History UsefulNotes / CanadianPolitics

20th Jun '16 5:21:22 AM MCanter89
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->''“If you put on too much weight? C’est la faute du fédéral!''[[note]]“It’s the fault of the federal [government]!” The song parodies the tendency of Canadian provincial governments (especially that of Quebec) to blame every little thing on the federal government.[[/note]]\\
''If you have a large prostate? C’est la faute du fédéral!”''

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->''“If you put on too much weight? C’est la faute du fédéral!''[[note]]“It’s the fault of the federal [government]!” The song parodies the tendency of Canadian provincial governments (especially that of Quebec) to blame every little thing on the federal government.[[/note]]\\
''If you have a large prostate? C’est la faute du fédéral!”''




* The '''House of Commons of Canada''' has 338 members,[[note]]From the 1993 elections until 2015, there were 308.[[/note]] all elected to represent districts known as “ridings” for a variable term not to exceed five years (in practice, it’s usually four for a majority government and less than two for a minority), with no limit on how often they may be re-elected. The size of this body varies, and in practice increases size every decade after each census. Since the Canadian government is much more centralized (in certain areas) compared to their American counterparts, the House of Commons is responsible for passing laws relating to the postal service, the census, the military, navigation and shipping, fishing, currency, banking, weights and measures, criminal law, bankruptcy, copyrights, patents, First Nations, and naturalization. Only education, provincial officers, municipal government, charitable institutions, and a few other strictly local or private avenues are at the jurisdiction of the local and provincial legislatures. (Of course, "private avenues" includes most of the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_law private law]] in Canada, which as any lawyer will tell you forms the bulk of actual law in any country.)

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\n* The '''House of Commons of Canada''' has 338 members,[[note]]From the 1993 elections until 2015, there were 308.[[/note]] all elected to represent districts known as “ridings” for a variable term not to exceed five years (in practice, it’s usually four for a majority government and less than two for a minority), with no limit on how often they may be re-elected. The size of this body varies, and in practice practice, it increases size every decade after each census. Since the Canadian government is much more centralized (in certain areas) compared to their American counterparts, the House of Commons is responsible for passing laws relating to the postal service, the census, the military, navigation and shipping, fishing, currency, banking, weights and measures, criminal law, bankruptcy, copyrights, patents, First Nations, and naturalization. Only education, provincial officers, municipal government, charitable institutions, and a few other strictly local or private avenues are at the jurisdiction of the local and provincial legislatures. (Of course, "private avenues" includes most of the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_law private law]] in Canada, which as any lawyer will tell you forms the bulk of actual law in any country.)



* The '''Canadian Senate''' has 105 members, all appointed — though in one case, the appointed Senator was chosen in a special election by the province he represents[[note]]That province is Alberta, and he joined the Red Chamber on the prime-ministerial watch of Stephen Harper, befitting the call for an elected upper chamber his old party regularly sounded.[[/note]] — and serving until age 75 (they were previously in for life; a law passed in 1965 changed this). The Senate has generally rubber-stamped legislation from the House of Commons for decades and is not allowed to introduce financial legislation. Technically, the Senate is the place for “sober second thought”, where the mobbish tendencies of democracy can be curbed and where legislation can be considered away from public pressure. The Senate can suggest changes to the bills, or delay a bill until it expires on the table, but it has almost never defeated one outright. The Senate, following a bit from its UsefulNotes/{{American|PoliticalSystem}} counterpart, also allows for some regional representation, where the number of senators from each province is much more equalized. Indeed, it's almost reversed in some ways, with the Western provinces having far fewer Senators than the Atlantic ones; as a result, Western premiers are the most likely to complain about Senatorial imbalance.\\

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* The '''Canadian Senate''' has 105 members, all appointed — though in one case, the appointed Senator was chosen in a special election by the province he represents[[note]]That province is Alberta, and he joined the Red Chamber on the prime-ministerial watch of Stephen Harper, befitting the call for an elected upper chamber his old party regularly sounded.[[/note]] — and serving until age 75 (they were previously in for life; a law passed in 1965 changed this). The Senate has generally rubber-stamped legislation from the House of Commons for decades and is not allowed to introduce financial legislation. Technically, the Senate is the place for “sober second thought”, where the mobbish tendencies of democracy can be curbed and where legislation can be considered away from public pressure. The Senate can suggest changes to the bills, bills or delay a bill until it expires on the table, but it has almost never defeated one outright. The Senate, following a bit from its UsefulNotes/{{American|PoliticalSystem}} counterpart, also allows for some regional representation, where the number of senators from each province is much more equalized. Indeed, it's almost reversed in some ways, with the Western provinces having far fewer Senators than the Atlantic ones; as a result, Western premiers are the most likely to complain about Senatorial imbalance.\\



* The '''Governor-General of Canada''', currently David Johnston, is the representative of the Sovereign, appointed in theory by the Sovereign and in practice by the Prime Minister, and has a mammoth assortment of powers, ranging from the ability to dissolve Parliament, appoint Senators, Supreme Court Justices, all high-ranking bureaucrats, and the Prime Minister and Cabinet, though they must keep the approval of the House of Commons. He is also Commander-in-Chief of the [[UsefulNotes/CanucksWithChinooks Canadian military]]. However, these powers are bound by a large amount of unwritten convention, and are almost never used except on instruction from the Prime Minister — the last time they were, in 1926, the resulting “King-Byng Affair” resulted in a massive public outcry that ended in the re-election of Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King, whom Governor-General Lord Byng had rejected[[note]]Mackenzie King was Prime MInister despite the fact that he didn't even have the most seats in the House of Commons. When he tried to ask Lord Byng to dissolve Parliament after it voted against his government and call an election, he refused and appointed Conservative Arthur Meighen as PM instead. Meighen fared no better, so an election was called, which Mackenzie King handily won[[/note]]. The Governor-General is, in theory, supposed to be chosen by the Sovereign from a list of candidates chosen by the Prime Minister. For quite some time now, the Prime Minister’s list of Governor-General appointees has been exactly one name long.

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* The '''Governor-General of Canada''', currently David Johnston, is the representative of the Sovereign, appointed in theory by the Sovereign and in practice by the Prime Minister, and has a mammoth assortment of powers, ranging from the ability to dissolve Parliament, appoint Senators, Supreme Court Justices, all high-ranking bureaucrats, and the Prime Minister and Cabinet, though they must keep the approval of the House of Commons. He is also Commander-in-Chief of the [[UsefulNotes/CanucksWithChinooks Canadian military]]. However, these powers are bound by a large amount of unwritten convention, and are almost never used except on instruction from the Prime Minister — the last time they were, in 1926, the resulting “King-Byng Affair” resulted in a massive public outcry that ended in the re-election of Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King, whom Governor-General Lord Byng had rejected[[note]]Mackenzie King was Prime MInister Minister despite the fact that he didn't even have the most seats in the House of Commons. When he tried to ask Lord Byng to dissolve Parliament after it voted against his government and call an election, he refused and appointed Conservative Arthur Meighen as PM instead. Meighen fared no better, so an election was called, which Mackenzie King handily won[[/note]]. The Governor-General is, in theory, supposed to be chosen by the Sovereign from a list of candidates chosen by the Prime Minister. For quite some time now, the Prime Minister’s list of Governor-General appointees has been exactly one name long.
19th Jun '16 8:31:24 PM SonofAkatosh
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However 2015 had another shift. After the longest election campaign since the 19th century (78 days, which may seem quaint to other countries), the balance of power shifted ''again''. In a stunning electoral win, the Liberal Party of Canada gained 184 seats from 34, a feat unprecedented in Canadian history, making Justin Trudeau Prime Minister, having won several seats in every province as well as sweeping the Atlantic Provinces and all three territories. The Conservatives were reduced to 99 seats with several influential ministers losing their seats. Finally, the NDP dropped to a mere 44 seats, losing to the Liberals several of what they considered very safe seats.

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However 2015 had another shift. After the longest election campaign since the 19th century (78 days, which may seem quaint to other countries), the balance of power shifted ''again''.''again'', though unlike the previous election, many noted this to be more of a [[StatusQuoIsGod return to a previous equilibrium]]. In a stunning electoral win, the Liberal Party of Canada gained 184 seats from 34, a feat unprecedented in Canadian history, making Justin Trudeau Prime Minister, having won several seats in every province as well as sweeping the Atlantic Provinces and all three territories. The Conservatives were reduced to 99 seats with several influential ministers losing their seats. Finally, the NDP dropped to a mere 44 seats, losing to the Liberals several of what they considered very safe seats.
11th Jun '16 7:55:39 PM 20person
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Each province elects a Legislative Assembly, whose members are normally named Members of the Legislative Assembly ([=MLAs=]), though Ontario calls them Members of Provincial Parliament ([=MPPs=]), Quebec calls them Members of the National Assembly ([=MNAs=]), and Newfoundland calls them Members of the House of Assembly ([=MHAs=]). All provinces and the Yukon use a similar electoral system as the federal House of Commons does, though generally the ridings are different[[note]]Ontario is an exception, where most ridings are identical to the federal ridings[[/note]]. The leader of the party with the most members generally becomes the Premier, though there are occasional exceptions when two smaller parties form a coalition to create a majority — this happened in Ontario in 1985, when the Ontario New Democratic Party made a formal agreement with the Liberal minority government. The Northwest Territories and Nunavut operate using a nonpartisan consensus government model, unique to the territories: the premier and speaker are then chosen from the elected [=MLAs=], who are all officially independent of political parties. This is similar theoretically to the U.S. state of Nebraska’s non-executive legislature and most municipalities in Canada. This nonpartisan model is supposedly based on the traditions of the Inuit and other peoples indigenous to the territories. [=MLAs=] in Nunavut and the NWT may be affiliated with federal parties privately, however, and should they pursue federal politics, align with a federal party; at present, the three territories are represented by Liberal [=MPs=] in the House and a Liberal and 2 Conservatives in the Senate. Each province’s representative of the Sovereign is appointed on recommendation from the Governor-General; in a province this officeholder is called the Lieutenant-Governor [[note]]Though they now represent the Queen directly, back when Canada was created, they represented the Governor General and were an instrument through which the federal government could veto provincial legislation; this is now only done if a provincial law is infringing on the federal government's responsibilities[[/note]], and in a territory, the name is Commissioner[[note]]Commissioners are appointed by and represent the federal government and not the Queen directly. They used to be powerful administrators who ruled territories directly, before the federal government curbed their powers and instituted democratically elected governments for the territories. Now, like the lieutenant governors, their role is mainly ceremonial.[[/note]].

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Each province elects a Legislative Assembly, whose members are normally named Members of the Legislative Assembly ([=MLAs=]), though Ontario calls them Members of Provincial Parliament ([=MPPs=]), Quebec calls them Members of the National Assembly ([=MNAs=]), and Newfoundland calls them Members of the House of Assembly ([=MHAs=]). All provinces and the Yukon use a similar electoral system as the federal House of Commons does, though generally the ridings are different[[note]]Ontario is an exception, where as most provincial ridings there are identical to the federal ridings[[/note]]. The leader of the party with the most members generally becomes the Premier, though there are occasional exceptions when two smaller parties form a coalition to create a majority — this happened in Ontario in 1985, when the Ontario New Democratic Party made a formal agreement with the Liberal minority government. The Northwest Territories and Nunavut operate using a nonpartisan consensus government model, unique to the territories: the premier and speaker are then chosen from the elected [=MLAs=], who are all officially independent of political parties. This is similar theoretically to the U.S. state of Nebraska’s non-executive legislature and most municipalities in Canada. This nonpartisan model is supposedly based on the traditions of the Inuit and other peoples indigenous to the territories. [=MLAs=] in Nunavut and the NWT may be affiliated with federal parties privately, however, and should they pursue federal politics, align with a federal party; at present, the three territories are represented by Liberal [=MPs=] in the House and a Liberal and 2 Conservatives in the Senate. Each province’s representative of the Sovereign is appointed on recommendation from the Governor-General; in a province this officeholder is called the Lieutenant-Governor [[note]]Though they now represent the Queen directly, back when Canada was created, they represented the Governor General and were an instrument through which the federal government could veto provincial legislation; this is now only done if a provincial law is infringing on the federal government's responsibilities[[/note]], and in a territory, the name is Commissioner[[note]]Commissioners are appointed by and represent the federal government and not the Queen directly. They used to be powerful administrators who ruled territories directly, before the federal government curbed their powers and instituted democratically elected governments for the territories. Now, like the lieutenant governors, their role is mainly ceremonial.[[/note]].
11th Jun '16 7:54:41 PM 20person
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* The '''Governor-General of Canada''', currently David Johnston, is the representative of the Sovereign, appointed in theory by the Sovereign and in practice by the Prime Minister, and has a mammoth assortment of powers, ranging from the ability to dissolve Parliament, appoint Senators, Supreme Court Justices, all high-ranking bureaucrats, and the Prime Minister and Cabinet, though they must keep the approval of the House of Commons. He is also Commander-in-Chief of the [[UsefulNotes/CanucksWithChinooks Canadian military]]. However, these powers are bound by a large amount of unwritten convention, and are almost never used except on instruction from the Prime Minister — the last time they were, in 1926, the resulting “King-Byng Affair” resulted in a massive public outcry that ended in the re-election of Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King, whom Governor-General Lord Byng had rejected. The Governor-General is, in theory, supposed to be chosen by the Sovereign from a list of candidates chosen by the Prime Minister. For quite some time now, the Prime Minister’s list of Governor-General appointees has been exactly one name long.

to:

* The '''Governor-General of Canada''', currently David Johnston, is the representative of the Sovereign, appointed in theory by the Sovereign and in practice by the Prime Minister, and has a mammoth assortment of powers, ranging from the ability to dissolve Parliament, appoint Senators, Supreme Court Justices, all high-ranking bureaucrats, and the Prime Minister and Cabinet, though they must keep the approval of the House of Commons. He is also Commander-in-Chief of the [[UsefulNotes/CanucksWithChinooks Canadian military]]. However, these powers are bound by a large amount of unwritten convention, and are almost never used except on instruction from the Prime Minister — the last time they were, in 1926, the resulting “King-Byng Affair” resulted in a massive public outcry that ended in the re-election of Prime Minister W.L. Mackenzie King, whom Governor-General Lord Byng had rejected.rejected[[note]]Mackenzie King was Prime MInister despite the fact that he didn't even have the most seats in the House of Commons. When he tried to ask Lord Byng to dissolve Parliament after it voted against his government and call an election, he refused and appointed Conservative Arthur Meighen as PM instead. Meighen fared no better, so an election was called, which Mackenzie King handily won[[/note]]. The Governor-General is, in theory, supposed to be chosen by the Sovereign from a list of candidates chosen by the Prime Minister. For quite some time now, the Prime Minister’s list of Governor-General appointees has been exactly one name long.



Each province elects a Legislative Assembly, whose members are normally named Members of the Legislative Assembly ([=MLAs=]), though Ontario calls them Members of Provincial Parliament ([=MPPs=]), Quebec calls them Members of the National Assembly ([=MNAs=]), and Newfoundland calls them Members of the House of Assembly ([=MHAs=]). All provinces and the Yukon use a similar electoral system as the federal House of Commons does, though generally the ridings are different. The leader of the party with the most members generally becomes the Premier, though there are occasional exceptions when two smaller parties form a coalition to create a majority — this happened in Ontario in 1985, when the Ontario New Democratic Party made a formal agreement with the Liberal minority government. The Northwest Territories and Nunavut operate using a nonpartisan consensus government model, unique to the territories: the premier and speaker are then chosen from the elected [=MLAs=], who are all officially independent of political parties. This is similar theoretically to the U.S. state of Nebraska’s non-executive legislature and most municipalities in Canada. This nonpartisan model is supposedly based on the traditions of the Inuit and other peoples indigenous to the territories. [=MLAs=] in Nunavut and the NWT may be affiliated with federal parties privately, however, and should they pursue federal politics, align with a federal party; at present, the three territories are represented by Liberal [=MPs=] in the House and a Liberal and 2 Conservatives in the Senate. Each province’s representative of the Sovereign is appointed on recommendation from the Governor-General; in a province this officeholder is called the Lieutenant-Governor [[note]]Though they now represent the Queen directly, back when Canada was created, they represented the Governor General and were an instrument through which the federal government could veto provincial legislation; this is now only done if a provincial law is infringing on the federal government's responsibilities[[/note]], and in a territory, the name is Commissioner[[note]]Commissioners are appointed by and represent the federal government and not the Queen directly. They used to be powerful administrators who ruled territories directly, before the federal government curbed their powers and instituted democratically elected governments for the territories. Now, like the lieutenant governors, their role is mainly ceremonial.[[/note]].

to:

Each province elects a Legislative Assembly, whose members are normally named Members of the Legislative Assembly ([=MLAs=]), though Ontario calls them Members of Provincial Parliament ([=MPPs=]), Quebec calls them Members of the National Assembly ([=MNAs=]), and Newfoundland calls them Members of the House of Assembly ([=MHAs=]). All provinces and the Yukon use a similar electoral system as the federal House of Commons does, though generally the ridings are different.different[[note]]Ontario is an exception, where most ridings are identical to the federal ridings[[/note]]. The leader of the party with the most members generally becomes the Premier, though there are occasional exceptions when two smaller parties form a coalition to create a majority — this happened in Ontario in 1985, when the Ontario New Democratic Party made a formal agreement with the Liberal minority government. The Northwest Territories and Nunavut operate using a nonpartisan consensus government model, unique to the territories: the premier and speaker are then chosen from the elected [=MLAs=], who are all officially independent of political parties. This is similar theoretically to the U.S. state of Nebraska’s non-executive legislature and most municipalities in Canada. This nonpartisan model is supposedly based on the traditions of the Inuit and other peoples indigenous to the territories. [=MLAs=] in Nunavut and the NWT may be affiliated with federal parties privately, however, and should they pursue federal politics, align with a federal party; at present, the three territories are represented by Liberal [=MPs=] in the House and a Liberal and 2 Conservatives in the Senate. Each province’s representative of the Sovereign is appointed on recommendation from the Governor-General; in a province this officeholder is called the Lieutenant-Governor [[note]]Though they now represent the Queen directly, back when Canada was created, they represented the Governor General and were an instrument through which the federal government could veto provincial legislation; this is now only done if a provincial law is infringing on the federal government's responsibilities[[/note]], and in a territory, the name is Commissioner[[note]]Commissioners are appointed by and represent the federal government and not the Queen directly. They used to be powerful administrators who ruled territories directly, before the federal government curbed their powers and instituted democratically elected governments for the territories. Now, like the lieutenant governors, their role is mainly ceremonial.[[/note]].
11th Jun '16 7:46:14 PM 20person
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* Pretty much nothing has happened to the Green Party in the election, with Elizabeth May continuing to fill the Greens’ single seat.

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* Pretty much nothing has happened to the Green Party in the election, with Elizabeth May continuing to fill the Greens’ single seat.
seat[[note]]A Green MP who defected from the NDP lost his seat though[[/note]].



Municipal politics tends to be officially nonpartisan, except in British Columbia and in Montreal, Quebec. However, individual councillors and mayors are often known to have particular partisan leanings — for example, Jack Layton, former leader of the federal NDP, was a member of the Toronto City Council before he won the leadership, and the current Mayor of Toronto, John Tory, once led the Ontario PC party.

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Municipal politics tends to be officially nonpartisan, except in British Columbia and in Montreal, Quebec. However, individual councillors and mayors are often known to have particular partisan leanings — for example, Jack Layton, former leader of the federal NDP, was a member of the Toronto City Council before he won the leadership, and the current Mayor of Toronto, John Tory, once led the Ontario PC party.
party and worked in the federal PC party before it collapsed.
11th Jun '16 7:30:44 PM 20person
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A variation of the normal election cycle ''almost'' occurred in December 2008, when the Liberals, NDP and Bloc Québécois drew up a formal agreement to topple the Prime Minister and the ruling Conservatives in a non-confidence vote (the previous October’s election had resulted in a minority government with the Liberals, NDP and Bloc together outnumbering the Conservatives) and then to request that the Governor-General [[WhatCouldHaveBeen install them as a majority coalition government]], all without triggering a general election. While such an act is perfectly legitimate in a parliamentary democracy, the Conservatives launched a media blitz characterizing the act as a “coup d’état,” banking on the (correct) assumption that many Canadians did not know how their own Parliament actually works, and killed the idea when the Liberals backed down. The fact that the Liberals had just had [[CurbStompBattle substantial losses]] in the preceding election but would be leading the coalition nonetheless also made the idea troubling to some Canadians, as did the fact that the coalition would require the support of separatists in the form of [[TokenEvilTeammate the Bloc Québécois]]. A new variation has been added for the 2015 election: while Parliament could still be dissolved at any time, the election date was fixed on October 19 [[note]]The government can theoretically ignore this law and have the election on any day they want[[/note]](the third Monday in October 2015), meaning the campaign could last anywhere from the standard 36–40 days to many months. Indeed, the latter scenario came to pass when the election was called on August 2, resulting in a record (sort-of)[[note]]The 1872 election lasted up to 89 days in some parts of the country, but as little as ''five days'' in others, because votes could be held at different times in different regions ([[http://www.ctvnews.ca/politics/analysis-ruling-parties-have-done-better-in-shorter-election-campaigns-1.2497260 source]]). While this was intended to reflect the new nation’s geographic spread and what was then a lack of infrastructure to traverse it, it also led to some blatant LoopholeAbuse by the ruling Conservatives, which was subsequently [[ObviousRulePatch patched out]].[[/note]] campaign length of 78 days.

to:

A variation of the normal election cycle ''almost'' occurred in December 2008, when the Liberals, NDP and Bloc Québécois drew up a formal agreement to topple the Prime Minister and the ruling Conservatives in a non-confidence vote (the previous October’s election had resulted in a minority government with the Liberals, NDP and Bloc together outnumbering the Conservatives) and then to request that the Governor-General [[WhatCouldHaveBeen install them as a majority coalition government]], all without triggering a general election. While such an act is perfectly legitimate in a parliamentary democracy, the Conservatives launched a media blitz characterizing the act as a “coup d’état,” banking on the (correct) assumption that many Canadians did not know how their own Parliament actually works, and killed the idea when the Liberals backed down. The fact that the Liberals had just had [[CurbStompBattle substantial losses]] in the preceding election but would be leading the coalition nonetheless also made the idea troubling to some Canadians, as did the fact that the coalition would require the support of separatists in the form of [[TokenEvilTeammate the Bloc Québécois]]. A new variation has been added for the 2015 election: while Parliament could still be dissolved at any time, the election date was fixed on October 19 [[note]]The [[note]]Although the government can theoretically ignore this law and have the election on any day they want[[/note]](the third Monday in October 2015), meaning the campaign could last anywhere from the standard 36–40 days to many months. Indeed, the latter scenario came to pass when the election was called on August 2, resulting in a record (sort-of)[[note]]The 1872 election lasted up to 89 days in some parts of the country, but as little as ''five days'' in others, because votes could be held at different times in different regions ([[http://www.ctvnews.ca/politics/analysis-ruling-parties-have-done-better-in-shorter-election-campaigns-1.2497260 source]]). While this was intended to reflect the new nation’s geographic spread and what was then a lack of infrastructure to traverse it, it also led to some blatant LoopholeAbuse by the ruling Conservatives, which was subsequently [[ObviousRulePatch patched out]].[[/note]] campaign length of 78 days.
11th Jun '16 7:30:04 PM 20person
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Canada also has a very short election cycle, which can, in theory, occur at any time. Elections usually occur on the third Monday in October in the fourth calendar year after the previous poll[note]However, if the government falls in a non-confidence vote (described later), elections can occur outside of the usual time. This happens more often in minority governments[/note]. In addition, a vote of non-confidence[[note]]A non-confidence vote occurs when a supply bill — that is, a bill dealing with the spending of money — is defeated, and reflects that the Parliament no longer believes that the Prime Minister is an effective leader. Essentially, it’s the legislative equivalent of ‘We’re firing you.’[[/note]] can force an election, and the Prime Minister can ask the Governor General to dissolve the government at any time — it is expected, but not legally required, that the Prime Minister will wait at least six months since the last election. Once government is dissolved, the election cycle normally lasts five to six weeks, during which candidates campaign and stump for votes.

to:

Canada also has a very short election cycle, which can, in theory, occur at any time. Elections usually occur on the third Monday in October in the fourth calendar year after the previous poll[note]However, poll[[note]]However, if the government falls in a non-confidence vote (described later), elections can occur outside of the usual time. This happens more often in minority governments[/note].governments[[/note]]. In addition, a vote of non-confidence[[note]]A non-confidence vote occurs when a supply bill — that is, a bill dealing with the spending of money — is defeated, and reflects that the Parliament no longer believes that the Prime Minister is an effective leader. Essentially, it’s the legislative equivalent of ‘We’re firing you.’[[/note]] can force an election, and the Prime Minister can ask the Governor General to dissolve the government at any time — it is expected, but not legally required, that the Prime Minister will wait at least six months since the last election. Once government is dissolved, the election cycle normally lasts five to six weeks, during which candidates campaign and stump for votes.
11th Jun '16 7:29:32 PM 20person
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Canada also has a very short election cycle, which can, in theory, occur at any time. Elections ''must'' occur on the third Monday in October in the fourth calendar year after the previous poll. In addition, a vote of non-confidence[[note]]A non-confidence vote occurs when a supply bill — that is, a bill dealing with the spending of money — is defeated, and reflects that the Parliament no longer believes that the Prime Minister is an effective leader. Essentially, it’s the legislative equivalent of ‘We’re firing you.’[[/note]] can force an election, and the Prime Minister can ask the Governor General to dissolve the government at any time — it is expected, but not legally required, that the Prime Minister will wait at least six months since the last election. Once government is dissolved, the election cycle normally lasts five to six weeks, during which candidates campaign and stump for votes.

A variation of the normal election cycle ''almost'' occurred in December 2008, when the Liberals, NDP and Bloc Québécois drew up a formal agreement to topple the Prime Minister and the ruling Conservatives in a non-confidence vote (the previous October’s election had resulted in a minority government with the Liberals, NDP and Bloc together outnumbering the Conservatives) and then to request that the Governor-General [[WhatCouldHaveBeen install them as a majority coalition government]], all without triggering a general election. While such an act is perfectly legitimate in a parliamentary democracy, the Conservatives launched a media blitz characterizing the act as a “coup d’état,” banking on the (correct) assumption that many Canadians did not know how their own Parliament actually works, and killed the idea when the Liberals backed down. The fact that the Liberals had just had [[CurbStompBattle substantial losses]] in the preceding election but would be leading the coalition nonetheless also made the idea troubling to some Canadians, as did the fact that the coalition would require the support of separatists in the form of [[TokenEvilTeammate the Bloc Québécois]]. A new variation has been added for the 2015 election: while Parliament could still be dissolved at any time, the election date was fixed on October 19[[note]]The third Monday in October 2015[[/note]], meaning the campaign could last anywhere from the standard 36–40 days to many months. Indeed, the latter scenario came to pass when the election was called on August 2, resulting in a record (sort-of)[[note]]The 1872 election lasted up to 89 days in some parts of the country, but as little as ''five days'' in others, because votes could be held at different times in different regions ([[http://www.ctvnews.ca/politics/analysis-ruling-parties-have-done-better-in-shorter-election-campaigns-1.2497260 source]]). While this was intended to reflect the new nation’s geographic spread and what was then a lack of infrastructure to traverse it, it also led to some blatant LoopholeAbuse by the ruling Conservatives, which was subsequently [[ObviousRulePatch patched out]].[[/note]] campaign length of 78 days.

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Canada also has a very short election cycle, which can, in theory, occur at any time. Elections ''must'' usually occur on the third Monday in October in the fourth calendar year after the previous poll.poll[note]However, if the government falls in a non-confidence vote (described later), elections can occur outside of the usual time. This happens more often in minority governments[/note]. In addition, a vote of non-confidence[[note]]A non-confidence vote occurs when a supply bill — that is, a bill dealing with the spending of money — is defeated, and reflects that the Parliament no longer believes that the Prime Minister is an effective leader. Essentially, it’s the legislative equivalent of ‘We’re firing you.’[[/note]] can force an election, and the Prime Minister can ask the Governor General to dissolve the government at any time — it is expected, but not legally required, that the Prime Minister will wait at least six months since the last election. Once government is dissolved, the election cycle normally lasts five to six weeks, during which candidates campaign and stump for votes.

A variation of the normal election cycle ''almost'' occurred in December 2008, when the Liberals, NDP and Bloc Québécois drew up a formal agreement to topple the Prime Minister and the ruling Conservatives in a non-confidence vote (the previous October’s election had resulted in a minority government with the Liberals, NDP and Bloc together outnumbering the Conservatives) and then to request that the Governor-General [[WhatCouldHaveBeen install them as a majority coalition government]], all without triggering a general election. While such an act is perfectly legitimate in a parliamentary democracy, the Conservatives launched a media blitz characterizing the act as a “coup d’état,” banking on the (correct) assumption that many Canadians did not know how their own Parliament actually works, and killed the idea when the Liberals backed down. The fact that the Liberals had just had [[CurbStompBattle substantial losses]] in the preceding election but would be leading the coalition nonetheless also made the idea troubling to some Canadians, as did the fact that the coalition would require the support of separatists in the form of [[TokenEvilTeammate the Bloc Québécois]]. A new variation has been added for the 2015 election: while Parliament could still be dissolved at any time, the election date was fixed on October 19[[note]]The 19 [[note]]The government can theoretically ignore this law and have the election on any day they want[[/note]](the third Monday in October 2015[[/note]], 2015), meaning the campaign could last anywhere from the standard 36–40 days to many months. Indeed, the latter scenario came to pass when the election was called on August 2, resulting in a record (sort-of)[[note]]The 1872 election lasted up to 89 days in some parts of the country, but as little as ''five days'' in others, because votes could be held at different times in different regions ([[http://www.ctvnews.ca/politics/analysis-ruling-parties-have-done-better-in-shorter-election-campaigns-1.2497260 source]]). While this was intended to reflect the new nation’s geographic spread and what was then a lack of infrastructure to traverse it, it also led to some blatant LoopholeAbuse by the ruling Conservatives, which was subsequently [[ObviousRulePatch patched out]].[[/note]] campaign length of 78 days.
11th Jun '16 7:06:34 PM 20person
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UsefulNotes/{{Canada}} is a federal parliamentary democracy within a constitutional monarchy. The head of state is the sovereign, currently Queen Elizabeth II, and the head of government is the Prime Minister, currently Justin Trudeau. Any citizen at least 18 years old may vote in any election, with two exceptions: the Chief and Deputy Chief Electoral Officers.

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UsefulNotes/{{Canada}} is a federal parliamentary democracy within a constitutional monarchy. The head of state is the sovereign, currently [[HMTheQueen Queen Elizabeth II, II]], and the head of government is the Prime Minister, currently Justin Trudeau. Any citizen at least 18 years old may vote in any election, with two exceptions: the Chief and Deputy Chief Electoral Officers.
3rd May '16 5:05:54 PM 20person
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Municipal politics are pretty much the same all over: the people of each town, city or regional municipality elect a mayor and around some number of councillors, ranging from a handful in small towns to 44 in UsefulNotes/{{Toronto}} depending on population. While party politics tend to be absent from smaller towns, bigger cities like UsefulNotes/{{Vancouver}} and UsefulNotes/{{Montreal}} tend to have parties, though they are generally unrelated to the provincial and federal parties. Municipal governments are responsible for things like utilities, zoning, and making sure developments go through the proper channels.

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Municipal politics are pretty much the same all over: the people of each town, city or regional municipality elect a mayor and around some number of councillors, ranging from a handful in small towns to 44 in UsefulNotes/{{Toronto}} depending on population. While party politics tend to be absent from smaller towns, bigger cities like UsefulNotes/{{Vancouver}} and UsefulNotes/{{Montreal}} tend to have parties, though they are generally unrelated to the provincial and federal parties. Municipal governments are responsible for things like utilities, zoning, and making sure developments go through the proper channels.
channels, as well as any other responsibilities delegated to them by the provincial government.
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