History UsefulNotes / SecondSinoJapaneseWar

3rd Mar '16 8:39:29 AM Morgenthaler
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The Massacre caused a rare CrowningMomentOfAwesome for a citizen of UsefulNotes/NaziGermany -- John Rabe, a businessman and diplomat, opened the German embassy (which as German soil was in theory sacrosanct to Japanese incursion) to tens of thousands of refugees who were sheltered inside. For this he's acquired the moniker '[[TokenGoodTeammate The Good Nazi']], a title he shares with [[SchindlersList Oskar Schindler.]] His is the only German name most Chinese schoolchildren know (apart from/including [[UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler Hitler]]).

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The Massacre caused a rare CrowningMomentOfAwesome for a citizen of UsefulNotes/NaziGermany -- John Rabe, a businessman and diplomat, opened the German embassy (which as German soil was in theory sacrosanct to Japanese incursion) to tens of thousands of refugees who were sheltered inside. For this he's acquired the moniker '[[TokenGoodTeammate The Good Nazi']], a title he shares with [[SchindlersList [[Film/SchindlersList Oskar Schindler.]] His is the only German name most Chinese schoolchildren know (apart from/including [[UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler Hitler]]).
31st Jan '16 8:06:59 PM jamespolk
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* The Italian comic book ''ComicBook/Lilith'' has its titular time travel visit the Rape of Nanjing in one volume.

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* The Italian comic book ''ComicBook/Lilith'' ''ComicBook/{{Lilith}}'' has its titular time travel visit the Rape of Nanjing in one volume.volume.
* ''Film/WildRose'' is a 1932 Chinese film made right after the Japanese incursion into Manchuria, in order to encourage Chinese patriotism and resistance to the Japanese. At the end all the main characters join the army.
29th Dec '15 6:18:28 AM himmelicht
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Nanjing, China's "Southern Capital", was the Guomindang's centre of administration, and by extension the Capital City of China. Once word spread that Shanghai was lost, the GMD government fled from the city -- it was clear to everyone that Nanjing was a sitting duck. As the Japanese ground forces made their way to Nanjing, their air force began bombing the capital. Nanjing's defenses had several weaknesses, due to the breakdown of morale among the retreating soldiers from the battle outside the city walls. Nanjing fell on December 13th, and opened its gates for the Japanese expeditionary force. Someone -- either the forces' commander, Crown Prince Asaka or one of his aides -- issued an order: "KILL ALL CAPTIVES." And so the Nanjing Massacre... occurred. It's also been given the cheerful moniker [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin the Rape of Nanking]]... because of the mass-rapes, you see. The official Japanese death toll was about 2000, but we're pretty sure that 200,000 civilians and a few POWs were killed during the course of it. Given that there were only a hundred thousand or so Japanese soldiers in and around the city at the time, this disproves the notion that each one massacred a small mountain of innocent civilians by themselves. The participation of most soldiers in the event was restricted to looting, or wisecracking as your mates tortured someone to death or shot some random people in the street on a whim, and finding someone to rape with thirty of your best friends. Now we know what you're thinking: "being raped by thirty-plus people, ''even if it does'' happen every day for a week, doesn't kill you!" That's true. But unfortunately, most Japanese soldiers "forgot" to feed the civilians they restrained for such purposes... and they had a nasty of habit of killing their play-things when they were bored with them.

The IJA's Military Police were solely concerned with rooting out Socialism and internal dissent, and so didn't even try to restrain the rank-and-file as they basically did whatever they wanted. There was a little bit of official involvement in the whole thing, of course, (apart from the "Kill all captives" and "let's all look the other way" things) when it came to killing all the POWs captured in the battles for Shanghai and Nanjing and in supervising the creation of Army Brothels using conscripts as unpaid prostitutes, aside from feeding them. There weren't that many of them, though, just a few thousand "employees" at a time (though the turnover was high due to suicide and other cheery things). While the looting was fairly harmless, as we mentioned before, not as many livelihoods as you might expect were destroyed by it -- while not ''all'' of the former owners were dead, of course, many if not most ''were''. The complete break-down of law-and-order continued for about six weeks, when it just sort of petered out what with the place being a Ghost-City and barely any live females left outside the army-brothels.

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Nanjing, China's "Southern Capital", was the Guomindang's centre of administration, and by extension the Capital City of China. Once word spread that Shanghai was lost, the GMD government fled from the city -- it was clear to everyone that Nanjing was a sitting duck. As the Japanese ground forces made their way to Nanjing, their air force began bombing the capital. Nanjing's defenses had several weaknesses, due to the breakdown of morale among the retreating soldiers from the battle outside the city walls. Nanjing fell on December 13th, and opened its gates for the Japanese expeditionary force. Someone -- either the forces' commander, Crown Prince Asaka or one of his aides -- issued an order: "KILL ALL CAPTIVES." And so the Nanjing Massacre... occurred. It's also been given the cheerful moniker [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin the Rape of Nanking]]... because of the mass-rapes, you see. The official Japanese death toll was about 2000, but we're pretty sure that 200,000 civilians and a few POWs [=POWs=] were killed during the course of it. Given that there were only a hundred thousand or so Japanese soldiers in and around the city at the time, this disproves the notion that each one massacred a small mountain of innocent civilians by themselves. The participation of most soldiers in the event was restricted to looting, or wisecracking as your mates tortured someone to death or shot some random people in the street on a whim, and finding someone to rape with thirty of your best friends. Now we know what you're thinking: "being raped by thirty-plus people, ''even if it does'' happen every day for a week, doesn't kill you!" That's true. But unfortunately, most Japanese soldiers "forgot" to feed the civilians they restrained for such purposes... and they had a nasty of habit of killing their play-things when they were bored with them.

The IJA's Military Police were solely concerned with rooting out Socialism and internal dissent, and so didn't even try to restrain the rank-and-file as they basically did whatever they wanted. There was a little bit of official involvement in the whole thing, of course, (apart from the "Kill all captives" and "let's all look the other way" things) when it came to killing all the POWs [=POWs=] captured in the battles for Shanghai and Nanjing and in supervising the creation of Army Brothels using conscripts as unpaid prostitutes, aside from feeding them. There weren't that many of them, though, just a few thousand "employees" at a time (though the turnover was high due to suicide and other cheery things). While the looting was fairly harmless, as we mentioned before, not as many livelihoods as you might expect were destroyed by it -- while not ''all'' of the former owners were dead, of course, many if not most ''were''. The complete break-down of law-and-order continued for about six weeks, when it just sort of petered out what with the place being a Ghost-City and barely any live females left outside the army-brothels.
24th Nov '15 9:16:43 PM Gideoncrawle
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->''"Future historians will, I believe, regard [[SecondSinoJapaneseWar our War of Resistance]] as the most significant event in [[TheGreatDepression this period of world history]], since by our enormous sacrifices we are contributing not only to the good of the Chinese nation but also to the welfare of all mankind. From now on, however, we must struggle even harder and must be ready for even greater sacrifices, in order that justice may be accomplished. The aims of our struggle are simple and clear. If we succeed we shall not only be able to build a new China but we shall also contribute immeasurably to the peace of the world."''

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->''"Future historians will, I believe, regard [[SecondSinoJapaneseWar our War of Resistance]] Resistance as the most significant event in [[TheGreatDepression this period of world history]], history, since by our enormous sacrifices we are contributing not only to the good of the Chinese nation but also to the welfare of all mankind. From now on, however, we must struggle even harder and must be ready for even greater sacrifices, in order that justice may be accomplished. The aims of our struggle are simple and clear. If we succeed we shall not only be able to build a new China but we shall also contribute immeasurably to the peace of the world."''
16th Nov '15 3:43:18 PM MAI742
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Chiang relocated the capital first to Wuhan on the mid-Yangzi, where he called a conference with all the Guomindang leaders and Warlords (who nominally overlapped) of China. In it, against the wishes of Wang Jingwei and others who thought that further war was pointless and would result in even greater suffering, he persuaded them that fighting the war to the end was not only the only politically-acceptable course of action but also the only morally justifiable one. Chiang then publicly stated that China would keep fighting until Japan was defeated (with the unlikely entry of the USSR/USA into the war) or (inevitable without foreign intervention, though this went unsaid) the Guomindang was totally destroyed. Chongqing in the upper Yangzi basin, and continued the war of resistance from there. With casualties rapidly increasing on the Japanese side, their air force concentrated on carpet bombing of major cities to break Chinese morale. Chongqing still holds the sad distinction of being the most heavily bombed city in the world (if only because, unlike Hamburg or Nagoya, it wasn't destroyed in a single night of intense bombing but instead whittled away steadily over the course of seven years).

to:

Chiang relocated the capital first to Wuhan on the mid-Yangzi, where he called a conference with all the Guomindang leaders and Warlords (who nominally overlapped) of China. In it, against the wishes of Wang Jingwei and others who thought that further war was pointless and would result in even greater suffering, he persuaded them that fighting the war to the end was not only the only politically-acceptable course of action but also the only morally justifiable one. Chiang then publicly stated that China would keep fighting until Japan was defeated (with the unlikely entry of the USSR/USA into the war) or (inevitable without foreign intervention, though this went unsaid) the Guomindang was totally destroyed. Chongqing in the upper Yangzi basin, and continued the war of resistance from there.

With casualties rapidly increasing on the Japanese side, their air force concentrated on carpet bombing of major cities to break Chinese morale. Chongqing still holds the sad distinction of being the most heavily bombed city in the world (if only because, unlike Hamburg or Nagoya, it wasn't destroyed in a single night of intense bombing but instead whittled away steadily over the course of seven years).



Much as with the second half of the Soviet-German War (1942-45), the major combat operations of 1938-1941 (including the 1938 Battle of Wuhan and at least two of the five battles of Changsha) are usually 'lost' to common knowledge. These are glossed over for three reasons: 1) the Chinese Communist Party played no role in them, 2) nobody cares what the Guomindang/Taiwan have to say about them, and 3) Japan likes to pretend they didn't happen. Suffice it to say that although Wuhan was captured, Changsha wasn't. The campaigns did however help bleed the Guomindang dry and very nearly cut their rail-links with the Guangxi Clique (at Changsha). China also saw her Darkest Hour upon the withdrawal of Soviet aid in 1940 (done as the Soviet armament drive began in earnest).

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Much as with the second half of the Soviet-German War (1942-45), the major combat operations of 1938-1941 (including two of the titanic battles of Changsha and the 1938 Battle of Wuhan and at least two of the five battles of Changsha) Wuhan) are usually 'lost' to common knowledge. These are glossed over for three reasons: 1) the Chinese Communist Party played no role in them, 2) nobody cares what the Guomindang/Taiwan have to say about them, and 3) Japan likes to pretend they didn't happen. Suffice it to say that although Wuhan was captured, Changsha wasn't. The campaigns did however help bleed the Guomindang dry and very nearly cut their rail-links with the Guangxi Clique (at Changsha). China also saw her Darkest Hour upon the withdrawal of Soviet financial and material aid in 1940 (done (but not technical aid). This was done as the Soviet armament drive began in earnest).earnest.



China had two basic advantages -- it's an enormous country, with the world's largest population. During this time, MaoZedong and the CCP kept [[TheUriahGambit their truce]] with Chiang to... do nothing. The CCP did everything in its power to avoid antagonising Japan or her puppet regimes and did its best to undermine Guomindang and other independent guerilla groups behind Japanese lines, using their network of spies and sympathisers to tell the occupation forces who they where and where to find them (while maintaining plausible deniability and avoiding looking like they were directly fighting non-CCP Chinese resistance groups). Only recently has the [[RedChina People's Republic of China]] begun to admit that The Guomindang actually did anything at all to fight the Japanese, though it still maintains that the CCP did the brunt of the fighting when in fact they did ''none at all''[[note]] In propaganda this is known as the 'big lie' principle. More astonishing was the fact that some foreign observers who visited the CCP Soviet of Yan'an at the time (e.g. Patrick Hurley) actually believed it. Then again, said people also believed that the CCP was a strongly democratic and humanitarian organisation with a deep respect for human dignity and the rule of law[[/note]] except when Stalin bullied them into committing forces (in the shortl-lived 'hundred regiments offensive') to save the Guomindang's hide in 1940, when the latter was on the verge of collapse. The CCP's leader, [[MaoZedong Mao]] [[FromNobodyToNightmare something]], used this failure to further undermine the pro-Soviet faction within the CCP and assert his own independence from Moscow - resuming his truce with the Japanese to focus on turning the entire countryside under nominal Japanese occupation into one gigantic Communist Soviet so that either A) when the Guomindang was destroyed the CCP could eventually come to power by taking over Wang Jingwei's government (ideally Japan would be busy fighting someone else, e.g. The USSR, by then) or B) the CCP could beat a critically-weakened Guomindang in a continuation of The Civil War.

By the end of 1941, the Second Sino-Japanese War merged with UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, with The Republic Of China joining the Allies. Japan now controlled the cities and railway lines in coastal China, but had no control over anything more than a day's march or so (c.30 km) from the nearest railway line, canal, or river.

to:

China had two basic advantages -- it's an enormous country, with the world's largest population. From the very beginning the Japanese occupation forces were drowning in a sea of hostile humanity which they could barely interact with due to Japanese xenophobia and nationalism. Very few Japanese learned a foreign language - not even French or English - because it was a sign of possible 'unpatriotic tendencies'. But worse, the Japanese very quickly pissed off pretty much ''everybody'' through the sheer and pointless brutality and cruelty of their troops. So from the very beginning, the Japanese occupation was something of a joke: every level of government in the occupied territories was riddled with Guomindang and Warlord (and later, Communist) spies. Despite the Guomindang's total inability to break Japanese military codes, or even intercept their wireless messages at all in many cases (due to a lack of powerful radio transmitters and receivers), they usually knew pretty much everything the Japanese were up to anyway. The situation was just that bad.

During this time, period, MaoZedong and the CCP kept [[TheUriahGambit their truce]] with Chiang to... do nothing. The CCP did everything in its power to avoid antagonising Japan or her puppet regimes and did its best to undermine Guomindang Guomindang-backed and other independent guerilla groups behind Japanese lines, using their network of spies and sympathisers to tell the occupation forces who they where and where to find them (while maintaining plausible deniability and avoiding looking like they were directly fighting non-CCP Chinese resistance groups). Only recently has the [[RedChina People's Republic of China]] begun to admit that The Guomindang actually did anything at all to fight the Japanese, though it still maintains that the CCP did the brunt of the fighting when in fact they did ''none at all''[[note]] In propaganda this is known as the 'big lie' principle. More astonishing was the fact that some foreign observers who visited the CCP Soviet of Yan'an at the time (e.g. Patrick Hurley) actually believed it. Then again, said people also believed that the CCP was a strongly democratic and humanitarian organisation with a deep respect for human dignity and the rule of law[[/note]] except when Stalin bullied them into committing forces (in the shortl-lived short-lived 'hundred regiments offensive') to save the Guomindang's hide in 1940, when the latter was on the verge of collapse. The CCP's leader, [[MaoZedong Mao]] [[FromNobodyToNightmare something]], used this failure to further undermine the pro-Soviet faction within the CCP and assert his own independence from Moscow - resuming his truce with the Japanese to focus on turning the entire countryside under nominal Japanese occupation into one gigantic Communist Soviet so that either A) when the Guomindang was destroyed the CCP could eventually come to power by taking over Wang Jingwei's government (ideally Japan would be busy fighting someone else, e.g. The USSR, by then) or B) the CCP could beat a critically-weakened Guomindang in a continuation of The Civil War.

By the end As of December 1941, the Second Sino-Japanese War merged with UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, with UsefulNotes/WorldWarII and The Republic Of China joining the joined The Allies. Japan now still controlled the cities and railway lines in coastal China, but basically had no control power over anything the areas more than a day's march or so (c.30 km) from the nearest railway line, canal, or river.
16th Nov '15 11:27:30 AM constlotos
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Chiang relocated the capital first to Wuhan on the mid-Yangzi, where he called a conference with all the Guomindang leaders and Warlords (who nominally overlapped) of China. In it, against the wishes of Wang Jingwei and others who thought that further war was pointless and would result in even greater suffering, he persuaded them that fighting the war to the end was not only the only politically-acceptable course of action but also the only morally justifiable one. Chiang then publicly that China would keep fighting until Japan was defeated (with the unlikely entry of the USSR/USA into the war) or (inevitable without foreign intervention, though this went unsaid) the Guomindang was totally destroyed. Chongqing in the upper Yangzi basin, and continued the war of resistance from there. With casualties rapidly increasing on the Japanese side, their air force concentrated on carpet bombing of major cities to break Chinese morale. Chongqing still holds the sad distinction of being the most heavily bombed city in the world (if only because, unlike Hamburg or Nagoya, it wasn't destroyed in a single night of intense bombing but instead whittled away steadily over the course of seven years).

to:

Chiang relocated the capital first to Wuhan on the mid-Yangzi, where he called a conference with all the Guomindang leaders and Warlords (who nominally overlapped) of China. In it, against the wishes of Wang Jingwei and others who thought that further war was pointless and would result in even greater suffering, he persuaded them that fighting the war to the end was not only the only politically-acceptable course of action but also the only morally justifiable one. Chiang then publicly stated that China would keep fighting until Japan was defeated (with the unlikely entry of the USSR/USA into the war) or (inevitable without foreign intervention, though this went unsaid) the Guomindang was totally destroyed. Chongqing in the upper Yangzi basin, and continued the war of resistance from there. With casualties rapidly increasing on the Japanese side, their air force concentrated on carpet bombing of major cities to break Chinese morale. Chongqing still holds the sad distinction of being the most heavily bombed city in the world (if only because, unlike Hamburg or Nagoya, it wasn't destroyed in a single night of intense bombing but instead whittled away steadily over the course of seven years).
2nd Nov '15 10:36:34 AM h27kim
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Added DiffLines:

** Anime viewers are treated to a GeniusBonus in the form of General Ishihara, who had complex schemes in real life concerning Manchuria that ran somewhat contrary to the more militant Japanese leaders but were still exploitative and imperialistic from the perspective of the subject peoples, who plays an important if subdued role. Unfortunately, the continuation of the anime series into the Manchuarian plots was never produced.
29th Sep '15 8:17:20 PM Alceister
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China had one basic advantage -- it's an enormous country, with the world's largest population. During this time, MaoZedong and the CCP kept [[TheUriahGambit their truce]] with Chiang to... do nothing. The CCP did everything in its power to avoid antagonising Japan or her puppet regimes and did its best to undermine Guomindang and other independent guerilla groups behind Japanese lines, using their network of spies and sympathisers to tell the occupation forces who they where and where to find them (while maintaining plausible deniability and avoiding looking like they were directly fighting non-CCP Chinese resistance groups). Only recently has the [[RedChina People's Republic of China]] begun to admit that The Guomindang actually did anything at all to fight the Japanese, though it still maintains that the CCP did the brunt of the fighting when in fact they did ''none at all''[[note]] In propaganda this is known as the 'big lie' principle. More astonishing was the fact that some foreign observers who visited the CCP Soviet of Yan'an at the time (e.g. Patrick Hurley) actually believed it. Then again, said people also believed that the CCP was a strongly democratic and humanitarian organisation with a deep respect for human dignity and the rule of law[[/note]] except when Stalin bullied them into committing forces (in the shortl-lived 'hundred regiments offensive') to save the Guomindang's hide in 1940, when the latter was on the verge of collapse. The CCP's leader, [[MaoZedong Mao]] [[FromNobodyToNightmare something]], used this failure to further undermine the pro-Soviet faction within the CCP and assert his own independence from Moscow - resuming his truce with the Japanese to focus on turning the entire countryside under nominal Japanese occupation into one gigantic Communist Soviet so that either A) when the Guomindang was destroyed the CCP could eventually come to power by taking over Wang Jingwei's government (ideally Japan would be busy fighting someone else, e.g. The USSR, by then) or B) the CCP could beat a critically-weakened Guomindang in a continuation of The Civil War.

to:

China had one two basic advantage advantages -- it's an enormous country, with the world's largest population. During this time, MaoZedong and the CCP kept [[TheUriahGambit their truce]] with Chiang to... do nothing. The CCP did everything in its power to avoid antagonising Japan or her puppet regimes and did its best to undermine Guomindang and other independent guerilla groups behind Japanese lines, using their network of spies and sympathisers to tell the occupation forces who they where and where to find them (while maintaining plausible deniability and avoiding looking like they were directly fighting non-CCP Chinese resistance groups). Only recently has the [[RedChina People's Republic of China]] begun to admit that The Guomindang actually did anything at all to fight the Japanese, though it still maintains that the CCP did the brunt of the fighting when in fact they did ''none at all''[[note]] In propaganda this is known as the 'big lie' principle. More astonishing was the fact that some foreign observers who visited the CCP Soviet of Yan'an at the time (e.g. Patrick Hurley) actually believed it. Then again, said people also believed that the CCP was a strongly democratic and humanitarian organisation with a deep respect for human dignity and the rule of law[[/note]] except when Stalin bullied them into committing forces (in the shortl-lived 'hundred regiments offensive') to save the Guomindang's hide in 1940, when the latter was on the verge of collapse. The CCP's leader, [[MaoZedong Mao]] [[FromNobodyToNightmare something]], used this failure to further undermine the pro-Soviet faction within the CCP and assert his own independence from Moscow - resuming his truce with the Japanese to focus on turning the entire countryside under nominal Japanese occupation into one gigantic Communist Soviet so that either A) when the Guomindang was destroyed the CCP could eventually come to power by taking over Wang Jingwei's government (ideally Japan would be busy fighting someone else, e.g. The USSR, by then) or B) the CCP could beat a critically-weakened Guomindang in a continuation of The Civil War.
29th Sep '15 8:13:22 PM Alceister
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Throughout the '50s and '60s, Communist/'Mainland' China and Japan both blamed a small clique of Japanese militarist leaders for the war -- thereby leaving out the uncomfortable issue of the behaviour of Japanese troops -- and the Americans and British for The War. Communist China emphasized its own grass-roots patriotism and independence from the Soviets, also seeking to play up the -- actually very marginal -- actions of Maoists during the war. They also had to avoid mentioning the details of the actual war's conduct, since that would inevitably mean mentioning the Guomindang and the Warlords. This meshed well thematically with Communist China's other propaganda portraying all historical processes as being the product of grassroots peasant-proletarian struggle. While they were able to write the Warlords out of the war's history, they never felt able to completely deny the Guomindang's involvement and so instead worked to portray them as having been hopelessly corrupt, immoral, fascist, un-patriotic, traitorous puppets of the Americans. [[JerkassHasAPoint Of course, these criticisms had some basis in fact (especially after 1940)]].

to:

Throughout the '50s and '60s, Communist/'Mainland' China and Japan both blamed a small clique of Japanese militarist leaders for the war -- thereby leaving out the uncomfortable issue of the behaviour of Japanese troops troops, officers, and other military personnel -- and the Americans and British for The War. Communist China emphasized its own grass-roots patriotism and independence from the Soviets, also seeking to play up the -- actually very marginal -- actions of Maoists during the war. They also had to avoid mentioning the details of the actual war's conduct, since that would inevitably mean mentioning the Guomindang and the Warlords. This meshed well thematically with Communist China's other propaganda portraying all historical processes as being the product of grassroots peasant-proletarian struggle. While they were able to write the Warlords out of the war's history, they never felt able to completely deny the Guomindang's involvement and so instead worked to portray them as having been hopelessly corrupt, immoral, fascist, un-patriotic, traitorous puppets of the Americans. [[JerkassHasAPoint Of course, these criticisms had some basis in fact (especially after 1940)]].
12th Sep '15 5:28:28 AM saberwyn
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[[caption-width-right:350: Poster from the pro-Chinese (1937-44) phase of US propaganda[[note]] note the creators' decision to portray the Guomindang soldier with a dress cap, rather than a Straw Hat (too large, civilian-looking, and 'foreign'/'culturally backwards') or a standard-issue ''Stahlhelm'' (one of several inconvenient relics of inter-war Sino-German co-operation) [[/note]]

to:

[[caption-width-right:350: Poster from the pro-Chinese (1937-44) phase of US propaganda[[note]] note the creators' decision to portray the Guomindang soldier with a dress cap, rather than a Straw Hat (too large, civilian-looking, and 'foreign'/'culturally backwards') or a standard-issue ''Stahlhelm'' (one of several inconvenient relics of inter-war Sino-German co-operation) [[/note]]
[[/note]] ]]
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