Mahatma Gandhi led a nonviolent resistance against British rule of India which actually succeeded.
The American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s.
The Irish Republican Army and it's successors, the Provisional IRA and the Real IRA.
The partisan movements in Nazi-controlled areas during World War 2 were instrumental in winning the war.
According to the folks at the Axishistory forum, the largest European resistance movement in proportion to the size of the population was, surprisingly, in Albania (6.5% at its peak). Second was Yugoslavia, Greece and Poland are tied for third place, followed by USSR, France, Italy and finally Bulgaria. Other movements did exist, but were much smaller.
In Germany itself, the White Rose (a nonviolent resistance group led by students) opposed Nazi rule after the disaster of Stalingrad.
The Werewolves, pro-Nazi partisans (mostly ex-Hitler Youths) who operated in occupied Germany.
The Polish Home Army was not just a Ragtag Bunch of Misfits, but a full-blown government operating in conspiracy. They had their own judicial system, educational system (extending from primary schools to universities), hospitals, arms factories and intelligence service operating in other countries. Its political activities ranged from assassinations of German officials to taking care of families of deceased soldiers to providing Jews with false documents. Downplayed in that the Home Army was technically an extension of the Government in Exile and operated under its orders. The two politically distinct groups, the National Armed Forces (nationalist) and People's Army (communist), play this trope straight.
On a sidenote, virtually any significant pre-war political organization, from natonalists to farmers to communist had its 'own' resistance organization.
The Greek National Liberation Front was also heavily organized, with its own goverment, polls, and a popular army of thousands essentially controlling almost all the rural areas of Greece by the end of the war, and had already set up infrastacture like schools and health care for the places they freed BEFORE the war was over, and did heavy fighting with the Germans holding essential reinforcements from the East Lines.
Italy had the biggest partisan movement of any Axis power. That was because Fascism got its supporters from the upper-middle class, who considered it a way to control the lower class. Needless to say, Fascism wasn't seen in a positive light by the farmers and workers who made up the majority of the population.
Due to the Chinese Civil War, this was the main conflict with the Japanese during the invasion of China. It was also a Mêlée à Trois as the Nationalists and Communists generally fought each other as much as they fought the Japanese. To further complicate matters, local warlords had their own armies and agendas.
Stay-behind units organised in case of a Soviet invasion of Europe. During World War II the Home Guard Auxilary Units in Britain carried out a similar function.
Being in a Home Guard Auxilary Unit was a heavy burden, because if your unit was actually activated (which would occur automatically if your town was occupied) the first job was to ensure security by killing the only other man who knew who the members were: The local police constable, who was invariably a close friend of all the members and trusted them enough to kill him if needed.
Several resistances against undemocratic governments in Latin America and South America qualify, markedly in Brazil the MR-8.
The MIR/Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front in Chile and the Montoneros/People's Revolutionary Army in Argentina might qualify as well.
During many wars local civilians were provoked by the incredible presumption of passing soldiers into becoming this. As if they failed, they would be subject to worse Rape, Pillage, and Burn than before, if they succeeded they would end up becoming like their persecutors and if they did nothing they would simply be ground down underfoot, it was a tough choice. Effectively it was La Résistance against both sides for pure self-preservation, but the chief target would be the nearest army.
The Spanish Civil War serves as both an example and a subversion. The Nationalists thought of themselves as La Résistance to the leftist government, but were much better organized and prepared for war than the leftists (Loyalists). This makes sense considering that the Nationalists controlled most of the army, and had the direct backing of Hitler and Mussolini. As a result, the Loyalist government itself was reduced to a Ragtag Bunch of Misfits who frequently fought amongst themselves (in some cases, particularly for the Stalinists, the faction fighting was actually more important than fighting the Nationalists—many Loyalist offensives never got off the ground because important officers were detained and sometimes executed by the Stalinists in the name of ideological purity).
The anarcho-syndicalist uprisings in Catalonia was this on the leftist side, though (and certainly not "Loyalists", as they fought for the complete dismantlement of the state apparatus and had strained relationships with the rest of the Republican side). Under the guidance of the FAI-CNT the citizen rose up against the Nationalists and fired off the shots for an anarchist insurrection, allying only with the Loyalist government as a sort of "the enemy of my enemy" deal. Boy did that bite them in the ass later with the Stalinists.
The Arab Spring. Protests and revolutions have occurred in Tunisia, Egypt, Algeria, Yemen, Libya, Morocco, Bahrain, Syria, and Iraq and Iran.
Haiti is an entire nation formed out of the success of a slave rebellion—a rare (indeed, unique) feat.
Finnish Civil War 1918 - both sides. The Whites considered themselves as the representants of the legitimate government resisting the Communist Imperialism, while the Reds considered themselves as the sole defendant of the small guy against Capitalist oppressors. Needless to say, the Finnish Civil War was extremely bloody.
The Vendée Rebellion 1793-1796 in France. The Vendéens, who had initially welcomed the French Revolution, saw it quickly escalating off the hands and after the Civil Constitution of the Clergy and the execution of the King, decided they had had enough of this revolution stuff. They repulsed the Revolutionary armies, declared themselves as the defendants of the legitimate government and managed to evict the Revolutionary regime completely off the Vendée department. The mutiny was quashed in 1796 and ended in torrents of blood, but guerilla war continued until the end of the Napoleon's regime and restoration of King.
Hamas in Palestine, Hezbullah in Lebanon, Taliban in Afghanistan, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, as well as the Iraqi resistance after the 2003 invasion. The first four organizations alternate between being La Résistance and a de-facto government. In case of the Muslim Brotherhood, they were de-jure government too until the Egyptian military stepped in again.