History UsefulNotes / SecondSinoJapaneseWar

9th Dec '17 10:16:58 PM TheWildWestPyro
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[[caption-width-right:350:Chinese soldiers hastily building a dyke to slow the flood, Zhengzhou, Henan, 1938]]

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[[caption-width-right:350:Chinese soldiers hastily building a new dyke to slow contain the flood, Zhengzhou, Henan, 1938]]
9th Dec '17 10:16:26 PM TheWildWestPyro
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[[quoteright:350:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/1234063317685_1107gif.png]]
[[caption-width-right:350: Chinese soldiers crossing the Yellow River after its dykes have been blown, 1938]]

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[[quoteright:350:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/1234063317685_1107gif.png]]
[[caption-width-right:350: Chinese
org/pmwiki/pub/images/9c8e28e46565c3f044c1b8ec3ee79fa9.jpg]]
[[caption-width-right:350:Chinese
soldiers crossing hastily building a dyke to slow the Yellow River after its dykes have been blown, flood, Zhengzhou, Henan, 1938]]
8th Dec '17 12:50:15 PM TheWildWestPyro
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With the loss of their ports and a major financial hub in Shanghai, the KMT had to resort to increasingly brutal measures to survive. Peasants were taxed along with the towns, while local landlords demanded a share of the government's taxes. The KMT had effectively controlled provinces from Nanjing, but now they had to let them rule themselves, with officials being assigned to districts within the various provinces. Some officials ran their areas well, such as [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiang_Ching-kuo Chiang Ching-kuo]], Chiang Kai-shek's only son, who introduced social and economic reforms in [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ganzhou Gannan Prefecture]]. But others did not, and their areas remained poor. Chiang was well aware of the corruption, but failed to stop it from worsening, largely by ignoring it in favor of managing the war effort. KMT corruption would become an absolute ''pain in the ass'' for everyone and cemented the KMT's bad reputation for inefficiency and cruelty directed at the peasants [[note]] That said, the 'Nanjing Decade' years earlier had seen China run efficiently and competently by Chiang and the KMT, although a fascist secret police of Blueshirts, lead by the sadistic and enigmatic [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dai_Li Dai Li]], terrorized the population[[/note]], becoming a major factor for the Communist victory in the civil war.

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With the loss of their ports and a major financial hub in Shanghai, the KMT had to resort to increasingly brutal measures to survive. Peasants were taxed along with the towns, while local landlords demanded a share of the government's taxes. The KMT had effectively controlled provinces from Nanjing, but now they had to let them rule themselves, with officials being assigned to districts within the various provinces. Some officials ran their areas well, such as [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiang_Ching-kuo Chiang Ching-kuo]], Chiang Kai-shek's only son, who introduced social and economic reforms in [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ganzhou Gannan Prefecture]].Prefecture]], despite continuing his dad's authoritarian style of rule. But others did not, and their areas remained poor. Chiang was well aware of the corruption, but failed to stop it from worsening, largely by ignoring it in favor of managing the war effort. KMT corruption would become an absolute ''pain in the ass'' for everyone and cemented the KMT's bad reputation for inefficiency and cruelty directed at the peasants [[note]] That said, the 'Nanjing Decade' years earlier had seen China run efficiently and competently by Chiang and the KMT, although a fascist secret police of Blueshirts, lead by the sadistic and enigmatic [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dai_Li Dai Li]], terrorized the population[[/note]], becoming a major factor for the Communist victory in the civil war.
8th Dec '17 12:48:16 PM TheWildWestPyro
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Much as with the second half of the Soviet-German War (1942-45), the major combat operations of 1938-1941 (including the Chinese victory at Taierzhuang in 1938, two of the titanic battles of Changsha in [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Changsha_(1939) 1939]] and [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Changsha_(1941) 1941]], plus the 1938 [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Wuhan Battle of Wuhan]]) are usually 'lost' to common knowledge. These are glossed over for three reasons: 1) the Chinese Communist Party played no role in them, 2) nobody cares what the Kuomintang/Taiwan have to say about them, and 3) Japan likes to pretend they didn't happen. Suffice it to say that although Wuhan was captured (and the battle saw the KMT using up a full quarter of ''their total ammunition''), Changsha wasn't. The campaigns did however help bleed the Kuomintang dry and very nearly cut their rail-links with the Guangxi Clique (at Changsha).

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Much as with the second half of the Soviet-German War (1942-45), the major combat operations of 1938-1941 (including the Chinese victory at Taierzhuang in 1938, two of the titanic battles of Changsha in [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Changsha_(1939) 1939]] and [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Changsha_(1941) 1941]], plus the 1938 [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Wuhan Battle of Wuhan]]) Wuhan]], the largest and longest battle of the entire war) are usually 'lost' to common knowledge. These are glossed over for three reasons: 1) the Chinese Communist Party played no role in them, 2) nobody cares what the Kuomintang/Taiwan have to say about them, and 3) Japan likes to pretend they didn't happen. Suffice it to say that although Wuhan was captured (and the battle saw the KMT using up a full quarter of ''their total ammunition''), Changsha wasn't. The campaigns did however help bleed the Kuomintang dry and very nearly cut their rail-links with the Guangxi Clique (at Changsha).
6th Dec '17 10:46:59 PM TheWildWestPyro
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* The ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hundred_Regiments_Offensive_(film) Hundred Regiments Offensive]]'', a 2015 war movie about the titular Chinese Communist campaign. It provides a detailed portrayal of Maoist guerrilla tactics and the figures involved in the campaign, both Chinese and Japanese.

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* The ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hundred_Regiments_Offensive_(film) Hundred Regiments Offensive]]'', a 2015 war movie about the titular Chinese Communist campaign. It provides a detailed portrayal of Maoist guerrilla tactics and the figures involved in the campaign, both Chinese and Japanese.
6th Dec '17 10:46:09 PM TheWildWestPyro
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* The ''VideoGame/HeartsOfIron'' series regularly features both Nationalist China and the PRC fighting against Japan. Both are [[MagikarpPower weak at the start, but can become extremely powerful through good research and modernizing their armies]].

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* The ''VideoGame/HeartsOfIron'' series regularly features both Nationalist China and the PRC fighting against Japan. Both are [[MagikarpPower weak at the start, but can become extremely powerful through good research and modernizing their armies]]. In ''IV'', both countries and the warlord cliques get their own expansion in the ''Waking the Tiger'' DLC, with new focus trees and unique infantry sprites.
6th Dec '17 10:44:24 PM TheWildWestPyro
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Like other parts of the world on August 14-15th, Chongqing erupted into wild celebration, as fireworks lit up the night sky. In a simple khaki uniform without any decorations, Chiang delivered his victory speech at a nearby radio station, before walking out to be embraced by a joyous crowd. Any [=GIs=] in the area were overwhelmed with gifts of cigarettes from locals. On August 21st, the KMT high command and the Japanese met in a formal surrender ceremony, with Major General Takeo Imai pointing out the locations of the remaining 100,000 Japanese soldiers in China, who were allowed to keep their weapons and maintain order until the NRA arrived.

to:

Like other parts of the world on August 14-15th, Chongqing erupted into wild celebration, as fireworks lit up the night sky. In a simple khaki uniform without any decorations, Chiang delivered his victory speech at a nearby radio station, before walking out to be embraced by a joyous crowd. Any [=GIs=] US military personnel in the area were overwhelmed with gifts of cigarettes from locals. On August 21st, the KMT high command and the Japanese met in a formal surrender ceremony, with Major General Takeo Imai pointing out the locations of the remaining 100,000 Japanese soldiers in China, who were allowed to keep their weapons and maintain order until the NRA arrived.



At the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Military_Tribunal_for_the_Far_East Tokyo War Crimes tribunal]] on April 29th, 1946, many high-ranking Japanese officials were executed for war crimes. One exception were the leaders of Unit 731-while some were executed by the Soviets, the rest, including Ishii, [[KarmaHoudini were spared by the Americans and went to the USA to assist in bioweapons research]]. [[note]] That said, it should be noted the Americans ''had no idea'' how the unit tested their experiments, just that they made bioweapons. Eager to get any advantage over the Soviets, the unit was promptly given war crimes immunity. Some members returned to Japan, others went to America. When the actual data was found and the truth was discovered, the Americans were so horrified that they recalled the unit's members from bioweapons projects, handing them over to the Soviets instead, who imprisoned or executed them. [[/note]] Three doctors went back to Japan and set up a pharmaceutical corporation, [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_Cross_(Japan) Green Cross]], to sell artificial blood [[note]] That said, Masaji Kitano, second-in-command of Unit 731 and one of the founders of Green Cross, later explained that setting up the company [[TheAtoner was his way of atoning for the horrors the Unit had performed]]. [[/note]] and became rich. Most collaborators, such as those involved in the Reorganized government, were declared 'hanjian', or traitors to the Han Chinese by the KMT and executed, [[KarmaHoudini although some were spared and even given positions in the KMT government]].

to:

At the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Military_Tribunal_for_the_Far_East Tokyo War Crimes tribunal]] on April 29th, 1946, many high-ranking Japanese officials were executed for war crimes. One exception were the leaders of Unit 731-while some were executed by the Soviets, the rest, including Ishii, [[KarmaHoudini were spared by the Americans and went to the USA to assist in bioweapons research]]. [[note]] That said, it should be noted the Americans ''had no idea'' how the unit tested their experiments, just that they made bioweapons. Eager to get any advantage over the Soviets, the unit was promptly given war crimes immunity. Some members returned to Japan, others went to America. When the actual data was found and found, along with the truth was discovered, unit's unethical methods, [[MyGodWhatHaveIDone the Americans were so horrified that they recalled the unit's members from bioweapons projects, projects]], handing them over to the Soviets instead, who imprisoned or executed them. [[/note]] Three doctors went back to Japan and set up a pharmaceutical corporation, [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_Cross_(Japan) Green Cross]], to sell artificial blood [[note]] That said, Masaji Kitano, second-in-command of Unit 731 and one of the founders of Green Cross, later explained that setting up the company [[TheAtoner was his way of atoning for the horrors the Unit had performed]]. [[/note]] and became rich. Most collaborators, such as those involved in the Reorganized government, were declared 'hanjian', or traitors to the Han Chinese by the KMT and executed, [[KarmaHoudini although some were spared and even given positions in the KMT government]].
6th Dec '17 10:41:47 PM TheWildWestPyro
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The Chinese economy was also straining from the sheer effort of funding the war, with inflation rising at alarming rates. Although less money was printed, the KMT pumped money into a closed-off war economy that was dedicated to producing military equipment rather than consumer goods, shrinking the economy instead of strengthening it. This was somewhat alleviated by vast sums of American loans, but the KMT became dependent on them until the American government began to get frustrated with Chiang's demands for more US dollars.

to:

The Chinese economy was also straining from the sheer effort of funding the war, with inflation rising at alarming rates. Although less money was printed, the KMT pumped money into a closed-off war economy that was dedicated to producing military equipment rather than consumer goods, shrinking the economy instead of strengthening it. This was somewhat alleviated by vast sums of American loans, but the KMT became more and more dependent on them until them. Eventually, the American government Truman administration began to get frustrated with Chiang's continued demands for more US dollars.
dollars to prop up the Nationalist economy for the incoming civil war.
6th Dec '17 10:40:29 PM TheWildWestPyro
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6th Dec '17 10:40:11 PM TheWildWestPyro
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China also gained two American military advisors throughout the war. The first and most infamous was General [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stilwell Joseph Stilwell]], aka 'Vinegar Joe' for his caustic personality. Historians have assessed Stilwell in recent years, and it's safe to say that he did arguably more harm than good during his time in China. Basically, Stilwell-despite making some downright boneheaded moves as a military leader [[note]] Such as ordering the Allied retreat from Burma into India, instead of retreating into North Burma as Chiang and the British advocated. It worked, but tens of thousands of Allied troops died or were laid low by disease and the pursing Japanese, while most of Burma was in Japanese hands. [[/note]] - was angered by the corruption and 'oriental incompetence' of the KMT. Stilwell thought the best way to fix it was to put himself in charge of ''all'' ground forces in China, arm them with American weapons and slowly drive the Japanese back through offensives. Chiang, who knew the weaknesses of his army too well, wanted to remain commander-in-chief as China's Generalissimo and preferred to keep China on the defensive, disagreed.

[[DisproportionateRetribution Stilwell's response was to send extremely negative reports back to America that exaggerated KMT failures]] (such as Chiang refusing to send reinforcements in Burma, when Chiang had actually sent 10,000 men and the 200th mechanized division [[note]] The only one of its kind, it was made up of T-26 tanks, Soviet and German armored cars plus American and Soviet trucks [[/note]]), plus ranting in his diary and letters to his wife about besting "the peanut" as he called Chiang [[note]] Chiang's head was rather...small, resulting in Stilwell nicknaming him Peanut Head. It was also Chiang's codename in Stilwell's radio reports to Washington.[[/note]]. Stilwell also had a bitter rivalry with Chennault-while Chennault was full of confidence for Chiang, Stilwell absolutely loathed the Generalissimo. There were tactical disagreements too-Stilwell believed that China could crush Japan via well-trained ground troops, while Chennault believed air support was vital for turning the tide. This resulted in nasty incidents where Chennault pleaded for reinforcements in desperate battles, with Stilwell refusing to send any. Stilwell's cushy relationship with the press didn't help matters either, and the US government's confidence in China began to decrease, although aid still arrived and the American public remained sympathetic to China's plight.

to:

China also gained two American military advisors throughout the war. The first and most infamous was General [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stilwell Joseph Stilwell]], aka 'Vinegar Joe' for his caustic personality. Historians have assessed Stilwell in recent years, and it's safe to say that he did arguably more harm than good during his time in China. Basically, Stilwell-despite making some downright boneheaded moves as a military leader [[note]] Such as ordering the Allied retreat from Burma into India, instead of retreating into North Burma as Chiang and the British advocated. It worked, but tens of thousands of Allied troops died or were laid low by disease and the pursing Japanese, while most of Burma was in Japanese hands. [[/note]] - was angered by the corruption and 'oriental incompetence' of the KMT. Stilwell thought the best way to fix it was to put himself in charge of ''all'' ground forces in China, arm them all with American weapons and slowly drive the Japanese back through offensives. Chiang, who knew the weaknesses of his army too well, wanted to remain China's commander-in-chief as China's Generalissimo and preferred to keep China the NRA on the defensive, disagreed.

disagreed. Historians have noted that while Chiang was by no means a strategic or tactical genius, he did have decades of experience in managing the NRA. Stilwell, meanwhile, had only just gotten to China.

[[DisproportionateRetribution Stilwell's response was to send extremely negative reports back to America that exaggerated KMT failures]] (such as Chiang refusing to send reinforcements in Burma, when Chiang had actually sent 10,000 men and the 200th mechanized division [[note]] The only one of its kind, it was made up of T-26 tanks, Soviet and German armored cars plus American and Soviet trucks [[/note]]), plus ranting in his diary and letters to his wife about besting "the peanut" as he called Chiang [[note]] Chiang's head was rather...small, resulting in Stilwell nicknaming him Peanut Head. It was also Chiang's codename in Stilwell's radio reports to Washington.[[/note]]. Stilwell also had a bitter rivalry with Chennault-while Chennault was full of confidence for Chiang, Stilwell absolutely loathed the Generalissimo.generalissimo. There were tactical disagreements too-Stilwell believed that China could crush Japan via well-trained ground troops, while Chennault believed air support was vital for turning the tide. This resulted in nasty incidents where Chennault pleaded for reinforcements in desperate battles, with Stilwell refusing to send any. Stilwell's cushy relationship with the press didn't help matters either, and the US government's confidence in China began to decrease, although aid still arrived and the American public remained sympathetic to China's plight.
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