The creators of Serial Experiments Lain drew on a freaking lot of sources. The series takes on a whole new meaning when you understand all the Shout Outs and allusions . So here's a quick guide to them all.
The entire series
Cyberia, a bar/disco frequented in the series is an allusion to the nonfiction novel by the same name by Douglas Rushkoff. The pun on "Siberia" is intentional. See also Gaia, the global brain in the same book.
It was also the name of one of the earliest cybercafé franchises - which had a branch in Tokyo.
NAVI, the trademark-turned-noun for computer in the series, is contracted from Knowledge Navigator, a term invented by Apple CEO John Sculley in his book Odyssey. It referred to a computer connected to a vast network where everyone was connected.
Copland OS was an unreleased operating system by Apple Computers. See also System 7, its predecessor.
Devices, in this context, refers to Marshal McLuhan's concept.
Gaia, a global brain in Cyberia shares a common thread with the collective shared unconscious in Lain
Earth Coincidence Control Office by John C. Lilly, a higher intelligence controlling the "coincidences" on Earth.
Knights of the Eastern Calculus: The Knights of the Lambda Calculus are a semi-mythical, semi-serious, real-world group of hackers devoted to the use of the programming language Lisp.
Tachibana Labs is a play on words on Apple Macintosh, (a type of Apple) itself being the name of a citrus fruit (the citrus tachibana)
Layer ## at the beginning of each episode is said by Apple's Whisper voice in Mac OS text-to-speech software.
Nezumi, the Knights-wannabe who carries a computer rig and accesses the Wired while he walks matches the description of a Gargoyle from Snow Crash, as do the MIB agents, who wear the same headgear (complete with laser sight) that Lagos was described as wearing.
Close the World, Open the neXt. Compare NeXT and neXt. NeXT was the high-end computer company founded by Steve Jobs after his ouster from Apple. The Internet as we know it (that is, the hypertext-based World Wide Web) was invented by Tim Berners-Lee on a NeXTSTEP computer.
to Be continued, where Be uses the same colouring as Be OS used.
hello (again), the text from an Apple advertisement, is used in an omake.
What is Artificial Life? from ALIFE VI is quoted in text-form at several places.
Layer 01: WEIRD
Think Blue Count One Tow, an allusion to Think Blue, Count Two, a short story set in Cordwainer Smith's Instrumentality of Mankind series.
Lain's old computer is reminiscent of a 20th Anniversary Macintosh. It runs a Communication OS, denoted by a large capital C as its logo - reminiscent of the Commodore logo.
The text seen on the blackboard in the classroom is code, written in the C programming language.
NeXT (an OS) icons appear on Lain's father's computer desktop.
Layer 02: GIRLS
Urban Diary is used as a background during the Accela TV News report.
Parts of Lain's rig comes from Moebius, a real-world software company that would have been quite new to the market when SE:Lain was released.
Actually the URL of the brand in the equipment is Mebious. Which contains a Lain related mumbo-jumbo page.
Layer 07: SOCIETY
During class, Lain programs on her HandiNAVI in the multi-paradigm programming language Lisp. This is likely related to the Knights of the Lambda Calculus, because in real life they were a community surrounding the Lisp language.
Nezumi's perspective is viewed through Apple's HotSauce interface, which was created to give users a novel Internet experience. The program code shown in one scene seems to be a perl script for generating a web page, also known as CGI Script.