This term refers to a method of fitting a widescreen movie to the Aspect Ratio of a TV screen (usually converting 16:9 to 4:3). This is done by shrinking the original frame until its width matches that of the 4:3 frame; the side effect is that the movie's height is now considerably less than that of the TV screen, resulting in black bars at the top and bottom, forming a "box" around the film (it's rather like watching the film through a mail slot or "letter box", hence the term). Naturally, this is less of a concern with films that are not very wide to begin with — say, 1.85:1 — or on modern TV sets with wider 16:9 screens. Some movies came to VHS with letterboxing employed only on the opening and ending credits, since presenting those sequences in Pan and Scan would have resulted in some actors' or crew members' names becoming obscured from the viewers. The studios occasionally tried to make the shift less distracting by replacing the black bars with patterns similar to the background of the Artistic Title or the Creative Closing Credits. Although letterboxing preserves the entirety of the picture as it was shot, that picture is (obviously) much smaller than a pan and scan transfer, which can be somewhat disconcerting on smaller television sets. Further, some viewers claim to be distracted by the empty black bars on the screen, preferring that the screen be filled with picture. Again, modern wide-screened TV sets help diminish this problem somewhat, although films shot in even wider formats (such as vintage CinemaScope, Todd-AO, Ultra Panavision 70, and Cinerama releases from the 1950s and '60s) are usually letterboxed rather than cropped even in the "widescreen" home video releases. Although there was some consumer resistance to the format in the early years, it has now become virtually the norm for home video, and to wish for pan and scan instead is the mark of a rube dumb enough to spend the same amount of money for up to 33% less picture. Many newer movies released on home video actually make use of that dead space, having captions and subtitles appear in the black bars rather than within the frame itself. Even without such considerations, there are a number of commercials and TV shows that are formatted for letterbox presentation because it gives them a classy look like a big-budget feature film (most movies are shot in 21:9, and so we associate things shot in that aspect ratio to be all movie-like). Now to get really fancy: When this is done horizontally (that is, an image created in 4:3-ratio is shown on a wider screen such as 16:9 with black space at the sides), it is known as "pillarboxing", after a type of upright mailbox used in England. And "windowboxing" occurs when an already-letterboxed image is pillarboxed, or vice versa, forming a black "picture frame" around the image. There's even a "smilebox" format for certain Cinerama titles, which simulates the curvature of the screen with concave lines at the top and bottom of the image. It gets wilder when some films are shot in 4:3 knowing that they'll be exhibited in 16:9; movie projectors have a scrim that block the upper and lower parts of the frame. Some films like Pee-wee's Big Adventure suffer when shown in 4:3 on television because some of the effects are spoiled, infamously with the "bike chain" visual gag showing the container has a false bottom. The Blood Waters of Dr. Z had the same problem where the fish creature's sneakers could be seen. Some films like Moonstruck are shot in 4:3 knowing they'll be in letterbox on the screen and 4:3 on television, meaning the 4:3 version is actually superior and no Pan and Scan is needed. Compare Visual Compression, Widescreen Shot. Contrast Pan and Scan. See also Eyedscreen for where letterboxing is used as a temporary effect.