A classic 1947 novel by Albert Camus
, The Plague
, on the surface, tells the story of an epidemic of the bubonic plague
that besets the Algerian city of Oran, imprisoning the citizens behind quarantine. The protagonists, including Dr. Bernard Rieux, a man named Jean Tarrou, a visiting journalist Raymond Rambert, and a city clerk Joseph Grand must respond to the plague and find their place in the ensuing depressing conditions, while philosophizing on the nature of suffering and the proper response thereto.
The plague is generally accepted to be a metaphor for the "brown plague," fascism, which spread throughout Europe in the 30s, and more specifically for the occupation of France by Nazi Germany in 1940. Oran is the equivalent of France: cut off from the outside world, the inhabitants have to choose whether to submit to the inevitability of dying of the plague (the historical inevitability of Germany's dominance) or to fight back against the plague by joining the sanitary teams (the Resistance).
More generally, the book is an allegorical tale in which Camus expounds on his views about the human condition
. When the possibility of death at any time makes life absurd, the only thing to do is to give one's life meaning is to rebel against an unjust world, live passionately and strive for freedom.
This novel displays the following tropes:
- Anyone Can Die
- Author Avatar: Rambert, like Camus, is a journalist with a strong sense of justice who has investigated the living conditions of the Arab population of Algeria.
- Author Tract: Camus exposes his philosophy in a much more explicit way than he did in The Stranger. But this was in some ways necessary as this book serves to exorcise the bitter memories of the Occupation. Plus, the committee for the Nobel Prize for Literature didn't seem to mind.
- Bittersweet Ending: The plague ends, Rambert reunites with his beloved, but many people die before that happens, including one doctor who once predicted that the plague would end soon], Tarrou and finally Rieux's wife.
- Body Horror: to be expected in a work about bubonic plague.
- Cannot Spit It Out: Grand, a rare non-romance (or rather not-just-romance) example.
- Character Development: Othon starts out as a traditional 50s French father, saying impeccably polite and very nasty things to his wife and kids. He gets more emotional, and more altruistic, later in the book after his son dies.
- Humans Are Bastards: Tarrou holds this viewpoint.
I know positively–-yes, Rieux, I can say I know the world inside out, as you may see-–that each of us has the plague within him; no one, no one on earth is free from it. And I know, too, that we must keep endless watch on ourselves lest in a careless moment we breath in somebody’s face and fasten the infection on him. What’s natural is the microbe. All the rest-–health, integrity, purity (if you like)-–is a product of the human will, of a vigilance that must never falter. The good man, the man who infects hardly anyone, is the man who has the fewest lapses of attention.
- I Choose to Stay: Rambert goes to great lengths to escape the city, but when he finally is at the brink of achieving his goal, he decides he'd rather stay in Oran and help the protagonists in fighting the plague.
- Infant Immortality: Averted.
- Kick the Dog: Cottard shoots one at random in the last scene, though this is not necessarily a sign of evilness, just insanity.
- La Résistance: in the context of the allegory—the plague as the Occupation—the sanitary teams form a resistance that is fighting back against the unspeakable evil of the plague.
- Leitmotif: the song "Saint James Infirmary."
- Les Collaborateurs: after his suicide attempt, Cottard basically turns into the quintessential Pétain supporter and profits off the plague much in the way collaborators profited from the Nazi Occupation; he is one of the only people who is sad to see the plague go.
- Lockdown: A city-wide one. The novel explores how this affects the inhabitants psychologically when they are trapped away from their loved ones for months.
- Narrator All Along: Bernard Rieux.
- No Antagonist
- Shout Out: to The Stranger: A Frenchman from Algiers who was arrested for shooting an Arab on the beach is mentioned.
- The Fettered: Tarrou, who dedicated his life to fight against killing, though he later became disillusioned.
- The Plague: Well duh.
- The Stoic/The Pollyanna: Rieux.
- Tragic Bromance: Tarrou and Rieux.