Harsher in Hindsight: Aziz comment on the religious divisions in Indian society that "We may hate each other, but we hate [the English] more", which is eerily prescient of the bloody, sectarian partition of the Subcontinent during the independence process.
Ho Yay: Between Fielding and Aziz. It is very easy to misinterpret the last 3 paragraphs of the book as an erotic encounter between them, also, particularly as Fielding based Aziz on a close Indian friend with whom he did indeed fall in (unrequited) love.
Values Dissonance: The film version features the very British Alec Guinness playing the Brahmin Professor Godbole in brown face. Still acceptable in the 80's, but it definitely couldn't be done today without arising mass controversy.
Values Resonance: This book shows such an enlightened viewpoint that it would not be out of place in modern times. Especially in its praise of Islam, it is hard to imagine that it was indeed written during the British rule of India.