hull (side-by-side comparison [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spruance_and_Ticonderoga_lead_ships_in_class.jpg here]]), but with a completely new superstructure containing the Aegis system's SPY-1 phased-array radar (consisting of four distinctive flat-panel octagonal arrays, each covering one 90-degree angle around the ship) and its fire control system. Packing that much extra weight onto the ''Spruance'' design (they're 23% heavier than their ''Spruance'' predecessors) proved to put quite bit more stress on the hull than expected, but they've nonetheless held up through over 30 years of active service. One example, the USS ''Vincennes'', infamously shot down an Iranian passenger jet during the UsefulNotes/IranIraqWar, having mistaken it for Iranian Air Force fighter.
* The Russian ''Slava'' class, with three currently in service. Notable for having its long-range anti-ship missiles mounted in very prominent above-deck launchers along the sides of its superstructure.
----



ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin. A ship whose main function is to lay naval mines to sea. Especially popular by navies whose coast is shallow, has large archipelago or long coastline. Naval mines can be a real menace at close straits, harbours and shallow seas, and a single mine can sink a large ship. A minelayer is usually a good seagoing vessel with flush deck, with mine rails, shafts and/or scuttles attached. A passenger ferry or a ro-ro merchantman can easily converted in a minelayer by just bolting the mine rails on the car deck and embarking the mines inside, and then lowering the stern gate where the mines are to be laid. In the past, destroyer-minelayer hybrids were also used, but this would now be considered a waste of a destroyer.\\\

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ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin. A ship whose main function is to lay naval mines to sea. Especially popular by navies whose coast is shallow, has large archipelago or long coastline. Naval mines can be a real menace at close straits, harbours and shallow seas, and a single mine can sink a large ship. A minelayer is usually a good seagoing vessel with flush deck, with mine rails, shafts and/or scuttles attached. A passenger ferry or a ro-ro merchantman can easily converted in a minelayer by just bolting the mine rails on the car deck and embarking the mines inside, and then lowering the stern gate where the mines are to be laid. In the past, destroyer-minelayer hybrids Some minelayers were also used, but this would now be considered a waste of a destroyer.well-armed enough to function as escort vessels or anti-submarine vessels.\\\



* Finnish Navy Hämeenmaa class minelayers.

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* Finnish Navy Hämeenmaa class ''Hämeenmaa''-class minelayers.


'''Examples''':\\\

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'''Examples''':\\\
'''Examples''':


Examples:\\\

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Examples:\\\
'''Examples''':\\\


The British 1942 Design Light Fleet Carrier, later known as either the ''Colossus'' or ''Majestic''-class, which were not ready before the end of [=WWII=], but saw service for many years afterward.

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* The British 1942 Design Light Fleet Carrier, later known as either the ''Colossus'' or ''Majestic''-class, which were not ready before the end of [=WWII=], but saw service for many years afterward.


Subchasers, as their names imply, escort vessels specifically tasked with anti-submarine warfare. They are primarily armed with depth charges, with a few anti-aircraft and light guns for self-defense. Nowadays, they have mostly been replaced by frigates, corvettes, and destroyers.

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Subchasers, as their names imply, are escort vessels specifically tasked with anti-submarine warfare. They are primarily armed with depth charges, with a few anti-aircraft and light guns for self-defense. Nowadays, they have mostly been replaced by frigates, corvettes, and destroyers.

Added DiffLines:

The British 1942 Design Light Fleet Carrier, later known as either the ''Colossus'' or ''Majestic''-class, which were not ready before the end of [=WWII=], but saw service for many years afterward.


* ''Independence''-class: Served during WWII with the US Navy.

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* ''Independence''-class: Served during WWII with the US Navy. As they were converted from ''Cleveland'' class light cruisers under construction, they were fairly fast and manueverable for the type.



* The US LCAC (Landing Craft, Air Cushion) is a unique take on the concept, which replaced the LCU. It is a hovercraft which is capable of actually flying a few feet above the waves and can actually drive up on shore to provide vehicles with a more stable foundation for unloading. Their great advantage lies in the fact that they're essentially small aircraft: it's nearly impossible to run one aground, short of intentionally driving into large rocks, cliffs, trees, or structures. This means they can put amphibious forces ashore in places previously thought impossible to reach, summed up in the US amphibious community adage "No beach out of reach!" [=LCACs=] are also much faster than the average landing craft, with the trade-off of larger size (can't fit as many in an Amphib) and reduced carrying capacity relative to their size.

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* The US LCAC (Landing Craft, Air Cushion) is a unique take on the concept, which replaced forms a faster but lower-capacity complement to the LCU. It is a hovercraft which is capable of actually flying a few feet above the waves and can actually drive up on shore to provide vehicles with a more stable foundation for unloading. Their great advantage lies in the fact that they're essentially small aircraft: it's nearly impossible to run one aground, short of intentionally driving into large rocks, cliffs, trees, or structures. This means they can put amphibious forces ashore in places previously thought impossible to reach, summed up in the US amphibious community adage "No beach out of reach!" [=LCACs=] are also much faster than the average landing craft, with the trade-off of larger size (can't fit as many in an Amphib) and reduced carrying capacity relative to their size.


* ''Yorktown''-class: A class of three carriers that served as the primary carriers for the US Navy early in WWII. Two, ''Yorktown'' and ''Hornet'', were lost. The sole survivor, ''Enterprise'' (CV-6), was the most decorated ship in US Navy history. She received 20 battle stars, was the first ship in the US Navy to sink an enemy warship[[note]]The Japanese submarine I-70[[/note]] during WWII, and was heavily involved in most of the major naval battles of the Pacific War. The Japanese mistakenly reported her sunk 3 times, leading to the nickname "The Grey Ghost", and for about 8 months in 1942-1943 she was the only operational US carrier in the Pacific, leading her crew crew to accurately claim that at that point it was "''Enterprise'' vs Japan."

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* ''Yorktown''-class: A class of three carriers that served as the primary carriers for the US Navy early in WWII. Two, ''Yorktown'' and ''Hornet'', were lost. The sole survivor, ''Enterprise'' (CV-6), was the most decorated ship in US Navy history. She received 20 battle stars, was the first ship in the US Navy to sink an enemy warship[[note]]The Japanese submarine I-70[[/note]] during WWII, and was heavily involved in most of the major naval battles of the Pacific War. The Japanese mistakenly reported her sunk 3 times, leading to the nickname "The Grey Ghost", and for about 8 months in 1942-1943 she was the only operational US carrier in the Pacific, leading her crew crew to accurately claim that at that point it was "''Enterprise'' vs Japan."



* ''Nimitz''-class: The largest warships in history--their air wings are larger than many nations' ''entire air forces''.

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* ''Nimitz''-class: The largest warships in history--their air wings are larger than many nations' ''entire air forces''. Nuclear-powered, like the ''Enterprise'', but using 2 large reactors instead of 8 small ones.

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