How did Felix's jerkass boss know who Bond was? At the time Bond is still just a relatively new agent and hardly someone who would be brought to the attention of the station chief for South America.
He might have known from the fiasco in the embassy from the last movie. I believe Bond's name was all over the media.
And yet this slipped past Greene?
Greene knew exactly who Bond was. Witness how Greene introduces Bond to Camille — he directly refers to Bond's reputation as 'damaged goods', which is Greene poking fun at Vesper's death.
Bond was MI-6's man in the poker man, and Felix knew that fact. Perhaps the CIA knew who he was and let Felix know in case they needed to co-ordinate (possibly in a "we lost the game, let's team up and just flat-out kidnap the man"), and Felix's boss either knew who Bond was and it was a test for Felix's commitment, or knew Felix well enough to figure out he was lying and used some quick thinking to piece it together (MI-6 just called him asking about a man, who just happens to tell him that he found someone snooping around outside his property, who Felix knows, so how many people working for MI-6 does Felix know again?). As for Bond's name being all over the media, all the media reported on was that a British Agent killed a man in an embasy, and the only photos we see are ones taken from behind Bond where his face isn't visible.
How does gouging Bolivia on their utility bills count as a scheme worthy of a transnational conspiracy? Last I checked, Bolivia wasn't exactly the richest country on the block, even by South American standards. Also, starting the massive gouging immediately after getting the last of the land needed to control the bulk of their water supply not only tells the new leader who's responsible, but also what piece of territory he needs to retake to make the gouging end. If they'd slowly jacked up the price over a few years the general wouldn't have known how he'd gotten screwed. The choice of Bolivia is notable in that ten years before the movie was filmed, foreign companies had bought up the nation's water resources to jack up the prices, with the result of causing large scale riots. You'd think Quantum would have remembered that.
The new leader knows full well who is responsible for the crisis, as do the old- that's the point. Quantum controlled that land and water and wanted more, and the old government refused, so they are installing a new one. As for the historical unrest, that's probably one of the reasons the new government will be headed by a brutal dictator in the first place- riots matter a lot more in democracies than they do in dictatorships. The reason they are after the water is not to jack up the prices, its because of the freshwater crisis that is predicted to hit the planet in the next few decades or so (there is expected to be a lack of drinkable water somewhere down the line, given the population boom and such like- granted, this isn't really explained in the movie, but its implied and it was in the news at the time, and many Bond movies base their plots on news stories). Its about long-term power. And bare in mind its not the onlyEvil Plan they have in the works; its just the one they are working on now. On its own controlling the water of Bolivia might not amount to much, but in concert with attempts to monopolize industries and control governments all over the globe, it becomes part of a strong hand.
Considering that he's shot in the leg, left pinballing around the trunk of a car for a while, and then shot in the shoulder and left lying motionless on the ground, Mr. White somehow manages to escape an MI-6 interrogation room and is in good enough shape later to turn up for the opera scene. It really seems as if he was supposed to be K Illed Off For Real but the filmmakers changed their mind after the fact..