History UsefulNotes / SecondSinoJapaneseWar

20th Aug '17 9:36:04 AM TheWildWestPyro
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Before Allied aid began in earnest, Chinese soldiers were outgunned by the Japanese, yet they admirably fought one of the most powerful military forces in the world to a stalemate. Typically, NRA soldiers were armed with a Chinese copy of a 5-round [[CoolGuns/BattleRifles bolt-action Mauser rifle]] [[note]] Mainly the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiang_Kai-shek_rifle Type 24]] short rifle or the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanyang_88 Hanyang 88]] long rifle [[/note]] in 7.92x57mm Mauser [[note]] The standard-issue 7.92mm round had more stopping power than the Japanese 6.5x50mmSR rifle rounds, giving the Chinese an edge in firefights during the early years of the war. This caused the Japanese to create the strong 7.7x58mm Arisaka round for use in the Type 99 short rifle and Type 99 LMG. However, the Type 99 never completely replaced the 6.5mm Type 38 Arisaka in the IJA, while the IJN continued to use 6.5mm weapons.[[/note]] , a [=HY1935=] sword bayonet and Type 23 stick grenades [[note]] A copy of the German Model 24 stick grenade [[/note]]. Warlord troops often carried a [[{{BFS}} Dadao sword]], as many only had a literal handful of ammunition for their rifles (with the exception of Guangxi Clique troops, who were sufficiently equipped enough to fight alongside the NRA). Officers carried [[CoolGuns/{{Handguns}} Mauser C96]] pistols or any of its variants, sometimes with a shoulder stock (as seen above) for greater accuracy.

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Before Allied aid began in earnest, Chinese soldiers were outgunned by the Japanese, yet they admirably fought one of the most powerful military forces in the world to a stalemate. Typically, NRA soldiers were armed with a Chinese copy of a 5-round [[CoolGuns/BattleRifles bolt-action Mauser rifle]] [[note]] Mainly the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiang_Kai-shek_rifle Type 24]] short rifle or the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanyang_88 Hanyang 88]] long rifle [[/note]] in 7.92x57mm Mauser [[note]] The standard-issue 7.92mm round had more stopping power than the Japanese 6.5x50mmSR rifle rounds, giving the Chinese an edge in firefights during the early years of the war. This caused the Japanese to create the strong stronger 7.7x58mm Arisaka round for use in the Type 99 short rifle and Type 99 LMG. However, the Type 99 never completely replaced the 6.5mm Type 38 Arisaka in the IJA, while the IJN continued to use 6.5mm weapons.[[/note]] , a [=HY1935=] sword bayonet and Type 23 stick grenades [[note]] A copy of the German Model 24 stick grenade [[/note]]. Warlord troops often carried a [[{{BFS}} Dadao sword]], as many only had a literal handful of ammunition for their rifles (with the exception of Guangxi Clique troops, who were sufficiently equipped enough to fight alongside the NRA). Officers carried [[CoolGuns/{{Handguns}} Mauser C96]] pistols or any of its variants, sometimes with a shoulder stock (as seen above) for greater accuracy.
20th Aug '17 9:33:09 AM TheWildWestPyro
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The Americans also launched the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dixie_Mission Dixie Mission]] to Yan'an in 1944, partially out of curiosity and partially out of frustration with the KMT, whose corruption had begun to alienate the US government from China (plus Chiang knowing of the corruption but not doing anything about it). At the time, the Chinese Communists were seen as a romantic guerrilla band, helped by the reports of journalist [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Snow Edgar Snow]], who is either a good journalist or a WideEyedIdealist who fawned over Mao, depending on who you ask. Eager for publicity, Mao assembled military parades, ordered his supporters to freshen up Yan'an as best as they could and moved all the political prisoners out of sight.

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The Americans also launched the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dixie_Mission Dixie Mission]] to Yan'an in 1944, partially out of curiosity and partially out of frustration with the KMT, whose corruption had begun to alienate the US government from China (plus Chiang knowing of the corruption but not doing anything about it). At the time, the Chinese Communists were seen as a romantic guerrilla band, helped by the reports of journalist [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Snow Edgar Snow]], who is either a good journalist or a WideEyedIdealist who fawned over Mao, depending on who you ask. Eager for publicity, Mao assembled military parades, ordered his supporters to freshen up Yan'an as best as they could and moved all the political prisoners out of sight.



Although well aware that they were visiting a communist regime, the Americans were initially impressed by Yan'an, particularly how clean and efficient it was compared to the corruption and chaos of the KMT-held areas. [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_S._Service John Service]], diplomatic observer to both Stilwell and the American Embassy in Chongqing, wrote up reports over the next three months, likening the CCP to European socialists and appreciating their efforts to separate themselves from the USSR. Colonel [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_D._Barrett David Barrett]] observed the Communist army's performance in war games and visited the Communist officer training academy. Barrett noted that the Communists prioritized political indoctrination over actual training and believed that American advisors could help improve the guerrillas' military performance, as they had done with the NRA. The CCP's guerrilla raids were praised by the Americans as well. However, the USA still recognized the KMT as the legitimate government of China, although they continued diplomatic ventures to Yan'an until 1947.

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Although well aware that they were visiting a communist regime, the Americans were initially impressed by Yan'an, particularly how clean and efficient it was compared to the corruption and chaos of the KMT-held areas. [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_S._Service John Service]], diplomatic observer to both Stilwell and the American Embassy in Chongqing, wrote up reports over the next three months, likening the CCP to European socialists and appreciating their efforts to separate themselves from the dreaded USSR. Colonel [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_D._Barrett David Barrett]] observed the Communist army's performance in war games and visited the Communist officer training academy. Barrett noted that the Communists prioritized political indoctrination over actual training and believed that American advisors could help improve the guerrillas' military performance, as they had done with the NRA. The CCP's guerrilla raids were praised by the Americans as well. However, the USA still recognized the KMT as the legitimate government of China, although they continued diplomatic ventures to Yan'an until 1947.
19th Aug '17 1:14:45 PM TheWildWestPyro
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The warlords of Shandong province soon gave up without a fight, and Yan Xishan's forces were unable to offer effective resistance either. Chiang sent some of his own troops to shore them up, but it was soon clear that the North China plain would probably be lost if the Japanese fueled their offensive 'push' with fresh men redeployed from their border with the Soviets. Thus, Chiang decided to take the Japanese concession in Shanghai to open a 'Second Front' that would slow Japan's southwards offensive and let him fight the Japanese on the closest thing he could get to an even footing -- though the Japanese would have overwhelming supremacy in airpower and naval and land-based artillery, fighting within the city would hopefully negate these advantages enough for the Kuomintang to win an important victory there, and hopefully end the war quickly.

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The warlords of Shandong province soon gave up without a fight, and Yan Xishan's forces were unable to offer effective resistance either. Chiang sent some of his own troops to shore them up, but it was soon clear that the North China plain would probably be lost if the Japanese fueled their offensive 'push' with fresh men redeployed from their border with the Soviets. Thus, Chiang decided to take the Japanese concession in Shanghai to open a 'Second Front' that would slow Japan's southwards offensive and let him fight the Japanese on the closest thing he could get to an even footing -- though the Japanese would have overwhelming supremacy in airpower and naval and land-based artillery, fighting within the city would hopefully negate these advantages enough for the Kuomintang to win an important victory there, and hopefully end the war quickly.
quickly through a series of quick follow-up offensives.



Chiang relocated the capital first to Wuhan on the mid-Yangzi, where he called a conference with all the major Kuomintang leaders and warlords (who nominally overlapped) of China. In it, against the wishes of Wang Jingwei and others who thought that further war was pointless and would result in even greater suffering, he persuaded them that fighting the war to the end was not only the only politically-acceptable course of action but also the only morally justifiable one. Chiang then publicly stated that China would keep fighting a defensive war, rather than an offensive one, until Japan was defeated (with the unlikely entry of the USSR/USA into the war) or (inevitable without foreign intervention, though this went unsaid) the Kuomintang was totally destroyed. After the fall of Nanjing, Japanese pressure had lead to von Falkenhausen and his advisors being withdrawn [[note]] At a banquet held before his departure, von Falkenhausen promised to not reveal the NRA's battle plans to Japan, and kept that promise. [[/note]], leaving the KMT alone and defenseless against the rapidly advancing Japanese.

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Chiang relocated the capital first to Wuhan on the mid-Yangzi, where he called a conference with all the major Kuomintang leaders and warlords (who nominally overlapped) of China. In it, against the wishes of Wang Jingwei and others who thought that further war was pointless and would result in even greater suffering, he persuaded them that fighting the war to the end was not only the only politically-acceptable course of action but also the only morally justifiable one. Chiang then publicly stated that China would keep fighting a defensive war, rather than an offensive one, one [[note]] Chiang had initially aimed for an offensive war, but his constant attacks destroyed a good chunk of his army until he finally decided to stop [[/note]], until Japan was defeated (with the unlikely entry of the USSR/USA into the war) or (inevitable without foreign intervention, though this went unsaid) the Kuomintang was totally destroyed. After the fall of Nanjing, Japanese pressure had lead to von Falkenhausen and his advisors being withdrawn [[note]] At a banquet held before his departure, von Falkenhausen promised to not reveal the NRA's battle plans to Japan, and kept that promise. [[/note]], leaving the KMT alone and defenseless against the rapidly advancing Japanese.
19th Aug '17 12:46:39 PM TheWildWestPyro
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Anyhow, the whole 'artificial flood' thing turned a panicked rout into an orderly retreat (for lack of a Japanese pursuit) and slowed the Japanese advance for as much as six months as the Japanese first scrambled to recover their pursuit forces before they starved to death/died of dysentry and then had to find enough pack animals to replace all the ones they had lost in the flooding, as well as repairing all the disrupted railway and telegraph lines.

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Anyhow, the whole 'artificial flood' thing turned a panicked rout into an orderly retreat (for lack of a Japanese pursuit) and slowed the Japanese advance for as much as six months as the Japanese first scrambled to recover their pursuit forces before they starved to death/died of dysentry dysentery/drowned and then had to find enough pack animals to replace all the ones they had lost in the flooding, as well as repairing all the disrupted railway and telegraph lines.
14th Aug '17 10:01:50 AM TheWildWestPyro
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* ''Series/WhyWeFight: [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iww_Psy4QHo The Battle of China]]'' is a 1944 propaganda documentary by Creator/FrankCapra with first-rate footage of the war, plus providing much information about the events leading up to the war and the American perspective of China during WW2. Although it focuses mainly on lionizing the KMT, it provides glimpses of the warlords and possibly the Chinese Communist army [[note]] For the latter, when talking about the guerrillas, there's a brief glimpse of uniformed men wearing straw hats on their backs walking down a rural road. Their uniform fits most descriptions and art of the Communist armies during 1937-45. [[/note]] It's also a good visual summary of the information provided in this article, although as this is a propaganda film, some things should be taken with a grain of salt, such as its positive opinion of Stilwell and the emphasis on the Tanaka Memorial, which has found to be a hoax in recent years. The film also makes no mention of German and Soviet aid to China, portrays the Nanjing Massacre as creating the United Front rather than the Xi'an Incident, plus ignores the negative effects of blowing the Yellow River's dykes. However, it's arguably one of the more truthful films in the series, as others omit certain parts of the war for propaganda reasons [[note]] The ''Divide and Conquer'' film ignores the Polish contribution in the Battle of Britain, while there are some heavy liberties taken in ''The Battle of Russia''. [[/note]]

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* ''Series/WhyWeFight: [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iww_Psy4QHo The Battle of China]]'' is a 1944 propaganda documentary by Creator/FrankCapra with first-rate footage of the war, plus providing much information about the events leading up to the war and the American perspective of China during WW2. Although it focuses mainly on lionizing the KMT, it provides glimpses of the warlords and possibly the Chinese Communist army [[note]] For the latter, when talking about the guerrillas, there's a [[https://youtu.be/iww_Psy4QHo?t=3036 brief glimpse glimpse]] of uniformed men wearing straw hats on their backs walking down a rural road. Their uniform fits most descriptions and art of the Communist armies during 1937-45. [[/note]] It's also a good visual summary of the information provided in this article, although as this is a propaganda film, some things should be taken with a grain of salt, such as its positive opinion of Stilwell and the emphasis on the Tanaka Memorial, which has found to be a hoax in recent years. The film also makes no mention of German and Soviet aid to China, portrays the Nanjing Massacre as creating the United Front rather than the Xi'an Incident, plus ignores the negative effects of blowing the Yellow River's dykes. However, it's arguably one of the more truthful films in the series, as others omit certain parts of the war for propaganda reasons [[note]] The ''Divide and Conquer'' film ignores the Polish contribution in the Battle of Britain, while there are some heavy liberties taken in ''The Battle of Russia''. [[/note]]
14th Aug '17 9:49:39 AM TheWildWestPyro
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On the other hand, [[PetTheDog Stilwell did have a few good traits]]. He was excellent at training NRA troops, genuinely wanted to modernize and improve the Chinese army, very fluent in Mandarin, was the guy who demanded American lend-lease to China in the first place and had great respect for the Chinese soldiers he commanded [[note]] Although Stilwell was a massive racist too, as his biographer notes, particularly to the Japanese and had a bad case of Anglophobia, although the latter didn't extend to William Slim and his men[[/note]], plus maintaining a good friendship with [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Slim,_1st_Viscount_Slim William Slim]], the brilliant British commander in Burma and Sun Li-jen as well. All three men trusted each other greatly and got along very nicely. Perhaps due to this, Chiang renamed the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ledo_Road Ledo Road]] (a supply route running through Burma to Yunnan) the Stilwell road in early 1945.

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On the other hand, [[PetTheDog Stilwell did have a few good traits]]. He was excellent at training NRA troops, genuinely wanted to modernize and improve the Chinese army, very fluent in Mandarin, was the guy who demanded American lend-lease to China in the first place and had great respect for the Chinese soldiers he commanded [[note]] Although Stilwell was a massive racist too, [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stilwell#Political_and_personal_views as his biographer notes, notes]], particularly to the Japanese and had a bad case of Anglophobia, although the latter didn't extend to William Slim and his men[[/note]], plus maintaining a good friendship with [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Slim,_1st_Viscount_Slim William Slim]], the brilliant British commander in Burma and Sun Li-jen as well. All three men trusted each other greatly and got along very nicely. Perhaps due to this, Chiang renamed the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ledo_Road Ledo Road]] (a supply route running through Burma to Yunnan) the Stilwell road in early 1945.
14th Aug '17 9:42:29 AM TheWildWestPyro
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China had two basic advantages -- its an enormous country, with the world's largest population. From the very beginning the Japanese occupation forces were drowning in a sea of hostile humanity which they could barely interact with due to Japanese xenophobia and nationalism. Very few Japanese learned a foreign language - not even French or English - because it was a sign of possible 'unpatriotic tendencies'. China's interior is also quite rocky and mountainous, with rolling hillsides, vast deserts, winding rivers and dense forests, giving any defenders plenty of good ground to dig trenches in or set up booby traps. The Japanese had taken the coast and ports with relative ease, but now they had to navigate the rough terrain of China's east, where the NRA could easily lure them into ideal battlefields that provided them with an excellent defense.

to:

China had two basic advantages -- its an enormous country, with the world's largest population. From the very beginning the Japanese occupation forces were drowning in a sea of hostile humanity which they could barely interact with due to Japanese xenophobia and nationalism. Very few Japanese learned a foreign language - not even French or English - because it was a sign of possible 'unpatriotic tendencies'. China's interior is also quite rocky and mountainous, with rolling hillsides, vast deserts, winding rivers and dense forests, giving any defenders plenty of good ground to dig trenches in or set up booby traps. The Japanese had taken the coast and ports with relative ease, but now they had to navigate the rough terrain of China's east, where the NRA could easily lure them into ideal battlefields that provided them with an excellent defense.
east without local guides and in danger of ambushes.
14th Aug '17 9:40:59 AM TheWildWestPyro
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China had two basic advantages -- its an enormous country, with the world's largest population. From the very beginning the Japanese occupation forces were drowning in a sea of hostile humanity which they could barely interact with due to Japanese xenophobia and nationalism. Very few Japanese learned a foreign language - not even French or English - because it was a sign of possible 'unpatriotic tendencies'. China's interior is also quite rocky and mountainous, with rolling hillsides, vast deserts, winding rivers and dense forests, giving any defenders plenty of good ground to dig trenches in or set up booby traps. The Japanese had taken the coast and ports with relative ease, but now they had to navigate the rough terrain of China's east.

to:

China had two basic advantages -- its an enormous country, with the world's largest population. From the very beginning the Japanese occupation forces were drowning in a sea of hostile humanity which they could barely interact with due to Japanese xenophobia and nationalism. Very few Japanese learned a foreign language - not even French or English - because it was a sign of possible 'unpatriotic tendencies'. China's interior is also quite rocky and mountainous, with rolling hillsides, vast deserts, winding rivers and dense forests, giving any defenders plenty of good ground to dig trenches in or set up booby traps. The Japanese had taken the coast and ports with relative ease, but now they had to navigate the rough terrain of China's east.
east, where the NRA could easily lure them into ideal battlefields that provided them with an excellent defense.
14th Aug '17 9:40:16 AM TheWildWestPyro
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14th Aug '17 9:40:13 AM TheWildWestPyro
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China had two basic advantages -- it's an enormous country, with the world's largest population. From the very beginning the Japanese occupation forces were drowning in a sea of hostile humanity which they could barely interact with due to Japanese xenophobia and nationalism. Very few Japanese learned a foreign language - not even French or English - because it was a sign of possible 'unpatriotic tendencies'. China's interior is also quite rocky and mountainous, with rolling hillsides, vast deserts, winding rivers and dense forests, giving any defenders plenty of good ground to dig trenches in or set up booby traps. The Japanese had taken the coast and ports with relative ease, but now they had to navigate the rough terrain of China's east.

to:

China had two basic advantages -- it's its an enormous country, with the world's largest population. From the very beginning the Japanese occupation forces were drowning in a sea of hostile humanity which they could barely interact with due to Japanese xenophobia and nationalism. Very few Japanese learned a foreign language - not even French or English - because it was a sign of possible 'unpatriotic tendencies'. China's interior is also quite rocky and mountainous, with rolling hillsides, vast deserts, winding rivers and dense forests, giving any defenders plenty of good ground to dig trenches in or set up booby traps. The Japanese had taken the coast and ports with relative ease, but now they had to navigate the rough terrain of China's east.
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