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# '''Sir John Thompson''' (Conservative, 1892-1894) A Nova Scotian protege of Macdonald, he was also the first Catholic Prime Minister and at just 47 the youngest to hold the office until 1920, almost thirty years later. Was actually offered the office before Abbott, but initially RefusedTheCall because of concerns of prejudice towards his Catholicism after ConvertingForLove. Also served as his own Justice Minister and did a respectable job, but died of a heart attack[[note]]while sitting down to lunch with UsefulNotes/QueenVictoria, no less![[/note]] after just two years at age 49, making him Canada's most WhatCouldHaveBeen PM and the one with by far the shortest lifespan; every other deceased PM has made it to at least 70.[[note]]Only the famously youthful incumbent Justin Trudeau is younger than that, and only for a couple more years.[[/note]] After Macdonald, he's the second and last Prime Minister to die in office.

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# '''Sir John Thompson''' (Conservative, 1892-1894) A Nova Scotian protege of Macdonald, he was also the first Catholic Prime Minister and at just 47 the youngest to hold the office until 1920, almost thirty years later. Was actually offered the office before Abbott, but initially RefusedTheCall because of concerns of prejudice towards his Catholicism after ConvertingForLove. Also served as his own Justice Minister and did a respectable job, but died of a heart attack[[note]]while sitting down to lunch with UsefulNotes/QueenVictoria, no less![[/note]] after just two years at age 49, making him Canada's most WhatCouldHaveBeen PM and the one with by far the shortest lifespan; every other deceased PM has made it to at least 70.[[note]]Only the famously youthful incumbent Justin Trudeau is younger than that, and only for a couple more years.[[/note]] After Macdonald, he's the second and last (to date) Prime Minister to die in office.



# '''Joe Clark''' (Progressive-Conservative, 1979-1980) The only Alberta-born Prime Minister as well as the youngest, taking office just a day shy of his 40th birthday. Managed to win a minority government against expectations, but was unable to strike an alliance with any of the three smaller parties, though he did poach one of the six Social Credit [=MPs=]. After just nine months, his government tried to raise fuel taxes but lost the ensuing vote of confidence when the five remaining Socreds abstained after Clarke refused to allocated the new revenues to Quebec, and then proceeded to lose the general election that resulted. (As their reward, the Socreds never again elected a member to parliament.) By 1983, fearing internal dissent after only two-thirds of the party supported his leadership, Clark called a leadership race and was trounced by his 1976 rival Brian Mulroney, who proceeded to take the party back into power. Remained an MP after his defeat, serving on Mulroney's frontbenches until his (temporary) retirement in 1993. The most recent PM to try to return to office after a defeat, Clark led the rump [=PC=]s in the 2000 election, resulting in a disappointing drop off from their modest 1997 recovery and prompting Clark's retirement and a merger with the Canadian Alliance to form the modern Conservatives, a move Clark staunchly opposed. Still living, the earliest PM for whom this is the case (though he's ''still'' younger than all of his successors except for Kim Campbell, Stephen Harper, and Justin Trudeau, so this isn't that surprising).

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# '''Joe Clark''' (Progressive-Conservative, 1979-1980) The only Alberta-born Prime Minister as well as the youngest, taking office just a day shy short of his 40th birthday. Managed to win a minority government against expectations, but was unable to strike an alliance with any of the three smaller parties, though he did poach one of the six Social Credit [=MPs=]. After just nine months, his government tried to raise fuel taxes but lost the ensuing vote of confidence when the five remaining Socreds abstained after Clarke refused to allocated the new revenues to Quebec, and then proceeded to lose the general election that resulted. (As their reward, the Socreds never again elected a member to parliament.) By 1983, fearing internal dissent after only two-thirds of the party supported his leadership, Clark called a leadership race and was trounced by his 1976 rival Brian Mulroney, who proceeded to take the party back into power. Remained an MP after his defeat, serving on Mulroney's frontbenches until his (temporary) retirement in 1993. The most recent PM to try to return to office after a defeat, Clark led the rump [=PC=]s in the 2000 election, resulting in a disappointing drop off from their modest 1997 recovery and prompting Clark's retirement and a merger with the Canadian Alliance to form the modern Conservatives, a move Clark staunchly opposed. Still living, the earliest PM for whom this is the case (though he's ''still'' younger than all of his successors except for Kim Campbell, Stephen Harper, and Justin Trudeau, so this isn't that surprising).



# '''Jean Chrétien''' (Liberal, 1993-2003) -- A veteran of Pierre Trudeau's governments, who dropped out of politics for a while after a very short-lived stint as deputy PM to John Turner, before making a comeback in the early 1990s. Won election in a landslide thanks to the Progressive-Conservative implosion and the opposition being severely fragmented, and was a popular Prime Minister for a while, but came to be seen (especially in retrospect) as incredibly corrupt and arrogant. He did at least manage to persuade Quebec not to secede from the rest of the country in a 1995 referendum. The second PM to win every election he contested; his final victory in 2000 marks the last time to date that any party has received over 40% of the popular vote. Known for being inarticulate, he was memorably described as "fluent in ''neither'' of Canada's official languages." He famously told punk rock journalist Creator/NardwuarTheHumanServiette "For me, pepper, I put it on my plate" after being told about a crowd of protesters in Vancouver getting pepper-sprayed at an APEC conference. Also noted for suffering from paralysis on the left side of his face due to a childhood bout with Bell's Palsy, with Campbell's massive election defeat partly attributed to a TV ad that her party released, which was seen (intentionally or otherwise) to be mocking his disfigurement. Still living.

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# '''Jean Chrétien''' (Liberal, 1993-2003) -- A veteran of Pierre Trudeau's governments, who dropped out of politics for a while after a very short-lived stint as deputy PM to John Turner, before making a comeback in the early 1990s. Won election in a landslide thanks to the Progressive-Conservative implosion and the opposition being severely fragmented, and was a popular Prime Minister for a while, but came to be seen (especially in retrospect) as incredibly corrupt and arrogant. He did at least manage to persuade Quebec not to secede from the rest of the country in a 1995 referendum. The second PM to win every election he contested; his final victory in 2000 marks the last time to date that any party has received over 40% of the popular vote. Known for being inarticulate, he was memorably described as "fluent in ''neither'' of Canada's official languages." He famously told punk rock journalist Creator/NardwuarTheHumanServiette "For me, pepper, I put it on my plate" after being told about a crowd of protesters in Vancouver getting pepper-sprayed at an APEC conference. Also noted for suffering from paralysis on the left side of his face due to a childhood bout with Bell's Palsy, with Campbell's massive election defeat partly attributed to a TV ad that her party released, which was seen (intentionally or otherwise) to be mocking his disfigurement. Still living.living and currently the oldest living former PM.


# '''UsefulNotes/PierreTrudeau''' (Liberal, 1980-1984) [[ChangedMyMindKid Cancelled]] [[TenMinuteRetirement his retirement]] when Clark's government fell, returned to power, and soundly defeated the Quebec secessionist movement in a 1980 referendum, largely by promising constitutional reform. This resulted in the 1982 patriation of the Canadian constitution[[note]]Previously, any amendment to Canada's constitution had to be passed through the British parliament.[[/note]], the final step in Canada's independence from Britain, but also in long and bitter negotiations with the provinces that ended with Quebec as the odd province out, setting the stage for continued rancour in Quebec and forever staining Trudeau's reputation in the province. Meanwhile, a series of difficult budgets and soaring inflation, interest rates, and unemployment did nothing to improve Trudeau's economic reputation, and his already-bitter relationship with Western Canada[[note]]In 1980, the Liberals won only 2 seats west of Ontario, both in the city of Winnipeg. In fairness to Trudeau, the Tories had utterly dominated the western provinces since the Diefenbaker era -- Pearson never won more than 9 seats west of Ontario, with the real competition to the Tories in those provinces generally coming from the New Democratic Party -- but the schism grew wider over the course of Trudeau's time as PM.[[/note]] soured even further when he responded to the era's energy crisis by creating the National Energy Program, which western provinces saw as a devastating federal intrusion into their oil-rich economy and prompted such a backlash that the idea of the western provinces separating from Canada actually gained some traction.[[note]]A 1982 provincial by-election in Alberta, the province with by far the largest oil reserves, was famously won by a separatist candidate - the only one to win outside of Quebec in over a century.[[/note]] With his personal and party popularity approaching rock-bottom levels, Trudeau took "a long walk in the snow" and decided to resign for good in 1984, but on his way out the door he recommended over 200 Liberals (some with doubtful qualifications) to patronage positions as senators, judges, and bureaucratic and crown corporation executives, which generated yet more political backlash for his successor. The most recent PM to die, in 2000.
# '''John Turner''' (Liberal, 1984) Born in England; the last foreign-born PM to date. Returned to politics after a decade away to beat out Trudeau's protegee Jean Chretien as party leader, thus becoming PM despite lacking a seat in parliament. In addition to maintaining Trudeau's controversial patronage appointments, Turner made a further 70 patronage appointments himself. Misled by polls showing a Liberal surge, rather than parachute into a safe seat in a by-election Turner called a general election as soon as he took office despite not needing to do so for another year, and proceeded to run one of the most incompetent electoral campaigns in Canadian history, resulting in the Liberals' worst-ever defeat up to that point.[[note]]In addition to a lack of charisma and many personal gaffes, Turner's attempts to differentiate himself from his predecessor only managed to simultaneously alienate the party's Quebec base and legitimize the rival PC platform. The tipping point came during the leaders' debate when Turner claimed he "had no option" but to let the Trudeau's controversial patronage appointments stand, which Mulroney countered by saying, "[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/You_had_an_option,_sir You had an option, sir--to say 'no'--and you chose to say 'yes'".]][[/note]] Despite this, Turner remained party leader and came close to a comeback campaigning against free trade with the US in the 1988 election, but ultimately failed when the [=PCs=] dropped the gloves and [[AttackOfThePoliticalAd mercilessly targeted]] Turner's personal credibility. This second failure prompted Turner's resignation as party leader in 1990, only for his favoured successor Paul Martin to lose the leadership to Jean Chretien. As a result, Turner is the only Liberal PM to never win a mandate of his own. Still living, though ancient (born in 1929, just three years younger than UsefulNotes/HMTheQueen).[[note]]But he's still only the fourth-oldest PM ever; three before him made it to age 90, two astonishingly enough being the 19th-century [=PM=]s Charles Tupper and Mackenzie Bowell, who (respectively) died at age 94 and 93, in 1915 and 1917![[/note]]

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# '''UsefulNotes/PierreTrudeau''' (Liberal, 1980-1984) [[ChangedMyMindKid Cancelled]] [[TenMinuteRetirement his retirement]] when Clark's government fell, returned to power, and soundly defeated the Quebec secessionist movement in a 1980 referendum, largely by promising constitutional reform. This resulted in the 1982 patriation of the Canadian constitution[[note]]Previously, any amendment to Canada's constitution had to be passed through the British parliament.[[/note]], the final step in Canada's independence from Britain, but also in long and bitter negotiations with the provinces that ended with Quebec as the odd province out, setting the stage for continued rancour in Quebec and forever staining Trudeau's reputation in the province. Meanwhile, a series of difficult budgets and soaring inflation, interest rates, and unemployment did nothing to improve Trudeau's economic reputation, and his already-bitter relationship with Western Canada[[note]]In 1980, the Liberals won only 2 seats west of Ontario, both in the city of Winnipeg. In fairness to Trudeau, the Tories had utterly dominated the western provinces since the Diefenbaker era -- Pearson never won more than 9 seats west of Ontario, with the real competition to the Tories in those provinces generally coming from the New Democratic Party -- but the schism grew wider over the course of Trudeau's time as PM.[[/note]] soured even further when he responded to the era's energy crisis by creating the National Energy Program, which western provinces saw as a devastating federal intrusion into their oil-rich economy and prompted such a backlash that the idea of the western provinces separating from Canada actually gained some traction.[[note]]A 1982 provincial by-election in Alberta, the province with by far the largest oil reserves, was famously won by a separatist candidate - the only one to win outside of Quebec in over a century.[[/note]] With his personal and party popularity approaching rock-bottom levels, Trudeau took "a long walk in the snow" and decided to resign for good in 1984, but on his way out the door he recommended over 200 Liberals (some with doubtful qualifications) to patronage positions as senators, judges, and bureaucratic and crown corporation executives, which generated yet more political backlash for his successor. The most recent PM to die, in 2000.
successor.
# '''John Turner''' (Liberal, 1984) Born in England; the last foreign-born PM to date. Returned to politics after a decade away to beat out Trudeau's protegee Jean Chretien as party leader, thus becoming PM despite lacking a seat in parliament. In addition to maintaining Trudeau's controversial patronage appointments, Turner made a further 70 patronage appointments himself. Misled by polls showing a Liberal surge, rather than parachute into a safe seat in a by-election Turner called a general election as soon as he took office despite not needing to do so for another year, and proceeded to run one of the most incompetent electoral campaigns in Canadian history, resulting in the Liberals' worst-ever defeat up to that point.[[note]]In addition to a lack of charisma and many personal gaffes, Turner's attempts to differentiate himself from his predecessor only managed to simultaneously alienate the party's Quebec base and legitimize the rival PC platform. The tipping point came during the leaders' debate when Turner claimed he "had no option" but to let the Trudeau's controversial patronage appointments stand, which Mulroney countered by saying, "[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/You_had_an_option,_sir You had an option, sir--to say 'no'--and you chose to say 'yes'".]][[/note]] Despite this, Turner remained party leader and came close to a comeback campaigning against free trade with the US in the 1988 election, but ultimately failed when the [=PCs=] dropped the gloves and [[AttackOfThePoliticalAd mercilessly targeted]] Turner's personal credibility. This second failure prompted Turner's resignation as party leader in 1990, only for his favoured successor Paul Martin to lose the leadership to Jean Chretien. As a result, Turner is the only Liberal PM to never win a mandate of his own. Still living, though ancient (born The most recent PM to die, in 1929, just three years younger than UsefulNotes/HMTheQueen).[[note]]But he's still only the fourth-oldest PM ever; three before him made it to age 90, two astonishingly enough being the 19th-century [=PM=]s Charles Tupper and Mackenzie Bowell, who (respectively) died at age 94 and 93, in 1915 and 1917![[/note]]2020.


# '''Jean Chrétien''' (Liberal, 1993-2003) -- A veteran of Pierre Trudeau's governments, who dropped out of politics for a while after a very short-lived stint as deputy PM to John Turner, before making a comeback in the early 1990s. Won election in a landslide thanks to the Progressive-Conservative implosion and the opposition being severely fragmented, and was a popular Prime Minister for a while, but came to be seen (especially in retrospect) as incredibly corrupt and arrogant. He did at least manage to persuade Quebec not to secede from the rest of the country in a 1995 referendum. The second PM to win every election he contested; his final victory in 2000 marks the last time to date that any party has received over 40% of the popular vote. Famously inarticulate, he was memorably described as "fluent in ''neither'' of Canada's official languages." Also noted for suffering from paralysis on the left side of his face due to a childhood bout with Bell's Palsy, with Campbell's massive election defeat partly attributed to a TV ad that her party released, which was seen (intentionally or otherwise) to be mocking his disfigurement. Still living.

to:

# '''Jean Chrétien''' (Liberal, 1993-2003) -- A veteran of Pierre Trudeau's governments, who dropped out of politics for a while after a very short-lived stint as deputy PM to John Turner, before making a comeback in the early 1990s. Won election in a landslide thanks to the Progressive-Conservative implosion and the opposition being severely fragmented, and was a popular Prime Minister for a while, but came to be seen (especially in retrospect) as incredibly corrupt and arrogant. He did at least manage to persuade Quebec not to secede from the rest of the country in a 1995 referendum. The second PM to win every election he contested; his final victory in 2000 marks the last time to date that any party has received over 40% of the popular vote. Famously Known for being inarticulate, he was memorably described as "fluent in ''neither'' of Canada's official languages." He famously told punk rock journalist Creator/NardwuarTheHumanServiette "For me, pepper, I put it on my plate" after being told about a crowd of protesters in Vancouver getting pepper-sprayed at an APEC conference. Also noted for suffering from paralysis on the left side of his face due to a childhood bout with Bell's Palsy, with Campbell's massive election defeat partly attributed to a TV ad that her party released, which was seen (intentionally or otherwise) to be mocking his disfigurement. Still living.


# '''R.B. Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett''' (Conservative, 1930-1935) The first PM to represent an Alberta riding[[note]]Though he was born in New Brunswick, the only PM to be born there, in fact[[/note]]. Managed to win power with a very polished election campaign (including an early appreciation of the radio), only to take the UsefulNotes/HerbertHoover approach of assuming the Depression would fix itself. Ultimately realized his mistake and tried to replicate UsefulNotes/FranklinDRoosevelt's "New Deal" by instituting a progressive income tax, a minimum wage, a limited work-week, unemployment and health insurance, expanded pensions, and bailouts for farmers. However, this wasn't enough to appease his critics and only prompted a [[WeAreStrugglingTogether split within his own party]], with the resulting backlash wrecking the original Conservative Party as an electoral force, forcing them to merge with elements of the dying Progressive Party. Founded the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Corporation, the Canadian Wheat Board, and the Bank of Canada. Also probably the richest Canadian ever elected PM, and his personal charity to those afflicted by the Depression outstripped his income, exceeding 2.3 million dollars. Bennett himself retired to England in 1937 where he was later appointed to the British House of Lords (in apparent violation of the aforementioned Nickle Resolution but without any repercussions) for his unpaid work for the British Ministry of Aircraft Production during World War II. He is the only former PM to be elevated to the peerage[[note]]Macdonald had been earmarked for elevation to a Barony after he retired from office, but of course he died before that could happen, and his widow was creation Baroness Macdonald in his stead[[/note]].

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# '''R.B. Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett''' (Conservative, 1930-1935) The first PM to represent an Alberta riding[[note]]Though he was born in New Brunswick, the only PM to be born there, in fact[[/note]]. Managed to win power with a very polished election campaign (including an early appreciation of the radio), only to take the UsefulNotes/HerbertHoover approach of assuming the Depression would fix itself. Ultimately realized his mistake and tried to replicate UsefulNotes/FranklinDRoosevelt's "New Deal" by instituting a progressive income tax, a minimum wage, a limited work-week, unemployment and health insurance, expanded pensions, and bailouts for farmers. However, this wasn't enough to appease his critics and only prompted a [[WeAreStrugglingTogether split within his own party]], with the resulting backlash wrecking the original Conservative Party as an electoral force, forcing them to merge with elements of the dying Progressive Party. Founded the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Corporation, the Canadian Wheat Board, and the Bank of Canada. Also probably the richest Canadian ever elected PM, and his personal charity to those afflicted by the Depression outstripped his income, exceeding 2.3 million dollars. Bennett himself retired to England in 1937 where he was later appointed to the British House of Lords (in apparent violation of the aforementioned Nickle Resolution but without any repercussions) for his unpaid work for the British Ministry of Aircraft Production during World War II. He is the only former PM to be elevated to the peerage[[note]]Macdonald had been earmarked for elevation to a Barony after he retired from office, but of course he died before that could happen, and his widow was creation created Baroness Macdonald in his stead[[/note]].


# '''R.B. Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett''' (Conservative, 1930-1935) The first PM to represent an Alberta riding[[note]]Though he was born in New Brunswick, the only PM to be born there, in fact[[/note]]. Managed to win power with a very polished election campaign (including an early appreciation of the radio), only to take the UsefulNotes/HerbertHoover approach of assuming the Depression would fix itself. Ultimately realized his mistake and tried to replicate UsefulNotes/FranklinDRoosevelt's "New Deal" by instituting a progressive income tax, a minimum wage, a limited work-week, unemployment and health insurance, expanded pensions, and bailouts for farmers. However, this wasn't enough to appease his critics and only prompted a [[WeAreStrugglingTogether split within his own party]], with the resulting backlash wrecking the original Conservative Party as an electoral force, forcing them to merge with elements of the dying Progressive Party. Founded the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Corporation, the Canadian Wheat Board, and the Bank of Canada. Also probably the richest Canadian ever elected PM, and his personal charity to those afflicted by the Depression outstripped his income, exceeding 2.3 million dollars. Bennett himself retired to England in 1937 where he was later appointed to the British House of Lords (in apparent violation of the aforementioned Nickle Resolution but without any repercussions) for his unpaid work for the British Ministry of Aircraft Production during World War II. He is the only former PM to be elevated to the peerage.

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# '''R.B. Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett''' (Conservative, 1930-1935) The first PM to represent an Alberta riding[[note]]Though he was born in New Brunswick, the only PM to be born there, in fact[[/note]]. Managed to win power with a very polished election campaign (including an early appreciation of the radio), only to take the UsefulNotes/HerbertHoover approach of assuming the Depression would fix itself. Ultimately realized his mistake and tried to replicate UsefulNotes/FranklinDRoosevelt's "New Deal" by instituting a progressive income tax, a minimum wage, a limited work-week, unemployment and health insurance, expanded pensions, and bailouts for farmers. However, this wasn't enough to appease his critics and only prompted a [[WeAreStrugglingTogether split within his own party]], with the resulting backlash wrecking the original Conservative Party as an electoral force, forcing them to merge with elements of the dying Progressive Party. Founded the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Corporation, the Canadian Wheat Board, and the Bank of Canada. Also probably the richest Canadian ever elected PM, and his personal charity to those afflicted by the Depression outstripped his income, exceeding 2.3 million dollars. Bennett himself retired to England in 1937 where he was later appointed to the British House of Lords (in apparent violation of the aforementioned Nickle Resolution but without any repercussions) for his unpaid work for the British Ministry of Aircraft Production during World War II. He is the only former PM to be elevated to the peerage.peerage[[note]]Macdonald had been earmarked for elevation to a Barony after he retired from office, but of course he died before that could happen, and his widow was creation Baroness Macdonald in his stead[[/note]].


# '''R.B. Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett''' (Conservative, 1930-1935) The first PM to represent an Alberta riding[[note]]Though he was born in New Brunswick, the only PM to be born there, in fact[[/note]]. Managed to win power with a very polished election campaign (including an early appreciation of the radio), only to take the UsefulNotes/HerbertHoover approach of assuming the Depression would fix itself. Ultimately realized his mistake and tried to replicate UsefulNotes/FranklinDRoosevelt's "New Deal" by instituting a progressive income tax, a minimum wage, a limited work-week, unemployment and health insurance, expanded pensions, and bailouts for farmers. However, this wasn't enough to appease his critics and only prompted a [[WeAreStrugglingTogether split within his own party]], with the resulting backlash wrecking the original Conservative Party as an electoral force, forcing them to merge with elements of the dying Progressive Party. Founded the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Corporation, the Canadian Wheat Board, and the Bank of Canada. Also probably the richest Canadian ever elected PM, and his personal charity to those afflicted by the Depression outstripped his income, exceeding 2.3 million dollars. Bennett himself retired to England in 1937 where he was appointed to the British House of Lords (in apparent violation of the aforementioned Nickle Resolution but without any repercussions). He was the only former PM to be elevated to the peerage.

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# '''R.B. Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett''' (Conservative, 1930-1935) The first PM to represent an Alberta riding[[note]]Though he was born in New Brunswick, the only PM to be born there, in fact[[/note]]. Managed to win power with a very polished election campaign (including an early appreciation of the radio), only to take the UsefulNotes/HerbertHoover approach of assuming the Depression would fix itself. Ultimately realized his mistake and tried to replicate UsefulNotes/FranklinDRoosevelt's "New Deal" by instituting a progressive income tax, a minimum wage, a limited work-week, unemployment and health insurance, expanded pensions, and bailouts for farmers. However, this wasn't enough to appease his critics and only prompted a [[WeAreStrugglingTogether split within his own party]], with the resulting backlash wrecking the original Conservative Party as an electoral force, forcing them to merge with elements of the dying Progressive Party. Founded the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Corporation, the Canadian Wheat Board, and the Bank of Canada. Also probably the richest Canadian ever elected PM, and his personal charity to those afflicted by the Depression outstripped his income, exceeding 2.3 million dollars. Bennett himself retired to England in 1937 where he was later appointed to the British House of Lords (in apparent violation of the aforementioned Nickle Resolution but without any repercussions). repercussions) for his unpaid work for the British Ministry of Aircraft Production during World War II. He was is the only former PM to be elevated to the peerage.


# '''Sir John Thompson''' (Conservative, 1892-1894) A Nova Scotian protege of Macdonald, he was also the first Catholic Prime Minister and at just 47 the youngest to hold the office until 1920, almost thirty years later. Was actually offered the office before Abbott, but initially RefusedTheCall because of concerns of prejudice towards his Catholicism after ConvertingForLove. Also served as his own Justice Minister and did a respectable job, but died of a heart attack after just two years at age 49, making him Canada's most WhatCouldHaveBeen PM and the one with by far the shortest lifespan; every other deceased PM has made it to at least 70.[[note]]Only the famously youthful incumbent Justin Trudeau is younger than that, and only for a couple more years.[[/note]] After Macdonald, he's the second and last Prime Minister to die in office.

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# '''Sir John Thompson''' (Conservative, 1892-1894) A Nova Scotian protege of Macdonald, he was also the first Catholic Prime Minister and at just 47 the youngest to hold the office until 1920, almost thirty years later. Was actually offered the office before Abbott, but initially RefusedTheCall because of concerns of prejudice towards his Catholicism after ConvertingForLove. Also served as his own Justice Minister and did a respectable job, but died of a heart attack attack[[note]]while sitting down to lunch with UsefulNotes/QueenVictoria, no less![[/note]] after just two years at age 49, making him Canada's most WhatCouldHaveBeen PM and the one with by far the shortest lifespan; every other deceased PM has made it to at least 70.[[note]]Only the famously youthful incumbent Justin Trudeau is younger than that, and only for a couple more years.[[/note]] After Macdonald, he's the second and last Prime Minister to die in office.


# '''Sir John A. Macdonald''' (Conservative, 1867-1873) Born in Scotland. The dominant figure in achieving Canadian Confederation, he can essentially be thought of as Canada's functionally-alcoholic answer to UsefulNotes/GeorgeWashington, only without the need for a war or sticking to that whole "two terms" thing. Extended Canada to the Pacific and Arctic coasts and created the North-West Mounted Police to patrol this vast territory, though this also involved suppressing Louis Riel's Red River Rebellion. Ruled with minimal opposition until forced to resign by a corruption scandal related to building the transcontinental Railway, though he remained party leader.

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# '''Sir John A. Macdonald''' (Conservative, 1867-1873) Born in Scotland. The dominant figure in achieving Canadian Confederation, he can essentially be thought of as Canada's [[TheAlcoholic functionally-alcoholic answer answer]] to UsefulNotes/GeorgeWashington, only without the need for a war or sticking to that whole "two terms" thing. Extended Canada to the Pacific and Arctic coasts and created the North-West Mounted Police to patrol this vast territory, though this also involved suppressing Louis Riel's Red River Rebellion. Ruled with minimal opposition until forced to resign by a corruption scandal related to building the transcontinental Railway, though he remained party leader.


# '''UsefulNotes/PierreTrudeau''' (Liberal, 1980-1984) [[ChangedMyMindKid Cancelled]] [[TenMinuteRetirement his retirement]] when Clark's government fell, returned to power, and soundly defeated the Quebec secessionist movement in a 1980 referendum, largely by promising constitutional reform. This resulted in the 1982 patriation of the Canadian constitution[[note]]Previously, any amendment to Canada's constitution had to be passed through the British parliament.[[/note]], the final step in Canada's independence from Britain, but also in long and bitter negotiations with the provinces that ended with Quebec as the odd province out, setting the stage for continued rancour in Quebec and forever staining Trudeau's reputation in the province. Meanwhile, a series of difficult budgets and soaring inflation, interest rates, and unemployment did nothing to improve Trudeau's economic reputation, and his already-bitter relationship with Western Canada[[note]]In 1980, the Liberals won only 2 seats west of Ontario, both in the city of Winnipeg.[[/note]] soured even further when he responded to the era's energy crisis by creating the National Energy Program, which western provinces saw as a devastating federal intrusion into their oil-rich economy and prompted such a backlash that the idea of the western provinces separating from Canada actually gained some traction.[[note]]A 1982 provincial by-election in Alberta, the province with by far the largest oil reserves, was famously won by a separatist candidate - the only one to win outside of Quebec in over a century.[[/note]] With his personal and party popularity approaching rock-bottom levels, Trudeau took "a long walk in the snow" and decided to resign for good in 1984, but on his way out the door he recommended over 200 Liberals (some with doubtful qualifications) to patronage positions as senators, judges, and bureaucratic and crown corporation executives, which generated yet more political backlash for his successor. The most recent PM to die, in 2000.

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# '''UsefulNotes/PierreTrudeau''' (Liberal, 1980-1984) [[ChangedMyMindKid Cancelled]] [[TenMinuteRetirement his retirement]] when Clark's government fell, returned to power, and soundly defeated the Quebec secessionist movement in a 1980 referendum, largely by promising constitutional reform. This resulted in the 1982 patriation of the Canadian constitution[[note]]Previously, any amendment to Canada's constitution had to be passed through the British parliament.[[/note]], the final step in Canada's independence from Britain, but also in long and bitter negotiations with the provinces that ended with Quebec as the odd province out, setting the stage for continued rancour in Quebec and forever staining Trudeau's reputation in the province. Meanwhile, a series of difficult budgets and soaring inflation, interest rates, and unemployment did nothing to improve Trudeau's economic reputation, and his already-bitter relationship with Western Canada[[note]]In 1980, the Liberals won only 2 seats west of Ontario, both in the city of Winnipeg. In fairness to Trudeau, the Tories had utterly dominated the western provinces since the Diefenbaker era -- Pearson never won more than 9 seats west of Ontario, with the real competition to the Tories in those provinces generally coming from the New Democratic Party -- but the schism grew wider over the course of Trudeau's time as PM.[[/note]] soured even further when he responded to the era's energy crisis by creating the National Energy Program, which western provinces saw as a devastating federal intrusion into their oil-rich economy and prompted such a backlash that the idea of the western provinces separating from Canada actually gained some traction.[[note]]A 1982 provincial by-election in Alberta, the province with by far the largest oil reserves, was famously won by a separatist candidate - the only one to win outside of Quebec in over a century.[[/note]] With his personal and party popularity approaching rock-bottom levels, Trudeau took "a long walk in the snow" and decided to resign for good in 1984, but on his way out the door he recommended over 200 Liberals (some with doubtful qualifications) to patronage positions as senators, judges, and bureaucratic and crown corporation executives, which generated yet more political backlash for his successor. The most recent PM to die, in 2000.


# '''Sir John A. Macdonald''' (Conservative, 1878-1891) -- Returned to power after a five-year hiatus and ruled the country until his death largely by championing a "National Policy" of fostering national unity via the transcontinental railroad, industrial growth via protective tariffs, and settling Western Canada via immigration that would remain relatively unchanged until UsefulNotes/WorldWarII. This caused a second conflict with Louis Riel, who's subsequent execution alienated Quebecers (who, like Riel, were Catholic Francophones). Died in office just three months after winning his record sixth majority[[note]]At 76, he remains the oldest person to occupy the office[[/note]], and was immediately hailed as (and proved to be) a very ToughActToFollow. The Ottawa airport is named after him and his French-Canadian political partner George-Etienne Cartier.

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# '''Sir John A. Macdonald''' (Conservative, 1878-1891) -- Returned to power after a five-year hiatus and ruled the country until his death largely by championing a "National Policy" of fostering national unity via the transcontinental railroad, industrial growth via protective tariffs, and settling Western Canada via immigration that would remain relatively unchanged until UsefulNotes/WorldWarII. This caused a second conflict with Louis Riel, who's subsequent execution alienated Quebecers (who, like Riel, were Catholic Francophones). Died in office just three months after winning his record sixth majority[[note]]At 76, he remains the oldest person to occupy the office[[/note]], and was immediately hailed as (and proved to be) a very ToughActToFollow. The One of the bridges linking Ottawa airport to Gatineau is named after him and his French-Canadian political partner George-Etienne Cartier.


# '''Louis St. Laurent''' (Liberal, 1948-1957) Mackenzie King's Quebec lieutenant and hand-picked successor. Popularly known as "Uncle Louis", he cultivated a paternal image, right down to having an honest-to-goodness StandardFiftiesFather moustache (making him the last PM with facial hair). Took Canada into NATO and expanded the country's military presence (including the Korean War), along with establishing most of the country's current boundaries (incorporating Newfoundland as the tenth province) and federal structure. Also oversaw major infrastructure projects like the Trans-Canada Highway, Trans-Canada Pipeline, and St. Lawrence Seaway. Presided over a long post-war boom, before an economic downturn and fatigue with 36 years of almost continuous Liberal power brought down his government. Some Liberals suggested that he should try to cling to power with a coalition as King had in 1925[[note]]The Liberals actually won 2% more votes thanks to massive majorities in Quebec.[[/note]], but St. Laurent considered this unsustainable and at 75 years old was ready to retire. He was the first of UsefulNotes/HMTheQueen's twelve Canadian Prime Ministers - yes, the ''majority'' of Canada's [=PM=]s have served under a single monarch!

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# '''Louis St. Laurent''' (Liberal, 1948-1957) Mackenzie King's Quebec lieutenant and hand-picked successor. Popularly known as "Uncle Louis", he cultivated a paternal image, right down to having an honest-to-goodness StandardFiftiesFather moustache (making him the last PM with facial hair).moustache. Took Canada into NATO and expanded the country's military presence (including the Korean War), along with establishing most of the country's current boundaries (incorporating Newfoundland as the tenth province) and federal structure. Also oversaw major infrastructure projects like the Trans-Canada Highway, Trans-Canada Pipeline, and St. Lawrence Seaway. Presided over a long post-war boom, before an economic downturn and fatigue with 36 years of almost continuous Liberal power brought down his government. Some Liberals suggested that he should try to cling to power with a coalition as King had in 1925[[note]]The Liberals actually won 2% more votes thanks to massive majorities in Quebec.[[/note]], but St. Laurent considered this unsustainable and at 75 years old was ready to retire. He was the first of UsefulNotes/HMTheQueen's twelve Canadian Prime Ministers - yes, the ''majority'' of Canada's [=PM=]s have served under a single monarch!



# '''Justin Trudeau''' (Liberal, 2015-present) -- Canada's current and second youngest Prime Minister, assuming office at 43. The eldest son of Pierre Trudeau[[note]]Born during his father's first term in 1971, he's the second child born to an incumbent PM after John A. Macdonald's daughter Margaret in 1869[[/note]], he's the first PM [[GenerationXerox descended from a previous one]] and the first from Generation X. Won power against expectations in 2015 after the Liberals had been reduced to third place in the last election. Has very much modelled his image on that of Barack Obama, right down to attracting plaudits on the world stage as a hip young progressive who says all the right things despite having a much more complex record at home. After the election of UsefulNotes/DonaldTrump, Trudeau generally followed his father's footsteps in defining himself as a {{Foil}} to an unpopular American President. Assuming office with near record approval ratings, he appointed the country's first gender-balanced cabinet and legalized marijuana but curiously reneged on a promise to implement proportional representation (made when his party was in third place with disproportionately few seats) after his party won a majority with under 40% of the vote. However, several controversial policies and a series of scandals, especially the 2019 [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SNC-Lavalin_affair SNC-Lavalin Affair]] which prompted a series of high-profile resignations after Trudeau and his staff were accused of inappropriately pressuring and then demoting Attorney General Jody Wilson-Raybould for refusing to intervene in a bribery and fraud case against a Montreal corporation, have badly sullied his image and opinions of him are now [[Administrivia/RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgement very polarized]]. [[HistoryRepeats History would repeat itself]] when he ran for re-election in 2019, as like his father he lost his majority but remained in power with the implicit support of the New Democratic Party, albeit with a much more comfortable seat advantage than Pierre enjoyed in 1972. Unlike his father, however, he also lost the popular vote, becoming the first PM since Joe Clark to win a general election without winning the popular vote, and setting a new record for the lowest popular vote for a governing party with just 33%.[[note]]The previous record was John A. Macdonald's 34.8% in the country's very first election, when more than a third of all votes went to unaffiliated candidates (none of whom were elected).[[/note]] Still living, obviously.

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# '''Justin Trudeau''' (Liberal, 2015-present) -- Canada's current and second youngest Prime Minister, assuming office at 43. The eldest son of Pierre Trudeau[[note]]Born during his father's first term in 1971, he's the second child born to an incumbent PM after John A. Macdonald's daughter Margaret in 1869[[/note]], he's the first PM [[GenerationXerox descended from a previous one]] and the first from Generation X. Won power against expectations in 2015 after the Liberals had been reduced to third place in the last election. Has very much modelled his image on that of Barack Obama, right down to attracting plaudits on the world stage as a hip young progressive who says all the right things despite having a much more complex record at home. After the election of UsefulNotes/DonaldTrump, Trudeau generally followed his father's footsteps in defining himself as a {{Foil}} to an unpopular American President. Assuming office with near record approval ratings, he appointed the country's first gender-balanced cabinet and legalized marijuana but curiously reneged on a promise to implement proportional representation (made when his party was in third place with disproportionately few seats) after his party won a majority with under 40% of the vote. However, several controversial policies and a series of scandals, especially the 2019 [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SNC-Lavalin_affair SNC-Lavalin Affair]] which prompted a series of high-profile resignations after Trudeau and his staff were accused of inappropriately pressuring and then demoting Attorney General Jody Wilson-Raybould for refusing to intervene in a bribery and fraud case against a Montreal corporation, have badly sullied his image and opinions of him are now [[Administrivia/RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgement very polarized]]. [[HistoryRepeats History would repeat itself]] when he ran for re-election in 2019, as like his father he lost his majority but remained in power with the implicit support of the New Democratic Party, albeit with a much more comfortable seat advantage than Pierre enjoyed in 1972. Unlike his father, however, he also lost the popular vote, becoming the first PM since Joe Clark to win a general election without winning the popular vote, and setting a new record for the lowest popular vote for a governing party with just 33%.[[note]]The previous record was John A. Macdonald's 34.8% in the country's very first election, when more than a third of all votes went to unaffiliated candidates (none of whom were elected).[[/note]] Grew a goatee early in his second term, making him the first PM with facial hair in over six decades. Still living, obviously.


# '''Sir Mackenzie Bowell'''[[note]]Pronounced more like "bowl" than "bowel"[[/note]] (Conservative, 1894-1896) Born in England. Like Abbott, as senior cabinet minister and government Senate leader, [[YouAreInCommandNow power fell to him]] after Thompson's death. He then spent two years [[PerilousOldFool floundering around]] over the divisive issue of public school funding in Manitoba until forced to resign by a cabinet coup. The country's only PM to have a full beard[[note]]Alexander Mackenzie had a beard but no moustache[[/note]] but it was very much the opposite of a BadassBeard, as he's usually considered the country's worst Prime Minister, excluding those who were only in power for a few months. Second and last Prime Minister to govern from the Senate, which he remained a member of until his death at age 93 in 1917.

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# '''Sir Mackenzie Bowell'''[[note]]Pronounced more like "bowl" than "bowel"[[/note]] (Conservative, 1894-1896) Born in England. Like Abbott, as senior cabinet minister and government Senate leader, [[YouAreInCommandNow power fell to him]] after Thompson's death. He then spent two years [[PerilousOldFool floundering around]] over the divisive issue of public school funding in Manitoba until forced to resign by a cabinet coup. The country's only PM to have a full beard[[note]]Alexander Mackenzie had a beard but no moustache[[/note]] moustache, while Justin Trudeau grew a goatee after his re-election in 2019[[/note]] but it was very much the opposite of a BadassBeard, as he's usually considered the country's worst Prime Minister, excluding those who were only in power for a few months. Second and last Prime Minister to govern from the Senate, which he remained a member of until his death at age 93 in 1917.


# '''John Diefenbaker''' (Progressive-Conservative, 1957-1963) The first Prime Minister of substantially non-British or French heritage (his father was the son of German immigrants), and the only Prime Minister from Saskatchewan[[note]]Though born in Ontario, his family moved to SK when he was 8, two years ''before'' it even became a province.[[/note]]. Initially elected to a minority government, when the Liberals called on him to resign for causing an economic downturn after just nine months, he proceeded to call an election, prove the Liberals had predicted the downturn but done nothing about it, and win the biggest majority government in Canadian history (208 of 265 seats; no party since has outperformed his 53.67% of the popular vote). Passed substantial civil rights legislation including the Canadian Bill of Rights and voting rights for aboriginal peoples, and appointed the first female cabinet minister. Joined with the US to create NORAD, but [[NeverLiveItDown cancelled the Avro Arrow]] (largely because the advent of ballistic missiles limited the need for interceptor fighters).[[note]]Ironically, had the Arrow survived, it's likely that Avro wouldn't have found any buyers for it, and the Arrow would have ''instead'' been remembered as a typical Canadian public works boondoggle. A bunch of Avro engineers headed south to work on a little thing called [[UsefulNotes/{{NASA}} Project Mercury]].[[/note]] Personally very thin-skinned, he got along superbly with UsefulNotes/DwightDEisenhower but just pissed off UsefulNotes/JohnFKennedy. His refusal to let the US install ballistic missile defences with nuclear warheads, which resulted in a revolt by his cabinet, helped cause his downfall. After leaving office, remained an MP until his death in 1979. Has an airport[[note]]in Saskatoon, his home province of Saskatchewan's largest city[[/note]] and a large lake named after him.

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# '''John Diefenbaker''' (Progressive-Conservative, 1957-1963) The first Prime Minister of substantially non-British or French heritage (his father was the son of German immigrants), and the only Prime Minister from Saskatchewan[[note]]Though born in Ontario, his family moved to SK when he was 8, two years ''before'' it even became a province.[[/note]]. Initially elected to a minority government, when the Liberals called on him to resign for causing an economic downturn after just nine months, he proceeded to call an election, prove the Liberals had predicted the downturn but done nothing about it, and win the biggest majority government in Canadian history (208 of 265 seats; no party since has outperformed his 53.67% of the popular vote). Passed substantial civil rights legislation including the Canadian Bill of Rights and voting rights for aboriginal peoples, and appointed the first female cabinet minister. Joined with the US to create NORAD, but [[NeverLiveItDown cancelled the Avro Arrow]] (largely because the advent of ballistic missiles limited the need for interceptor fighters).[[note]]Ironically, had the Arrow survived, it's likely that Avro wouldn't have found any buyers for it, and the Arrow would have ''instead'' been remembered as a typical Canadian public works boondoggle. That being said, Diefenbaker had promised during his initial election campaign that he ''wouldn't'' cancel the Arrow -- St. Laurent, by contrast, stayed silent over the issue -- meaning that the blowback when he did pull the plug was inevitable. A bunch of Avro engineers headed south to work on a little thing called [[UsefulNotes/{{NASA}} Project Mercury]].[[/note]] Personally very thin-skinned, he got along superbly with UsefulNotes/DwightDEisenhower but just pissed off UsefulNotes/JohnFKennedy. His refusal to let the US install ballistic missile defences with nuclear warheads, which resulted in a revolt by his cabinet, helped cause his downfall. After leaving office, remained an MP until his death in 1979. Has an airport[[note]]in Saskatoon, his home province of Saskatchewan's largest city[[/note]] and a large lake named after him.


# '''Arthur Meighen''' (Liberal-Conservative, 1920-1921) The only PM from a Manitoba riding[[note]]Meighen was an Ontarian who moved to Manitoba after completing law school.[[/note]] Took charge of the tail end of Borden's final term and, although he tried to maintain the 1917 coalition under the new "Liberal-Conservative" brand, promptly lost the 1921 election (including his own seat) and saw his party fall to third place behind the new Progressive Party.

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# '''Arthur Meighen''' (Liberal-Conservative, 1920-1921) The only PM from a Manitoba riding[[note]]Meighen was an Ontarian who moved to Manitoba after completing law school.[[/note]] Took charge First came to prominence as Minister of Justice under Borden, though also gained some measure of infamy by his involvement in the tail end implementation of conscription, plus his handling the Winnipeg General Strike. Though touted as the handpicked successor to Borden after the latter decided to step down with just over a year of his term remaining, in reality he was the only Tory who really wanted the top job, as Borden's final term and, although other cabinet members were either too old, infirm, or knew the party had little chance of staying in power at the next election. Although he tried to maintain the 1917 coalition under the new "Liberal-Conservative" brand, he promptly lost the 1921 election (including his own seat) and saw his party fall to third place behind the new Progressive Party.


# '''Justin Trudeau''' (Liberal, 2015-present) -- Canada's current and second youngest Prime Minister, assuming office at age 43. The eldest son of Pierre Trudeau[[note]]Born during his father's first term in 1971, he's the second child born to an incumbent PM after John A. Macdonald's daughter Margaret Mary Theodora Macdonald in 1869[[/note]], he's the first PM [[GenerationXerox descended from a previous one]] and the first from Generation X. Won power against expectations in 2015 after the Liberals had been reduced to third place in the last election. Has very much modelled his image on that of Barack Obama, right down to attracting plaudits on the world stage as a hip young progressive who says all the right things despite having a much more complex record at home. After the election of UsefulNotes/DonaldTrump, Trudeau generally followed his father's footsteps in defining himself as a {{Foil}} to an unpopular American President. Assuming office with near record approval ratings, he appointed the country's first gender-balanced cabinet and legalized marijuana but curiously reneged on a promise to implement proportional representation (made when his party was in third place with disproportionately few seats) after his party won a majority with under 40% of the vote. However, several controversial policies and a series of scandals, especially the 2019 [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SNC-Lavalin_affair SNC-Lavalin Affair]] which prompted a series of high-profile resignations after Trudeau and his staff were accused of inappropriately pressuring Attorney General Jody Wilson-Raybould to intervene in a bribery and fraud case against a Montreal corporation and then demoting her for refusing, have badly sullied his image and opinions of him are now [[Administrivia/RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgement very polarized]]. [[HistoryRepeats History would repeat itself]] when he ran for re-election in 2019, as like his father he lost his majority, but was able to remain in power with the implicit support of the New Democratic Party -- unlike his father, however, he also lost the popular vote, becoming the first Prime Minister since Joe Clark to win a general election without winning the popular vote, albeit with a much more comfortable seat advantage over the Tories than the one that Pierre enjoyed after his first re-election. Still living, obviously.

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# '''Justin Trudeau''' (Liberal, 2015-present) -- Canada's current and second youngest Prime Minister, assuming office at age 43. The eldest son of Pierre Trudeau[[note]]Born during his father's first term in 1971, he's the second child born to an incumbent PM after John A. Macdonald's daughter Margaret Mary Theodora Macdonald in 1869[[/note]], he's the first PM [[GenerationXerox descended from a previous one]] and the first from Generation X. Won power against expectations in 2015 after the Liberals had been reduced to third place in the last election. Has very much modelled his image on that of Barack Obama, right down to attracting plaudits on the world stage as a hip young progressive who says all the right things despite having a much more complex record at home. After the election of UsefulNotes/DonaldTrump, Trudeau generally followed his father's footsteps in defining himself as a {{Foil}} to an unpopular American President. Assuming office with near record approval ratings, he appointed the country's first gender-balanced cabinet and legalized marijuana but curiously reneged on a promise to implement proportional representation (made when his party was in third place with disproportionately few seats) after his party won a majority with under 40% of the vote. However, several controversial policies and a series of scandals, especially the 2019 [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SNC-Lavalin_affair SNC-Lavalin Affair]] which prompted a series of high-profile resignations after Trudeau and his staff were accused of inappropriately pressuring and then demoting Attorney General Jody Wilson-Raybould for refusing to intervene in a bribery and fraud case against a Montreal corporation and then demoting her for refusing, corporation, have badly sullied his image and opinions of him are now [[Administrivia/RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgement very polarized]]. [[HistoryRepeats History would repeat itself]] when he ran for re-election in 2019, as like his father he lost his majority, majority but was able to remain remained in power with the implicit support of the New Democratic Party -- unlike Party, albeit with a much more comfortable seat advantage than Pierre enjoyed in 1972. Unlike his father, however, he also lost the popular vote, becoming the first Prime Minister PM since Joe Clark to win a general election without winning the popular vote, albeit and setting a new record for the lowest popular vote for a governing party with a much more comfortable seat advantage over just 33%.[[note]]The previous record was John A. Macdonald's 34.8% in the Tories than the one that Pierre enjoyed after his country's very first re-election. election, when more than a third of all votes went to unaffiliated candidates (none of whom were elected).[[/note]] Still living, obviously.

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