My daughter! O my ducats! O my daughter! Fled with a Christian! O my Christian ducats! Justice! the law! my ducats, and my daughter! A sealed bag, two sealed bags of ducats, Of double ducats, stolen from me by my daughter! And jewels, two stones, two rich and precious stones, Stolen by my daughter! Justice! find the girl; She hath the stones upon her, and the ducats.
As a matter of fact, Shylock's whole speech pattern is like this, possibly to enforce the idea that he's nightmarishly persistent (count how many times he says some variant on "I'll have my bond, I will not hear thee speak"). Launcelot Gobbo uses the trope more comedically, especially in his opening monologue.
"Fia!" says the fiend. "Away!" says the fiend. "For the heavens, rouse up a brave mind", says the fiend, "and run!" note "Fia" is a dialect form of "via", which is Italian for "away". Since everyone's supposed to be speaking Italian, he pretty much just said the same sentence twice.
Portia gets a moment as well:
I speak too long, but 'tis to pheaze the time, To eke it and to draw it out in length...
Justified in that she's doing exactly what she says she's doing—stalling for time.
Shakespeare uses it again in one of Dogberry's speeches:
Marry, sir, they have committed false report; moreover, they have spoken untruths; secondarily, they are slanders; sixth and lastly, they have belied a lady; thirdly, they have verified unjust things; and, to conclude, they are lying knaves. *** Don Pedro replies: "First I ask thee what have they done? Thirdly, what's their offence? Sixth and lastly, why they are committed? and to conclude, what you lay to their charge?"
Glinda: There's a kind of a sort of...cost There's a couple of things get...lost There are bridges you cross You didn't know you crossed Until you've crossed.
The Seattle-based ACT Theatre. A Contemporary Theatre Theatre.
Cyrano de Bergerac: This trope is combined with Rule of Three: The gratuitous repetition of a question or a gesture for three or more times are shown in the play:
Played for Laughs: At Act I Montfleury tries to say his lines four times, Cyrano orders him to disappear when Cyrano clap his hands the third time, the bore asks Cyrano three times if he has a protector. Lampshaded by Cyrano when he does not answer a three time:
Cyrano:(irritated) No, I have told you twice! Must I repeat?
Played for Drama: At Act II, Cyrano asks three times Roxana what she would do if Christian is not as eloquent as fair, she answers two times that being fair, he has to be eloquent, and the third time she invokes Driven to Suicide. At Act IV, Cyrano asks Roxane if she would love Christian, even if he would be ugly, three times. She answered yes every time.