Racing Tom Turkey: The entire story is set in a funeral and centers around describing the deceased.
In the H.I.V.E. Series, Lucy Dexter suddenly becomes Otto's love interest, when she previously had only mild to moderate character development. Predictably, she dies in the same volume.
In Dan Abnett's Gaunts Ghosts novels, individual Ghosts are brought forward, by name, with details for a scene or a few scenes before their deaths. This is not distinguishable from the characters who are named and developed to play more important roles in the books until the character dies. In other words, sometimes it's just a Day in the Limelight, and sometimes it's a Death.
The Honor Harrington novels have over 9000characters, but if the narrative abruptly switches to an unknown character, then it isn't really that hard to tell how they're going to end up. A specific example being the Havenite soldier on leave in At All Costs whose total experience in the limelight is getting in his air car and crashing it into a plot-relevant character's vehicle.
Goes all the way back to The Iliad, though technically inverted: Many characters (most relatively minor) are sometimes given some rather detailed obituaries in the narrative right after someone kills them.
The twenty-second Warrior Cats book Night Whispers focused on Ensemble Darkhorse Flametail's attempts to unravel a mysterious prophecy. At the end, he drowns.
Firestar comes back into the spotlight in The Last Hope only to die from his fight with Tigerstar at the very end of the book.
Battle Royale has a few chapters like this. One notable one is Mizuho's, which is only three pages long and ends in her getting gunned down by Kazuo very shortly after her introduction.
In Death series: If the book looks through the viewpoint of anyone who isn't Eve or Roarke, then there's a 90% chance this trope will occur. The viewpoint may be the killer, a victim, or sometimes both.
A common complaint about Steven King is that he will introduce a character, complete with backstory, only to kill that character off in the next chapter.
A chapter in The Malloreon focuses about a sailor carrying a deadly plague to Mal Zeth.
In The Killer Angels, General Armistead only gets one chapter from his point-of-view in which he is mortally wounded.note The chapter ends with his apparent death, but the real Armistead died in the hospital after the battle was over.
In The Last Full Measure, J.E.B. Stuart gets the same thing that Armistead did: one chapter to himself at Yellow Tavern, where he is mortally wounded. A few enlisted men are also given scenes in which they quickly die.
Simpkin the foliet in The Bartimaeus Trilogy is the only character outside of the main three to have a chapter told entirely from his point of view. He dies at the end of it.
Joe Golem And The Drowning City: Joe and Molly get virtually all of the POV in the book's chapters. The exception are in four chapters, two for Felix Orlov the magician, and two for Simon Church the occult detective. At the end of his second chapter, Felix is overtaken by higher forces and he turns into a Eldritch Abomination, losing his humanity fovever. Meanwhile in his chapters, Church's organs are shutting down and both chapters are spent in his final actions before he kicks the bucket, which he does at the end of his second.
In Noob, the third novel gives development to General Helkazard, the Coalition's leader... only to explain why killing him off is necessary for the Big Bad's plans, that will work better with someone with more radical beliefs leading the Coalition.