Books on Trope
We here at TV Tropes
are not the first
to collect tropes and try to put them in some semblance of order. If you happen to run across a resource (a book, website, or other useful thing) that discusses a set of tropes, write up a summary page and stick the link on this index.
The most common trope collections are personality profiles. Many people have devised systems of sorting characters into a handful of pigeonholes (the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
, The Enneagram
, the D&D Character Alignment
system, etc.). Of course, they tend to think this works well for sorting people
, whereas we're going to take the more sensible view that it works well for sorting fictional characters
who aren't nearly as complex as your average real human. They're useful systems for the writer as well as for the reader, so eventually we'll get them up here.
People have also tried to condense the wide and varied world of plots into a small and succinct list of possible
plots. The most basic system says that all plots are about one of two things, love
, but the list can go up to fifty or even more. Joseph Campbell tried to pin it all down to a single heroic version in The Hero's Journey
, and while that doesn't cover every story, it works with a lot of them (and George Lucas decided to base Star Wars
all around Campbell's work). It's when people start claiming that Schindler's List
has the same plot as Alice in Wonderland
that we start to wonder if their systems make any sense, but hey, maybe they had a flash of inspiration. At any rate, studying plot archetypes can help writers to straighten out the odd kinks that are throwing them for a loop, and maybe to introduce elements that strengthen the overall story and underscore its thematic meaning. As for the reader... well, it's always fun to realize, halfway into the new blockbuster, that you're really watching a postmodern sci-fi version of Beauty and the Beast
- The 7 Basic Conflicts: as formulated by various critics after the fashion of Arthur Quiller-Couch.
Man vs. Nature, Man vs. Man, Man vs. Himself, Man vs. God/Fate, Man vs. Society, Man & Woman, etc.
- The 7 Basic Plots, as analyzed by Christopher Booker
- The Areas of My Expertise offers another Fifty-Five Dramatic Situations
- Asimov's Three Kinds of Science Fiction
- The Hero's Journey
- The Hero with a Thousand Faces
- The Hollywood Formula
- Master Plots
- Poetics by Aristotle, the Ur-Example.
- Power Screenwriting has Structural Archetypes: The Hero Myth, Outlaw Myth, Inverted Myth, etc.
- Propp's Functions of Folktales, which gives a list of elements often found in fairy tales
- Save the Cat! has Ten Movie Plots.
- Story Structure Architect offers 55 Dramatic Situations.
- Story: Substance, Structure, Style and The Principles of Screenwriting
- Understanding Comics
Lists of Clichés:
Dead Horse Tropes
can be surprisingly stubborn beasts, refusing to leave the media well after they've been discredited, disbarred, and run out of the country for being So Last Century. The more that writers recognize the possible clichés that exist, the more they're able to avert, subvert, and even invert the critters, allowing for the possibility that their viewers are not
morons and just might enjoy watching something written with a little connection to reality. Then again, it's just fun to review all the oddities
that make up our collected media history (laser printers that still sound like a Dot Matrix?) and then play drinking games over recognizing when they show up in our favorite sitcoms.
- Atomic Rockets — A resource for hard science fiction writers.
- Dramatica — This is a rather complicated literary theory that divides story telling into 4 story tellers, 64 "Quads" of 4 properties that examine 64 questions that must each be explored and resolved and...well...There's a 360 page PDF to read and you can buy a rather expensive program to sort it all out. Like most theories, it works pretty well often enough to help most of the time, but there are exceptions. The comic book version is pretty easy to follow.
- Extra Credits — Lectures on story and mechanics tropes in video games, and how game developers can get the most use out of them to make better games.
- Writing Excuses
Resources without their own pages: