The...uh...stuff that dreams are made of.The Maltese Falcon
(1941) is a Warner Bros.
film based on the novel of the same name
by Dashiell Hammett
, starring Humphrey Bogart
as Hardboiled Detective
Sam Spade, Mary Astor as his Femme Fatale
client, Sydney Greenstreet in his film debut, and Peter Lorre
and Elisha Cook, Jr. as his Ambiguously Gay
sidekicks. The story concerns a private detective's dealings with three unscrupulous adventurers who compete to obtain a fabulous jewel-encrusted statuette of a falcon.The Maltese Falcon
has been named as one of the greatest films of all time by Roger Ebert
, and Entertainment Weekly
, and was cited by Panorama du Film Noir Américain
as the first major work of Film Noir
. (Though today, movie historians generally consider the first noir to be Stranger on the Third Floor
, released one year earlier.) The film was John Huston
's directorial debut and was nominated for three Academy Awards.
This movie contains examples of:
- Adaptational Heroism: Spade is less morally ambiguous in the film than in the book. He doesn't strip Brigid to search for the missing money. In general, he's less aggressive and cruel in actions and speech.
- Adapted Out: Rhea Gutman, Mr Gutman's daughter.
- Affably Evil:
- Kasper Gutman is almost always cheerful and polite.
- Joel Cairo as well. He even asks Sam to "please" keep his hands on the back of his head while holding him at gunpoint.
- Agent Peacock: For a strongly implied gay man in a pre-gay age and a central antagonist, Cairo is quite fabulous.
- Almost Dead Guy: Captain Jacobi, who comes staggering into Spade's office with the Falcon before expiring.
- Ambiguously Gay: Joel Cairo. It's rather less ambiguous in the original novel and in the pre-Hays Code film adaptation (in the 1941 version, you could tell he was gay because he wore white gloves and smelled of lavender, not to mention Hammett's references to Wilmer as the 'gunsel', which is not slang for a gun-toting criminal).
- Anti-Hero: It's up in the air for much of the story exactly which side of 'right' vs 'wrong' Sam Spade will ultimately fall upon. It's ultimately on the side of 'right'. Turns out you don't kill a private detective's partner, even if the private detective didn't like the partner.
- Artistic License – History: The opening crawl states that the Knights Templar of Malta created the falcon in 1539. The Knights Templar were dissolved in 1312. (The director had probably confused the Knights Templar with the Knights of Malta, a separate organization that is still around today.)
- Asshole Victim: Wilmer is set to be the fall guy by the other crooks. He was a Jerk Ass the entire time.
- Bittersweet Ending: The bad guys are exposed and rounded up, but Spade turns over O'Shaughnessy, with whom he's fallen in love, to the cops to avenge his partner. And it wasn't even the real Falcon to begin with.
- The Cameo: Walter Huston, John Huston's father and a big movie star, appears here as Capt. Jacobi, the Almost Dead Guy.
- Cut Himself Shaving: Mockingly offered by Spade to Dundy as a possible reason for a cut on Cairo's head.
- Defensive Failure
- Detective Patsy: Brigid initially went to Spade and Archer on a pretense to get Thursby into a fight, thereby either getting him killed or slapping him with murder.
- The Determinator: Kasper Gutman is chasing the Falcon for 17 odd years; after he finds out that the bird they've stolen is a fake, he's ready in an instant to go back to Istanbul to restart the search all over again
- Did Not Get the Girl
- Fall Guy: Sam Spade turns the criminals against each other by only agreeing to hand over the Falcon if Wilmer takes the fall for the murder of Sam's partner.
- Fatal Attraction: Spade is in love with Brigid in spite of the fact that she's been murdering and manipulating everyone around her.
- Femme Fatale: Brigid. It doesn't work on Spade though.
- Friend on the Force: Sgt. Polhaus is this, in contrast to Lt. Dundy.
- Gayngster: Implied with Wilmer and Cairo, though more subtly than in the book. this trope is quite common in Film Noir.
- Getting Crap Past the Radar: The film dodges The Hays Code by only subtly implying the homosexuality of Wilmer and Cairo. Spade refers derogatorily to Wilmer as "the gunsel", both in the movie and in the book. "Gunsel" was Yiddish slang for a a male passive sexual partner, but not many people knew that. As the slang was all but forgotten, it was re-imagined as slang for a gunslinger or a gun-toting hitman.
- The Ghost:
- General Kemidov, from whom the Maltese Falcon was stolen.
- Floyd Thursby, one of the thieves after the Maltese Falcon, who was originally Brigid's conspirator and is killed offscreen after the first scene before he ever makes an appearance. A decent amount of time is spent unraveling what happened to him.
- Girl Friday: Spade's secretary Effie Perine.
- Guile Hero: Sam Spade.
- Guns Akimbo: Wilmer has two guns and occasionally has one in each hand.
- Harbinger of Impending Doom: Captain Jacobi
- Hardboiled Detective: Sam Spade is one of the codifiers.
- I'm Dying, Please Take My MacGuffin: Capt Jacobi stumbles into Spade's office with the Falcon.
- Ineffectual Sympathetic Villain:
- Joel Cairo spends most of the movie getting roughed up. He barely does anything of use.
- Wilmer is insulted, humiliated and beaten up throughout the film. Offscreen, though, he's a killer.
- Insistent Terminology: Spade repeatedly refers to the Falcon as "the dingus".
- Inspector Javert: Lt. Dundy is fairly close in his desire to take Spade down.
- It Must Be Mine: Most of the characters will go to any lengths to get it.
- The Knights Hospitallers: The original owners of the fabled bird.
- Like a Son to Me: Subverted. "I couldn't be fonder of you if you were my own son." What follows has to be one of the coldest lines in movie history.
But, well, if you lose a son, it's possible to get another. There's only one Maltese Falcon.
- MacGuffin: The Falcon, which has little use in the story other than to be something valuable enough to drive the plot.
- MacGuffin Title
- Meaningful Name: "Gutman" is fat, "Cairo" is from abroad, and "Spade" never stops digging for the truth.
- Meaningless Villain Victory: The bad guys take the Falcon. It's fake.
- Mock Guffin: The eponymous statue.
- Nice Hat: It's a Film Noir, and it stars Humphrey Bogart. Nice Hats are guaranteed.
- Non-Specifically Foreign: Joel Cairo has three different passports (which are probably all fake), a generic name (alias?) which doesn't betray his ultimate origins, and a bizarre accent which swings between French, Russian, German, and whatnot.
- Pragmatic Adaptation: Spade does not strip Brigid to search for the missing bill, since this scene could not be filmed with The Hays Code.
- Pretty in Mink:
- Brigid wears at leas four furs in the movie: a silver fox wrap, a Persian lamb coat, a stole of sables, and a mink coat.
- Mrs. Archer wears a black fox muff and a black fox hat with a veil, as part of her mourning clothes.
- Repeating so the Audience Can Hear: Used in several of Spade's phone conversations.
- San Francisco
- Sexy Discretion Shot: Sam is leaning in and kissing Brigid in the window, suddenly it's the next morning and the curtains in the window are blowing gently in the sunlight.
- Shout-Out to Shakespeare: Spade's last line, which provides the photo caption, is a slightly mangled quote from The Tempest.
"We are such stuff as dreams are made on."
- Sissy Villain: Cairo is particularly effeminate.
- Slipping a Mickey: Gutman does this to Spade during their second meeting.
- Stolen MacGuffin Reveal: This is one of the interpretations. The other is that the Falcon was a Mock Guffin since the very beginning. Notice that Gutman, Cairo and O'Shaugenessy immediately bought the first version, such is the power of the falcon over them.
- Taking the Heat: Spade demands that one of Gutman's minions takes the heat for the three murders. Spade is innocent of the murders, but the cops would blame him for them anyway. Therefore, part of the price he demands for the Falcon is a 'fall guy' to take the heat.
- Terrible Trio: Cairo, Gutman, and Wilmer.
- Villainous Breakdown: Cairo's outburst upon finding out the statue is fake probably counts as one.
Joel Cairo: (to Kasper Gutman) You... you bungled it! You and your stupid attempt to buy it! Kemedov found out how valuable it was! No wonder we had such an easy time stealing it! YOU...YOU IMBECILE! YOU BLOATED IDIOT!! YOU STUPID FAT-HEAD YOU!!!.
- When Gutman shaves off the black enamel of the Falcon and exposes lead, he begins frantically slashing and stabbing the statue in outrage that it's a fake.
- Villainous Glutton: Gutman.