History UsefulNotes / BritishPoliticalSystem

3rd Aug '17 1:17:45 PM Karl304
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* '''Department for Health ([=DfH=])''': Responsible for keeping the NHS running and telling junior doctors to stop complaining. But only in England.

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* '''Department for Health ([=DfH=])''': Responsible for keeping the NHS running (though in which direction is debatable depending on your views) and telling junior doctors to stop complaining.that they don't know anything about being junior doctors. But only in England.
3rd Aug '17 1:13:55 PM Karl304
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[[folder: The Privy Council]]

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[[folder: The Privy Council]]
Council and Cabinet]]



* The Cabinet Office: based in Downing Street, they aid the PM in his or her job. For the benefit of confused Yanks, that makes them roughly equivalent to the Executive Office of the President, i.e., the immediate staff of the leader him/herself. They have a rather cool briefing room called COBRA (Cabinet Office Briefing Room A), which ministers will meet in during a crisis.
* The Treasury: By far the most important institution of British government following Parliament itself; indeed, the Prime Minister's ''official'' title, by which he/she gets most of his/her perks, is 'First Lord of the Treasury'. Featuring two Cabinet ministers - the Chancellor of the Exchequer and his deputy, the Chief Secretary to the Treasury. Sets taxation policies.
* The Home Office: nothing to do with housing, this is the department that deals with the police and the security services. Was split into two in 2007, with the new Ministry of Justice getting prisons and absorbing the Department of Constitutional Affairs, after being declared "not fit for purpose".
* The Foreign and Commonwealth Office: Formerly the Foreign Office, which people often call it today, it's run by the Foreign Secretary and its job is rather obvious. (The bit about the "Commonwealth" is because Commonwealth countries - and especially Commonwealth Realms, which do, after all, have the same head of state as Britain - are not technically "foreign"; witness how Britain has an Ambassador to the U.S. but a High Commissioner to Canada and India).
* Ministry of Defence ([=MoD=]): Again self-explanatory. Home is a large imposing white building in Whitehall, with statues around it, which is not particularly advertised, but rather obvious.

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* The '''The Cabinet Office: Office''': based in Downing Street, they aid the PM in his or her job. For the benefit of confused Yanks, that makes them roughly equivalent to the Executive Office of the President, i.e., the immediate staff of the leader him/herself. They have a rather cool briefing room called COBRA (Cabinet Office Briefing Room A), which ministers will meet in during a crisis.
* The Treasury: '''The Treasury''': By far the most important institution of British government following Parliament itself; indeed, the Prime Minister's ''official'' title, by which he/she gets most of his/her perks, is 'First Lord of the Treasury'. Featuring two Cabinet ministers - the Chancellor of the Exchequer and his deputy, the Chief Secretary to the Treasury. Sets taxation policies.
* The '''The Home Office: Office''': nothing to do with housing, this is the department that deals with the police and the security services. Was split into two in 2007, with the new Ministry of Justice getting prisons and absorbing the Department of Constitutional Affairs, after being declared "not fit for purpose".
purpose". Officially the "Home Department", but no-one ever calls it this.
* The '''The Foreign and Commonwealth Office: Office''': Formerly the Foreign Office, which people often call it today, it's run by the Foreign Secretary and its job is rather obvious. (The bit about the "Commonwealth" is because Commonwealth countries - and especially Commonwealth Realms, which do, after all, have the same head of state as Britain - are not technically "foreign"; witness how Britain has an Ambassador to the U.S. but a High Commissioner to Canada and India).
* Ministry '''Ministry of Defence ([=MoD=]): ([=MoD=])''': Again self-explanatory. Home is a large imposing white building in Whitehall, with statues around it, which is not particularly advertised, but rather obvious.
* '''The Northern Ireland Office, The Scotland Office, and The Wales Office''': Before the devolution settlements of the 1990s, these were the people in charge of running the local affairs of the non-English parts of the UK[[note]]Northern Ireland previously had a devolved government from 1921 to 1972, but this got into [[UsefulNotes/TheTroubles some]] [[JustForPun trouble]], with the NIO taking control from 1972 to 1998[[/note]]. Nowadays act as liaisons and lobbyists between the Westminster government and the devolved government, and have certain reserve powers to intervene if the devolved government falls apart.[[note]]As of yet, only used in Northern Ireland - to suspend the Northern Irish Parliament in 1972; suspend the Northern Irish Assembly in 2002; and to call a snap election to the Northern Irish Assembly in 2017.[[/note]]

The other departments in the Cabinet have been known to change on the whim of a Prime Minister (the last change being in 2016 when the Brexit and International Trade departments sprung up), but are currently the following:
* '''Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS)''': Created in 2016 from the Department for Energy and Climate Change, and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Responsible for business policy, consumer affairs, competition regulation, research, energy policy, intellectual property... [[TheLastOfTheseIsNotLikeTheOthers and outer space]].
* '''Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG)''': Has to deal with the cries of local councils. Also responsible for housing, building regulations, the fire service, and making people be nice to each other. But only in England - Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales all have their own regional equivalents (see the "Devolution" section).
* '''Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport''': The department which has to try and make people excited about the British Olympics team, while convincing everyone the country's broadband infrastructure is the best ever.
* '''Department for Education ([=DfE=])''': Responsible for schools, teachers, the curriculum, and adoption. But again, only in England.
* '''Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)''': Responsible for keeping the farmers happy. Also handles national parks, air quality, conservation... basically [[CaptainObvious anything environmental]].
* '''Department for Exiting the European Union ([=DExEU=])''': Probably the most unwanted job in the entire country at this point in time. Created in 2016, and responsible for negotiating the UK's exit from the European Union.
* '''Department for Health ([=DfH=])''': Responsible for keeping the NHS running and telling junior doctors to stop complaining. But only in England.
* '''Department for International Development ([=DfID=])''': Manages the UK's aid budget and foreign development schemes.
* '''Department for International Trade ([=DfIT=])''': The department which has to convince people that they want to stock British things in their country. Re-formed in 2016 (the department had been divided up since the 1980s) when the need for international trade deals (formerly negotiated by the EU on behalf of Britain) suddenly became a bit... more pressing.
* '''Ministry of Justice ([=MoJ=])''': For the whole UK - responsible for human rights, data protection, and the Supreme Court. In England and Wales only, gets to deal with all the prisons.
* '''Department for Transport ([=DfT=])'''[[note]]Or "[=DafT=]" to readers of PrivateEye[[/note]]: Responsible for Network Rail (but not the trains, or most of the stations, or anything in Northern Ireland), and selling the rights to run trains on UK railways to other countries' state railways, while refusing to run railways themselves.
* '''Department for Work and Pensions (DWP)''': The ones responsible for benefits, employment and health and safety. But only in England, Scotland and Wales. Gets a little bit of controversy for accusing everyone of being benefits cheats.
31st Jul '17 4:52:19 AM Karl304
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The political economy of the UK, plain and simple - though, [[HollywoodCuisine nowhere near as much so (nor as bland) as the food]].

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The political economy politics of the UK, plain and simple - though, [[HollywoodCuisine nowhere near as much so (nor as bland) as the food]].



Basically [[UsefulNotes/AmericanPoliticalSystem the USA's Republican Party]] with less money, guns, and foxes but every bit as much lust for all three. Formally ''the Conservative and Unionist Party'', indicating their position on UsefulNotes/TheIrishQuestion (and now the 'Scottish Question').

The party is split between three semi-distinct factions:

* [[UsefulNotes/PoliticalIdeologies Neoliberals]]: radicalised (neo)liberal extremists who believe in the power of The Free Market. Party insiders claim these may actually be a minority despite being the most vocal. Perhaps 1/4 of MPs, say insiders.
* [[UsefulNotes/PoliticalIdeologies Social Liberals]]: (christian) semi-socialists who believe that it is their (God-given) duty to care about the survival and wellbeing of most everyday people. At most 1/5 of the party according to insiders.
* [[TheGenericGuy Shills]]: unprincipled, self-interested, risk-averse, faceless suits. These scurry, scuttle, and slither between the other factions based upon which way they feel the prevailing winds to be blowing. They have no backbone except when it comes to the question of their own benefits and welfare claims from the public purse.

Party members are invariably wealthy men (or women, women can be born into the middle or upper classes too, #feminism) of independent means, but even so the funders (corporations and much richer people) of the Neoliberal wing have a ''very'' great deal of dosh to shower on those willing to bend the knee and swear fealty to The Free Market. As such virtually the entire party pretends to be convinced Neoliberals, though rumour has it that only a minority actually are.

This pursuit of money makes the party as a whole a puppet of the country's wealthiest individuals and corporations, which says and does whatever it is 'advised' to by the 'experts' who work for (neo)liberal thinktanks owned by the same people and entities. There is probably no better example than privatising the entire state healthcare and schooling systems: almost every (neo)liberal think tank claims that in theory privatisation would make these services better and cheaper (that's true, neoliberalism ''alays'' works on paper), but almost every British university and non-liberal think tank agrees that in every instance in which this has been done in the real world the opposite is true.

The Conservative Party wasn't always completely hostage to special interests. Under UsefulNotes/MargaretThatcher in the 1980s the party's members realised that it was possible to install themselves, their children, and their friends into the upper class by profiting from unleashing the financial sector. Doing this put them at odds with the party members who wanted a British government of, by, and for the landed gentry rather than bankers and corporate suits.

Moving on to trivia, in living memory they've secured the majority of their votes in the South-East of England and rural districts. The party colour is blue, and their icon appears to be a child's drawing of a tree, supposedly an attempt by the PR staff of David Cameron to emphasise the party's environmentalist credentials; it also harks back to the traditional symbol of Toryism, the Royal Oak. From 1975 to 2006, the symbol was a torch of liberty. They are popularly known as the "'''Tories'''", a term that [[AppropriatedAppellation originally was an insult against Irish cattle thieves]] and which was the name of the modern party's forebear. The current leader is UsefulNotes/TheresaMay, who assumed leadership after the resignation of UsefulNotes/DavidCameron, but the most famous member is probably former Mayor of London, UsefulNotes/BorisJohnson, famous for [[ColbertBump his appearances on the show]] ''Series/HaveIGotNewsForYou''. Has a substantial {{Hatedom}} they gained under UsefulNotes/MargaretThatcher that they've never got rid of, to the point where the Tories are seriously seen by a substantial amount (mainly northerners and the working class) of the population as evil incarnate.

The Conservatives currently form a minority government in Westminster after losing their majority in the 2017 election. Their one success story in the 2017 election has been increasing their number of seats in Scotland to 13, after years of only having one Scottish MP, and indeed it is the presence of these Scottish [=MPs=] which has given the numbers to try and form a minority government. To form this government, the Conservatives are relying on the support of the Northern Irish DUP (see below).

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Basically [[UsefulNotes/AmericanPoliticalSystem the USA's Republican Party]] with less money, guns, and foxes but every bit as much lust for all three. Formally ''the the Conservative and Unionist Party'', Party, indicating their position on UsefulNotes/TheIrishQuestion (and now the 'Scottish Question').

Question'), although this isn't always emphasised. The party is split between three semi-distinct factions:

* [[UsefulNotes/PoliticalIdeologies Neoliberals]]: radicalised (neo)liberal extremists who believe in
which currently has the power of PM and the Cabinet (Executive Branch). The Free Market. Party insiders claim these may actually be a minority despite being the most vocal. Perhaps 1/4 of MPs, say insiders.
* [[UsefulNotes/PoliticalIdeologies Social Liberals]]: (christian) semi-socialists who believe that it is their (God-given) duty to care about the survival and wellbeing of most everyday people. At most 1/5 of the
traditional party according to insiders.
* [[TheGenericGuy Shills]]: unprincipled, self-interested, risk-averse, faceless suits. These scurry, scuttle,
for rural voters, suburban voters, the aspirational working class/Nouveau Riche types, and slither between the other factions based upon which way they feel the prevailing winds to be blowing. wealthy. They have no backbone except when it comes tended to take a more populist approach to politics in recent years, especially during the question of their own benefits and welfare claims from the public purse.

Party members are invariably wealthy men (or women, women can be born into the middle or upper classes too, #feminism) of independent means, but even so the funders (corporations and much richer people) of the Neoliberal wing have a ''very'' great deal of dosh to shower on those willing to bend the knee and swear fealty to The Free Market. As such virtually the entire party pretends to be convinced Neoliberals, though rumour has it that only a minority actually are.

This pursuit of money makes the party as a whole a puppet of the country's wealthiest individuals and corporations, which says and does whatever it is 'advised' to by the 'experts' who work for (neo)liberal thinktanks owned by the same people and entities. There is probably no better example than privatising the entire state healthcare and schooling systems: almost every (neo)liberal think tank claims that in theory privatisation would make these services better and cheaper (that's true, neoliberalism ''alays'' works on paper), but almost every British university and non-liberal think tank agrees that in every instance in which this has been done in the real world the opposite is true.

The Conservative Party wasn't always completely hostage to special interests. Under
UsefulNotes/MargaretThatcher in the 1980s the party's members realised that it was possible to install themselves, their children, years and their friends into the upper class by profiting from unleashing the financial sector. Doing this put them at odds with the under UsefulNotes/DavidCameron's leadership, and are usually perceived these days as a centre-right party members who wanted with a British government of, by, middle-class focus and for classical liberal economic tendencies.[[note]]Especially under Thatcher and Cameron, the landed gentry rather than bankers Tories enacted/are enacting wide-ranging cuts to attempt to close the deficit.[[/note]] They've moved towards the middle in recent years, although they still have some right-wing traditionalist opinions such as on fox-hunting and corporate suits.

Moving on to trivia, in living memory they've secured the majority of their votes
benefits. The popular opinion between 1997 and 2015 was that there was very little difference between them and Labour.

Traditionally they have been popular
in the South-East of England and rural districts.areas. The party colour is blue, and their icon appears to be a child's drawing of a tree, supposedly an attempt by the PR staff of David Cameron to emphasise the party's environmentalist credentials; it also harks back to the traditional symbol of Toryism, the Royal Oak. From 1975 to 2006, the symbol was a torch of liberty. They are popularly known as the "'''Tories'''", a term that [[AppropriatedAppellation originally was an insult against Irish cattle thieves]] and which was the name of the modern party's forebear. The current leader is UsefulNotes/TheresaMay, who assumed leadership after the resignation of UsefulNotes/DavidCameron, but the most famous member is probably former Mayor of London, UsefulNotes/BorisJohnson, famous for [[ColbertBump his appearances on the show]] ''Series/HaveIGotNewsForYou''. Has a substantial {{Hatedom}} they gained under UsefulNotes/MargaretThatcher that they've never got rid of, to the point where the Tories are seriously seen by a substantial amount (mainly northerners and the working class) of the population as evil incarnate.

incarnate.


The Conservatives currently form a minority government in Westminster Westminster, after losing their majority in the 2017 election.election. While largely put down to poor leadership, utterly bland campaigning, and a rather questionable manifesto, the reasons for their failing so badly in the face of what was believed to be an open goal when the election was called will likely be analysed for months to come. Their one success story in the 2017 election has been increasing their number of seats in Scotland to 13, after years of only having one Scottish MP, and indeed it is the presence of these Scottish [=MPs=] which has given the numbers to try and form a minority government. To form this government, the Conservatives are relying on the support of the Northern Irish DUP (see below).
below), which while being their only possible ally in the current Parliament, is raising a few eyebrows among both supporters and detractors alike.



Historically a socialist party which advanced the interests of working people against the hereditary elite, the Labour Party has been captured by monied interests twice - the 1930s and the 1990s. Money loves a corrupted socialist party such as that of François Hollande, since they have all the economic policies of a pro-wealth party with all the pretence of a real socialist party. Thus it was with 'New Labour' under the money-grubbing Tony Blair (whose current net worth is [[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/tony-blair/11670425/Revealed-Tony-Blair-worth-a-staggering-60m.html at least 60 million quid]] thanks to post-retirement speaking gigs and other kickbacks).

You'll see a number of Labour members listed as "Lab/Co-Op". This means that they are also sponsored by the Co-operative Party, the political arm of the UK Co-operative movement (as in the supermarket chain Co-op). The Co-op Party differ very little from Labour, apart from an emphasis on fair trade, and don't run candidates themselves.

Many had believed that Corbyn was so anti-corporation and anti-upper-class that he had no chance of retaining the leadership of the party despite his popularity among the middle- and lower-upper, middle, and working classes. However, even after new members were barred from voting in the leadership election Corbyn won by a 2:1 majority. Moreover in the snap election of 2017, he led Labour from a 20-point hypothetical to a 2-point real lag in voting - all in spite, or perhaps because, of astoundingly unfavourable media coverage from virtually every pro-corporation and pro-upper-class corporation.

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Historically Started off as a socialist, working man's party (hence the name) but became increasingly concerned with more liberal middle-class issues in the late 1980s and moved closer to the centre under Neil Kinnock and especially Tony Blair, before moving slightly back to the left under Jeremy Corbyn.[[note]]We've skipped over a thumping great chunk of their history here, but it's not something you'd make movies about. Apart from the Miners and General Strikes of UsefulNotes/JamesCallaghan's time, but that's another story.[[/note]] In the mid 1990s, Blair dubbed his centrist vision for the party "New Labour", a piece of branding designed to distance Labour from its bitter infighting and more left-wing early 1980s incarnation, which the image-obsessed Blair thought had a negative perception amongst voters; this label came to be used more as a term of abuse by the party's enemies rather than a badge of honour, and the party itself has since dropped it. There was between 1994 and 2010 a dangerous divide between the Blairites, named after UsefulNotes/TonyBlair, and UsefulNotes/Brownites, named after Gordon Brown, and no one was quite sure what the difference was; the general consensus was that Brown was deemed slightly more socialist party which advanced the interests of working people against the hereditary elite, the Labour Party has been captured by monied interests twice - the 1930s and the 1990s. Money loves Eurosceptic.

Officially
a corrupted left-wing democratic socialist party, the party such as has taken a "broad church" approach to working class politics, inclusive of ideologies ranging from staunch Marxism to centrist "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Way Third Way]]" politics, which has secured their reputation for infighting. They've even flirted with authoritarian right-wing policies, especially with regard to civil liberties — to the point that of François Hollande, since they have all a historically very conservative Tory triggered a by-election in 2006 to protest a counter-terrorism bill — and anything UsefulNotes/PeterMandelson got his hands on, which mostly appeared to be desperate attempts at populism. They are traditionally popular in London, the economic policies North of a pro-wealth party with all the pretence of a real socialist party. Thus it was with 'New Labour' under the money-grubbing Tony Blair (whose England, Scotland, South Wales, large urban areas, and among trade unionists. The Labour party's current net worth icon is [[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/tony-blair/11670425/Revealed-Tony-Blair-worth-a-staggering-60m.html at least 60 million quid]] thanks to post-retirement speaking gigs the rose (a traditional symbol of European social-democratic parties), and other kickbacks).

the party colour, used in election materials and identification of Labour constituencies on maps, is red.

You'll see a number of Labour members listed as "Lab/Co-Op". This means that they are also sponsored by the Co-operative Party, the political arm of the UK Co-operative movement (as in the supermarket chain Co-op). The Co-op Party differ very little from Labour, apart from an emphasis on fair trade, and don't run candidates themselves. \n\nMany Labour lost its majority in the general election of May 6, 2010, and Brown was already planning to resign when the Liberal Democrats began flirting with forming a coalition with both Labour and the Conservatives. Although they made it clear they would only consider a coalition with Labour if Brown resigned, upon learning Brown was already going to resign, they formed a coalition with the Conservatives, citing the pragmatism of greater numbers for passing policy.[[note]]Any Labour-Lib Dem deal in 2010 would still have been short of a majority by 11 seats, and therefore would have required support from the SNP, Plaid Cymru, the Greens and parties from Northern Ireland[[/note]]

Brown's successor was Ed Miliband, who bested [[SiblingRivalry his brother David]] (and three other candidates who
had believed that Corbyn was so anti-corporation and anti-upper-class that he had little to no chance of retaining the victory) in a tight leadership of election. [[Series/DeadRingers Jon Culshaw]] was reportedly happy, as [[FanNickname Mili-E]] sounds exactly the party despite his same as Jon's impression of UsefulNotes/TonyBlair. However he too suffered a crushing defeat in the 2015 elections. At the time this was reported to be from a combination of Labour's lack of alternative to the Conservatives' economic policies, and the public's apparent inability to see Miliband as Prime Minister.

Miliband resigned shortly after losing, triggering another leadership election. Initially pretty much no one cared, but the elevation of dark horse candidate Jeremy Corbyn from an outsider to front runner to actual ''winner'' galvanised supporters and the public throughout the contest, with him being seen by many as the only alternative to a "Tory-lite" leader. Corbyn, a veteran socialist from the left wing of Labour, developed enormous
popularity among the middle- party's rank and lower-upper, middle, and working classes. file membership. However, even after new members most Labour [=MPs=] were barred from voting in less enthusiastic about his leadership, with many fearing his more left-wing views would doom the party in a general election. In summer 2016, conflict between Corbyn and the Parliamentary Party culminated in yet another leadership challenge less than a year into his premiership. Corbyn's loyal support among membership won that election Corbyn won by a 2:1 majority. Moreover an even greater margin, and, for better for worse, Labour has cemented his position as leader.

With press coverage of the Labour Party being rather stacked against them since Corbyn's ascension (many British newspapers [and their owners] having much more incentive to support the Conservatives' more right-wing views), many had written off Labour as being doomed to fall even to third-party status in the next election. However,
in the snap election of 2017, he led Labour managed to climb all the way back from a 20-point hypothetical to a 2-point real 20 point lag in voting - all the polls to a 1 point lag in spite, or perhaps because, of astoundingly unfavourable media coverage from virtually every pro-corporation two months, leaving the Conservatives without an overall majority in the Commons and pro-upper-class corporation.
making net gains of 30 seats. While obviously not being an outright victory, the sheer unexpected dark-horse nature of this result, not to mention the implication that Jeremy Corbyn might *actually* be able to win after all, has confounded both pollsters and more right-wing Labour [=MPs=] alike.\\



!!!! In Sco'land

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!!!! In Sco'landScotland



AKA the SNP. The social democratic centre-left party's raison d'être is Scottish independence. Formed in 1934 after the amalgamation of the National Party with the Scottish Party. Eight years after the re-congregation of the Scottish Parliament, the SNP emerged as the largest party and formed a minority administration with confidence-and-supply support from the Green Party (and later the Conservatives). In 2011, it won an overall majority, something considered extremely unlikely under the Scottish Parliament's electoral system. The SNP-formed Scottish Government held a referendum on independence on 18 September 2014, with Scotland choosing to remain in the United Kingdom. In the 2016 Holyrood elections, they retained dominance as Scotland's largest party, but lost their overall majority. The Conservatives leapfrogged Labour to become the second party of Scotland, reclaiming seats that had converted to Tony Blair's New Labour, and leaving the historic positions of SNP and Labour now thoroughly flipped.\\

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AKA the SNP. The social democratic centre-left party's raison d'être is Scottish independence. Formed in 1934 after the amalgamation of the National Party with the Scottish Party. Eight years after the re-congregation of the Scottish Parliament, the SNP emerged as the largest party and formed a minority administration with confidence-and-supply support from the Green Party (and later the Conservatives). In 2011, it won an overall majority, something considered extremely unlikely under the Scottish Parliament's electoral system. The SNP-formed Scottish Government held a referendum on independence on 18 September 2014, with Scotland choosing to remain in the United Kingdom. In the 2016 Holyrood elections, they retained dominance as Scotland's largest party, but lost their overall majority. The Conservatives leapfrogged Labour to become the second party of Scotland, reclaiming seats that had converted to Tony Blair's New Labour, and leaving the historic positions of SNP and Labour now thoroughly flipped.\\



The second largest party in Northern Ireland and the main nationalist (favouring Irish unification) party in the NI Assembly. While they've been elected to the House of Commons, they don't actually take their seats as they see NI's membership of the UK as illegitimate.[[note]]Also, if they did take their seats, they'd have to swear an oath of loyalty to the Crown.[[/note]] The cheeky buggers still [[http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/local-national/northern-ireland/sinn-fein-under-fire-over-westminster-expense-claims-16175256.html claim the Crown's expenses, however]]. During UsefulNotes/TheTroubles, they were (rightly) perceived as the political wing of the Provisional IRA -- when the then-leader Martin [=McGuinness=] said in negotiations, "We'll have to consult the [IRA] army council on this", the then-Foreign Minister (later Taoiseach) of Ireland, Brian Cowen, replied, "Yeah, well, there's a mirror in the toilet if you want to go in there and talk to them" -- but like the DUP they've generally managed to distance themselves from their more radical past.[[note]]One of the few heartwarming episodes in Northern Irish history was the solid partnership and genuine friendship that developed between Paisley and [=McGuinness=], during their term as (respectively) First Minister and Deputy First Minister, before Paisley's death in 2014. They were so frequently photographed laughing together that they got nicknamed the "Chuckle Brothers". Imagine a hardline, right-wing Israeli MP developing a friendly working partnership with a leader of Hamas, and you'll get a sense of how unlikely this was.[[/note]]

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The second largest party in Northern Ireland and the main nationalist (favouring Irish unification) party in the NI Assembly. While they've been elected to the House of Commons, they don't actually take their seats as they see NI's membership of the UK as illegitimate.[[note]]Also, if they did take their seats, they'd have to swear an oath of loyalty to the Crown.[[/note]] The cheeky buggers still [[http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/local-national/northern-ireland/sinn-fein-under-fire-over-westminster-expense-claims-16175256.html claim the Crown's expenses, however]]. During UsefulNotes/TheTroubles, they were (rightly) perceived as the political wing of the Provisional IRA -- when the then-leader Martin [=McGuinness=] said in negotiations, "We'll have to consult the [IRA] army council on this", the then-Foreign Minister (later Taoiseach) of Ireland, Brian Cowen, replied, "Yeah, well, there's a mirror in the toilet if you want to go in there and talk to them" -- but like the DUP they've generally managed to distance themselves from their more radical past.[[note]]One \\
\\
One
of the few heartwarming episodes in Northern Irish history was the solid partnership and genuine friendship that developed between Paisley and [=McGuinness=], during their term as (respectively) First Minister and Deputy First Minister, before Paisley's death in 2014. They were so frequently photographed laughing together that they got nicknamed the "Chuckle Brothers". Imagine a hardline, right-wing Israeli MP developing a friendly working partnership with a leader of Hamas, and you'll get a sense of how unlikely this was.[[/note]]
was.



[[folder: Major defuct parties ]]

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[[folder: Major defuct defunct parties ]]



Partially made up of the remnants of Britain's upper classes; a combination of hereditary lords (whose peerages are passed from parents to children), bishops known as Lords Spiritual, and other nobles, leaving it traditionally conservative-with-a-very-small-c. Tony Blair's Labour government was central in stripping some of the power from the House of Lords (in an attempt to stifle opposition to Blair), including removing all but 92 of the hereditary peers and replacing them with a wide range of peers from all walks of life, particularly those with scientific or other specialist knowledge, although there was a controversy about some candidates who got into office after making large donations to the Labour Party, in the Cash for Honours controversy. These were elected by committees as part of a Government drive. There were votes in 2007 to remove the last peers from the House, which were blocked by the Lords.

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Partially made up The upper chamber of the remnants Houses of Britain's upper classes; a combination Parliament. Members are one of hereditary lords (whose three possible components:
* '''Life peers''' - appointed by the monarch on behalf of the government of the day. These appointments can be for political reasons (to reward a donor, a minister who lost their seat, or just to butter someone up); or for technocratic reasons (to inform debates by including expert opinions in the chamber). As you can imagine, the former tend to be distinctly more common. Can choose whether or not they take a party whip. If they do not wish to identify with a political party, they can sit as Crossbenchers or Non-Affiliated Lords (see above).
* '''Lords Spiritual''' - the twenty-seven seniormost bishops of the Church of England. This is a holdover from the Church of England technically being part of the state. Normally don't play a part in actual debates, but have been known to flout this now and then.
* '''Hereditary peers''' - members whose
peerages are passed from parents to children), bishops known as Lords Spiritual, and other nobles, leaving it children. The chamber used to be almost entirely composed of this variety (who are traditionally conservative-with-a-very-small-c. Tony Blair's Labour from the landed gentry and upper classes), until reforms by the Blair government was central in stripping some of the power from the House 1990s got rid of Lords (in an attempt to stifle opposition to Blair), including removing most of them in favour of appointed life peers. A set number of 92 linger on, "elected" by all but 92 of the hereditary peers and replacing them with a wide range of peers from all walks of life, particularly those with scientific or other specialist knowledge, although there was a controversy about some candidates who got into office after making large donations eligible to the Labour Party, sit in the Cash for Honours controversy. These were elected by committees as part of House. Can choose to identify with or without a Government drive. There were votes party whip in 2007 to remove the last peers from the House, which were blocked by the Lords.
same manner as life peers.
28th Jul '17 4:51:01 AM MAI742
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!!! The parties and elections

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!!! [[folder: The parties and electionselections]]



!!! Major Defunct Parties:

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!!! [[/folder]]

[[folder:
Major Defunct Parties:defuct parties ]]



!!The House of Lords

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!!The [[/folder]]

[[folder: The
House of Lords
Lords]]



!!The Privy Council

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!!The [[/folder]]

[[folder: The
Privy Council
Council]]



!!Devolution of Power

to:

!!Devolution of Power
[[/folder]]

[[folder: Devolution]]



All borough and city councils have a Mayor or in Scotland a Provost. Some are

to:

All borough and city councils have a Mayor or in Scotland a Provost. Some are[[/folder]]
28th Jul '17 4:45:08 AM MAI742
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* [[UsefulNotes/PoliticalIdeologies Social Liberals]]: (christian) semi-socialists who believe that it is their (God-given) duty to about the survival and wellbeing of most everyday people. At most 1/5 of the party according to insiders.

to:

* [[UsefulNotes/PoliticalIdeologies Social Liberals]]: (christian) semi-socialists who believe that it is their (God-given) duty to care about the survival and wellbeing of most everyday people. At most 1/5 of the party according to insiders.



All borough and city councils have a Mayor or in Scotland a Provost. Some are known as Lord Mayors or Provosts. This is usually elected by the Councillors from among themselves, and involves mainly doing ceremonial and charity work. However, some areas have an elected Mayor, most notably Hartlepool, which in 2002 elected the guy who was in the suit of their town's football mascot, H'Angus The Monkey[[note]]Hartlepool is the town that - according to legend - hung a monkey during the Napoleonic Wars, thinking it was an enemy spy and still hasn't managed to live it down[[/note]]. Despite the fact that he didn't actually expect to get elected, he's done a great job and in 2009 became the first mayor in England to be re-elected for a third term.

Some more stuff on specific cities and towns is covered in UsefulNotes/OtherBritishTownsAndCities.

N.B.: The UK local government divisions are ''not'' the same as the postal ones, which are based on older county lines.

!!The Royal Family

Originally formed as warring Anglo-Saxons joined together under one leader, for hundreds of years the monarch served as the de facto leader of England, passing on the power to a relative, preferably a son, upon death. After the childless "Virgin Queen" Elizabeth died, the Scottish monarch James VI of the House of Stuart, her first cousin twice removed (being the grandson of her cousin James V), came to the throne as James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland. Unfortunately his son, Charles I, wasn't too good at the job he later inherited, as his opposition to Parliament triggered the English Civil War, which ended with Charles getting beheaded in 1649. Following the King's execution, Parliament declared the abolition of the monarchy and the formation of a republic called the "Commonwealth" governed by Parliament in its own right: an extremely radical concept for those times. Despite officially ruling in the name of the people, the Commonwealth was dominated by both army, who had fought the King's men during the civil war and were essentially the reason it existed, and followers of the Puritan faith whose influence meant that the Commonwealth was often rather more like a theocratic "Christian republic" than a republic in the Roman, American or French understanding. The Puritans, as their name suggests, weren't fond of fun and many strict religious rules were enforced including the infamous banning of Christmas festivities.[[note]]The Puritans during the Commonwealth were actually more divided and less strict than they became later; Cromwell believed strongly in religious liberty (well, for everyone except Catholics) and the infamously fun-hating Presbyterians didn't become the dominant strand of English Puritanism until after the Restoration.[[/note]]

This set-up lasted only a few years until an MP and military commander in the civil war called Oliver Cromwell (who had also conquered Scotland and Ireland and absorbed them into the Commonwealth, the latter during a campaign that is infamous in Ireland for its brutality) forcibly dissolved the sitting Parliament, and therefore the government, with the help of the army and arranged for his installation as "Lord Protector" in 1653 (a proto-President-for-life). This was along with an appointed Parliament composed of people Cromwell regarded as worthy men, though were later an actually elected Parliament, but still subject to restrictions to keep out royalists. To pay for the military campaigns, Cromwell forcibly ejected Catholic landowners in Ireland in favour of Puritan settlers.

Cromwell was a Puritan and his objection to the sitting Parliament had been that they were unworthy and ungodly men, and were attempting to sustain themselves indefinitely. The new regime proved stable enough, although on his death in 1658 power passed to his son, Richard, who was unable to control Parliament and the army and resigned his office after only nine months in power, restoring the "genuine" Parliamentary republic. Another year of political turmoil demonstrated that someone was needed to restore the power vacuum that Cromwell's death had created and a new Parliament was elected which voted in the summer of 1660 to invite Charles' son back to take the throne thus restoring the monarchy as well as the independence of Scotland.

Charles II, unlike his father, managed to hold the country together although a major disagreement with Parliament over his intention that his Catholic brother James should succeed him lead to him dissolving Parliament and, very much in the family tradition, ruling as an absolute monarch for his remaining years. When James II came to the throne intrigues began against him immediately and, after only three years, he was deposed in a coup d'etat known as the "Glorious Revolution" in 1688 in which the Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, William III of Orange, was invited to invade England and become King William III (ruling jointly with his wife Mary, James II's estranged daughter, who provided the "legal" window-dressing for William's claim and became Mary II).

The revolt was successful, James was deposed and Parliament entered a further agreement with the new King severely limiting his powers and ensuring that another Stuart-style "tyrant" could never rule England again. It also contained a clause preventing a Catholic monarch from taking the throne, a clause which still persists. However, many monarchists believed that Parliament had no right to "choose" England's monarch in this manner and became "Jacobites", recognising the ousted line of James II as the legal monarchs of England and Scotland. This movement made two serious attempts at regaining the English throne for the Stuarts, the last in the 1740s[[note]]First, James II went to Ireland and raised Catholics there into an army, backed by Scottish Catholics (mostly Highlanders), troops sent from Catholic kings on the continent, English monarchists and miscellaneous mercenaries. He attacked and failed to take the largely Protestant city of Derry, giving rise to the Orange Order. He was then eventually beaten at the Battle of the Boyne by William's army of English and Dutch troops, troops sent by various Protestant nations on the continent, Scottish and Irish Protestants, and miscellaneous mercenaries in what was probably the most multicultural battle in British history. After that, James II abandoned his Irish allies, who thus termed him ''Seamus an Chaca'' -- "James the Shit'' in Irish. That said, the battle of the Battle of Culloden where James II’s half-Polish, quarter French, Italian born grandson [[OverlyLongName Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Silvester Severino Maria Stuart]] aka “Bonnie Prince Charlie” tried to take the English and Scottish thrones back from the German George II with his army of Scottish Highlanders, token supporting English and Irish Jacobites, random mercenaries, and a promise of support from an invading French army which never materialised, and was defeated by an English-born royal half-German, the Duke of Cumberland, leading an army of lowland Scots plus a few English, Welsh and Irish serving in the Hanoverian army, comes a close second.[[/note]]. The 1688 "revolution" and the powerful Parliament and controlled monarchy it created is generally regarded as the basis of the modern British state. At about this time, the Whigs and Tories - predecessors of the Liberal and Conservative Parties, respectively - formed. By 1714, the Protestant branch of the House of Stuart was dead, and the German-speaking George, Elector of Hanover, became King George of Great Britain. On account of King George's near-complete ignorance of the English language and consequent relative lack of interest in his British domains, the institution of Prime Minister (but not officially called such until the 20th Century) cropped up to administer Britain and its already considerable empire. By the time that George I's great-grandson George III (an Englishman through and through, but prone to insanity due to a recurring illness) inherited the throne, Parliament had definitely established its supremacy and the Prime Minister, and not the monarch, was the most important person in the state.

The modern monarch doesn't really do all that much; his or her powers are purely ceremonial, a result of Parliament taking on more and more of the monarch's remaining powers in the 18th and 19th century, helped by a succession of monarchs who were, in order, unable to speak English (George I and II), mentally ill (George III), a total dilletante (George IV), very old and only king for seven years (William IV), a woman (Victoria) and another dilletante (Edward VII). There were only three periods when monarchs tried to assert themselves in any serious fashion, and they were ended, respectively, by losing a war in America, the death of George IV and the death of Albert. To be honest, the monarchs would barely have been able to prevent the eroding of their remaining power if they'd made the effort.

While the monarch does ''technically'' have the ability to veto any act of Parliament, to refuse a nominated Prime Minister, to sack the Prime Minister if he messes up, or to mobilise the army, to actually do so would likely cause a massive public outcry as it would be going against the will of the people by virtue of going against their democratically-elected leader. It is also extremely unlikely that the monarch could face off against the rest of the British political establishment and win (the last monarch to do anything against the will of Parliament was King William IV in the 19th century and even then his action -- appointing his own choice of Prime Minister -- was extremely controversial and done at the behest of a coterie of powerful politicians). Additionally while the Prime Minister will go to ask the Monarch's permission to dissolve Parliament, call a General Election and assemble a new Parliament after the elections this is more tradition than an actual power.

However, the current Queen is not entirely powerless. As the armed forces swear allegiance to the monarch and not to the Government, should the Prime Minister declare themselves a dictatorial leader, the queen can directly order the forces to stand down and, if necessary, turn against Westminster. This would be an awesome ending to a film, if anyone wants to make it. She also holds similar powers over some of the other nations in the Commonwealth via her Governors-General, her official representatives to the Commonwealth realms who swear allegiance to her as their head of state. The entire Australian Parliament was even dismissed by one Governor-General as recently as 1975, mainly because the politicians were arguing too much over money and how it should be spent.

Mostly, however, the monarch drinks tea and acts as a source of advice to the Prime Minister. Several prime ministers have attested that this is typically ''not'' just ceremony: the Queen has access to most significant government documents, and apparently, has spent several hours a day '''every''' day for the last sixty or so years going through them. There's very little she doesn't know about government policy, and her advice has proven invaluable to several Prime Ministers (UsefulNotes/TonyBlair in particular noted this, much to the annoyance of his republican wife; this is portrayed quite clearly in ''Film/TheQueen''). The current monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is reportedly a [[OneOfUs fan]] of the new series of ''Series/DoctorWho'' and plays the UsefulNotes/{{Wii}}. Contrary to popular belief, UsefulNotes/BarackObama's gift of an iPod to the Queen was not an ill-informed ''faux pas''; while it is true she already had one, she had previously mentioned that it was out of date and would really appreciate a more up to date one.[[note]]US and UK dignitaries of late have an odd tradition of giving rather silly or somewhat tacky gifts to the visiting dignitary. There is typically the more traditional and special gift (Obama gave the Queen a rare song book signed by the creator to go with the iPod, but the sillier ones tend to get more press.[[/note]]

The traditional way to refer to the monarch is "His/Her/Your Majesty" the first time you mention them, and then "sir" or ma'am" thereafter. In the past when more countries had monarchs, the British monarch was sometimes specifically identified as "His/Her Britannic Majesty", which still typically appears on customs documents such as passports.

Good etiquette upon meeting the monarch is for a lady to do a small curtsy, or a man to do a small bow, from the head. On presentation to The Queen, the correct formal address is 'Your Majesty' and subsequently 'Ma'am'. However, the official line from the Palace is that there there are no obligatory codes of behaviour - just courtesy. The Queen herself will notice if you slip up, but naturally will not be bothered by it.

Such was the power and scope of the British Empire that the Westminster system is still used in many Commonwealth countries, notably [[UsefulNotes/AustralianPolitics Australia]], [[UsefulNotes/CanadianPolitics Canada]], New Zealand, half the Caribbean, as well a number of countries that still use the system despite no longer recognising the Queen as their Head of State.

See UsefulNotes/TheHouseOfWindsor for more about "Queenie" and her family in fact and fiction.

----
See UsefulNotes/IrishPoliticalSystem for the way it works a little west.
----

to:

All borough and city councils have a Mayor or in Scotland a Provost. Some are known as Lord Mayors or Provosts. This is usually elected by the Councillors from among themselves, and involves mainly doing ceremonial and charity work. However, some areas have an elected Mayor, most notably Hartlepool, which in 2002 elected the guy who was in the suit of their town's football mascot, H'Angus The Monkey[[note]]Hartlepool is the town that - according to legend - hung a monkey during the Napoleonic Wars, thinking it was an enemy spy and still hasn't managed to live it down[[/note]]. Despite the fact that he didn't actually expect to get elected, he's done a great job and in 2009 became the first mayor in England to be re-elected for a third term.

Some more stuff on specific cities and towns is covered in UsefulNotes/OtherBritishTownsAndCities.

N.B.: The UK local government divisions are ''not'' the same as the postal ones, which are based on older county lines.

!!The Royal Family

Originally formed as warring Anglo-Saxons joined together under one leader, for hundreds of years the monarch served as the de facto leader of England, passing on the power to a relative, preferably a son, upon death. After the childless "Virgin Queen" Elizabeth died, the Scottish monarch James VI of the House of Stuart, her first cousin twice removed (being the grandson of her cousin James V), came to the throne as James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland. Unfortunately his son, Charles I, wasn't too good at the job he later inherited, as his opposition to Parliament triggered the English Civil War, which ended with Charles getting beheaded in 1649. Following the King's execution, Parliament declared the abolition of the monarchy and the formation of a republic called the "Commonwealth" governed by Parliament in its own right: an extremely radical concept for those times. Despite officially ruling in the name of the people, the Commonwealth was dominated by both army, who had fought the King's men during the civil war and were essentially the reason it existed, and followers of the Puritan faith whose influence meant that the Commonwealth was often rather more like a theocratic "Christian republic" than a republic in the Roman, American or French understanding. The Puritans, as their name suggests, weren't fond of fun and many strict religious rules were enforced including the infamous banning of Christmas festivities.[[note]]The Puritans during the Commonwealth were actually more divided and less strict than they became later; Cromwell believed strongly in religious liberty (well, for everyone except Catholics) and the infamously fun-hating Presbyterians didn't become the dominant strand of English Puritanism until after the Restoration.[[/note]]

This set-up lasted only a few years until an MP and military commander in the civil war called Oliver Cromwell (who had also conquered Scotland and Ireland and absorbed them into the Commonwealth, the latter during a campaign that is infamous in Ireland for its brutality) forcibly dissolved the sitting Parliament, and therefore the government, with the help of the army and arranged for his installation as "Lord Protector" in 1653 (a proto-President-for-life). This was along with an appointed Parliament composed of people Cromwell regarded as worthy men, though were later an actually elected Parliament, but still subject to restrictions to keep out royalists. To pay for the military campaigns, Cromwell forcibly ejected Catholic landowners in Ireland in favour of Puritan settlers.

Cromwell was a Puritan and his objection to the sitting Parliament had been that they were unworthy and ungodly men, and were attempting to sustain themselves indefinitely. The new regime proved stable enough, although on his death in 1658 power passed to his son, Richard, who was unable to control Parliament and the army and resigned his office after only nine months in power, restoring the "genuine" Parliamentary republic. Another year of political turmoil demonstrated that someone was needed to restore the power vacuum that Cromwell's death had created and a new Parliament was elected which voted in the summer of 1660 to invite Charles' son back to take the throne thus restoring the monarchy as well as the independence of Scotland.

Charles II, unlike his father, managed to hold the country together although a major disagreement with Parliament over his intention that his Catholic brother James should succeed him lead to him dissolving Parliament and, very much in the family tradition, ruling as an absolute monarch for his remaining years. When James II came to the throne intrigues began against him immediately and, after only three years, he was deposed in a coup d'etat known as the "Glorious Revolution" in 1688 in which the Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, William III of Orange, was invited to invade England and become King William III (ruling jointly with his wife Mary, James II's estranged daughter, who provided the "legal" window-dressing for William's claim and became Mary II).

The revolt was successful, James was deposed and Parliament entered a further agreement with the new King severely limiting his powers and ensuring that another Stuart-style "tyrant" could never rule England again. It also contained a clause preventing a Catholic monarch from taking the throne, a clause which still persists. However, many monarchists believed that Parliament had no right to "choose" England's monarch in this manner and became "Jacobites", recognising the ousted line of James II as the legal monarchs of England and Scotland. This movement made two serious attempts at regaining the English throne for the Stuarts, the last in the 1740s[[note]]First, James II went to Ireland and raised Catholics there into an army, backed by Scottish Catholics (mostly Highlanders), troops sent from Catholic kings on the continent, English monarchists and miscellaneous mercenaries. He attacked and failed to take the largely Protestant city of Derry, giving rise to the Orange Order. He was then eventually beaten at the Battle of the Boyne by William's army of English and Dutch troops, troops sent by various Protestant nations on the continent, Scottish and Irish Protestants, and miscellaneous mercenaries in what was probably the most multicultural battle in British history. After that, James II abandoned his Irish allies, who thus termed him ''Seamus an Chaca'' -- "James the Shit'' in Irish. That said, the battle of the Battle of Culloden where James II’s half-Polish, quarter French, Italian born grandson [[OverlyLongName Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Silvester Severino Maria Stuart]] aka “Bonnie Prince Charlie” tried to take the English and Scottish thrones back from the German George II with his army of Scottish Highlanders, token supporting English and Irish Jacobites, random mercenaries, and a promise of support from an invading French army which never materialised, and was defeated by an English-born royal half-German, the Duke of Cumberland, leading an army of lowland Scots plus a few English, Welsh and Irish serving in the Hanoverian army, comes a close second.[[/note]]. The 1688 "revolution" and the powerful Parliament and controlled monarchy it created is generally regarded as the basis of the modern British state. At about this time, the Whigs and Tories - predecessors of the Liberal and Conservative Parties, respectively - formed. By 1714, the Protestant branch of the House of Stuart was dead, and the German-speaking George, Elector of Hanover, became King George of Great Britain. On account of King George's near-complete ignorance of the English language and consequent relative lack of interest in his British domains, the institution of Prime Minister (but not officially called such until the 20th Century) cropped up to administer Britain and its already considerable empire. By the time that George I's great-grandson George III (an Englishman through and through, but prone to insanity due to a recurring illness) inherited the throne, Parliament had definitely established its supremacy and the Prime Minister, and not the monarch, was the most important person in the state.

The modern monarch doesn't really do all that much; his or her powers are purely ceremonial, a result of Parliament taking on more and more of the monarch's remaining powers in the 18th and 19th century, helped by a succession of monarchs who were, in order, unable to speak English (George I and II), mentally ill (George III), a total dilletante (George IV), very old and only king for seven years (William IV), a woman (Victoria) and another dilletante (Edward VII). There were only three periods when monarchs tried to assert themselves in any serious fashion, and they were ended, respectively, by losing a war in America, the death of George IV and the death of Albert. To be honest, the monarchs would barely have been able to prevent the eroding of their remaining power if they'd made the effort.

While the monarch does ''technically'' have the ability to veto any act of Parliament, to refuse a nominated Prime Minister, to sack the Prime Minister if he messes up, or to mobilise the army, to actually do so would likely cause a massive public outcry as it would be going against the will of the people by virtue of going against their democratically-elected leader. It is also extremely unlikely that the monarch could face off against the rest of the British political establishment and win (the last monarch to do anything against the will of Parliament was King William IV in the 19th century and even then his action -- appointing his own choice of Prime Minister -- was extremely controversial and done at the behest of a coterie of powerful politicians). Additionally while the Prime Minister will go to ask the Monarch's permission to dissolve Parliament, call a General Election and assemble a new Parliament after the elections this is more tradition than an actual power.

However, the current Queen is not entirely powerless. As the armed forces swear allegiance to the monarch and not to the Government, should the Prime Minister declare themselves a dictatorial leader, the queen can directly order the forces to stand down and, if necessary, turn against Westminster. This would be an awesome ending to a film, if anyone wants to make it. She also holds similar powers over some of the other nations in the Commonwealth via her Governors-General, her official representatives to the Commonwealth realms who swear allegiance to her as their head of state. The entire Australian Parliament was even dismissed by one Governor-General as recently as 1975, mainly because the politicians were arguing too much over money and how it should be spent.

Mostly, however, the monarch drinks tea and acts as a source of advice to the Prime Minister. Several prime ministers have attested that this is typically ''not'' just ceremony: the Queen has access to most significant government documents, and apparently, has spent several hours a day '''every''' day for the last sixty or so years going through them. There's very little she doesn't know about government policy, and her advice has proven invaluable to several Prime Ministers (UsefulNotes/TonyBlair in particular noted this, much to the annoyance of his republican wife; this is portrayed quite clearly in ''Film/TheQueen''). The current monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is reportedly a [[OneOfUs fan]] of the new series of ''Series/DoctorWho'' and plays the UsefulNotes/{{Wii}}. Contrary to popular belief, UsefulNotes/BarackObama's gift of an iPod to the Queen was not an ill-informed ''faux pas''; while it is true she already had one, she had previously mentioned that it was out of date and would really appreciate a more up to date one.[[note]]US and UK dignitaries of late have an odd tradition of giving rather silly or somewhat tacky gifts to the visiting dignitary. There is typically the more traditional and special gift (Obama gave the Queen a rare song book signed by the creator to go with the iPod, but the sillier ones tend to get more press.[[/note]]

The traditional way to refer to the monarch is "His/Her/Your Majesty" the first time you mention them, and then "sir" or ma'am" thereafter. In the past when more countries had monarchs, the British monarch was sometimes specifically identified as "His/Her Britannic Majesty", which still typically appears on customs documents such as passports.

Good etiquette upon meeting the monarch is for a lady to do a small curtsy, or a man to do a small bow, from the head. On presentation to The Queen, the correct formal address is 'Your Majesty' and subsequently 'Ma'am'. However, the official line from the Palace is that there there are no obligatory codes of behaviour - just courtesy. The Queen herself will notice if you slip up, but naturally will not be bothered by it.

Such was the power and scope of the British Empire that the Westminster system is still used in many Commonwealth countries, notably [[UsefulNotes/AustralianPolitics Australia]], [[UsefulNotes/CanadianPolitics Canada]], New Zealand, half the Caribbean, as well a number of countries that still use the system despite no longer recognising the Queen as their Head of State.

See UsefulNotes/TheHouseOfWindsor for more about "Queenie" and her family in fact and fiction.

----
See UsefulNotes/IrishPoliticalSystem for the way it works a little west.
----
are
28th Jul '17 4:42:04 AM MAI742
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[[/folder]]

[[folder: The Liberal Democrats]]



* The '''Liberal Democrats'''\\



[[AC:Current Leader (House of Lords): Lord Wallace of Tankerness.]][[/labelnote]]\\
\\
Traditionally a centrist, liberal (in the European sense) party, they were widely (mis)perceived as being slightly to the left of post-Blair Labour, and are sometimes treated as simply [[HilariousInHindsight a "trendier" version of Labour]]. Formed from the merger of the old Liberal Party (itself a descendent of the original Whig party), which saw its vote collapse after the rise of the Labour Party, and the Social Democratic Party, which was formed of former Labour [=MPs=] (and one Conservative) who'd become disenchanted with their parties' policy shifts. Notable for having a very favourable educational policy and for getting rid of their alcoholic leader in 2006, then the one after him within two years.\\
\\
They are traditionally very popular in Scotland, Cornwall, and Devon, and anywhere with a sizeable student population; for example, Leeds North West, where 25% of the electorate are students, used to have one of the most comfortable Lib Dem majorities in the country. Their party colour is gold, and their icon is the dove. The slang adjective is "Lib Dem". Suffer a lot from being the [[TakeAThirdOption Third Option]]; when they were treated equally to the main two parties during the 2010 election campaign, they even registered first place on the polls. The fact that these polls ''still'' translated to third party status -- due to their relatively even support nationwide[[note]]In fact, they were in second place more times than either main party.[[/note]] -- explains why one of their key party policies is the introduction of proportional representation through the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_transferable_vote single transferable vote]].\\
\\
Since the Liberals' fall from popularity back in the 20s, their realistic aims have been to be {{kingmaker}}s in a hung parliament, which they did in the 2010 election, deciding to ally with the Tories after talks with Labour failed. [[note]]This was, given the parliamentary mathematics, the best move: the alternatives were a centre-left alliance, which would've been too prone to nationalist interests, or a Conservative minority government, which might have quickly collapsed too.[[/note]] They have now suffered from that decision, having gone from 56 [=MPs=] down to 12 as of 2017. Some of this was because people thought they had betrayed their voters by a) getting into a coalition with the Tories (see what we mean about the Tories' hatedom?)[[note]] The backlash was so intense because there are a ''lot'' of constituencies where the voters either outright hate or deeply mistrust the Conservative party but Labour commands insufficient support to win the seat. Many voters voted Liberal Democrat because it at least it kept the Tories out, so when the Lib Dems jumped into coalition with the Tories, voters felt personally betrayed by the Lib Dems' decision to essentially let the Conservatives get into power by the back door with their help.[[/note]] and b) splitting in half to vote to raise tuition fees despite promising not to[[note]]For older readers, this is a spectacular case of the FleetingDemographicRule: not only had Labour broken election promises not to raise fees back in 1998 and 2004 (and indeed they introduced them to begin with), they didn't have the excuse of coalition politics for doing so, and they were also planning to raise tuition fees ''again'' until around 8:40pm, 11 May 2010. The Tories had similar plans too, and have indeed followed through with yet *another* rise in 2017[[/note]]. The rest was because many of their [=MPs=] depended on tactical voting to keep Labour/the Tories out in their seat, and the coalition meant this broke down on both sides.\\
\\
They have currently been superseded by the Scottish National Party as the third-largest party in Westminster (though maintaining a much larger presence than the SNP at local government level), bringing the traditional idea of the "Big Three" parties into serious contention, something ironically lampshaded every now and then by former leader Tim Farron. They managed to make a small recovery in the 2017 election, increasing their tally from 8 to 12 [=MPs=][[note]]They won eight seats (seven of which were lost in 2015), but lost five, leaving the party in an odd position where its representation in the current parliament looks very different to the previous one)[[/note]], but time will tell as to whether they will be able to recover to the tens of [=MPs=] they used to return at each election. Farron resigned after the 2017 election, being replaced by party veteran Vince Cable, who returned to parliament in that election and had previously been interim leader a decade prior.\\
\\

to:

[[AC:Current Leader (House of Lords): Lord Wallace of Tankerness.]][[/labelnote]]\\
\\
]][[/labelnote]]

Traditionally a centrist, liberal (in the European sense) party, they were widely (mis)perceived as being slightly to the left of post-Blair Labour, and are sometimes treated as simply [[HilariousInHindsight a "trendier" version of Labour]]. Formed from the merger of the old Liberal Party (itself a descendent of the original Whig party), which saw its vote collapse after the rise of the Labour Party, and the Social Democratic Party, which was formed of former Labour [=MPs=] (and one Conservative) who'd become disenchanted with their parties' policy shifts. Notable for having a very favourable educational policy and for getting rid of their alcoholic leader in 2006, then the one after him within two years.\\
\\
years.

They are traditionally very popular in Scotland, Cornwall, and Devon, and anywhere with a sizeable student population; for example, Leeds North West, where 25% of the electorate are students, used to have one of the most comfortable Lib Dem majorities in the country. Their party colour is gold, and their icon is the dove. The slang adjective is "Lib Dem". Suffer a lot from being the [[TakeAThirdOption Third Option]]; when they were treated equally to the main two parties during the 2010 election campaign, they even registered first place on the polls. The fact that these polls ''still'' translated to third party status -- due to their relatively even support nationwide[[note]]In fact, they were in second place more times than either main party.[[/note]] -- explains why one of their key party policies is the introduction of proportional representation through the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_transferable_vote single transferable vote]].\\
\\
vote]].

Since the Liberals' fall from popularity back in the 20s, their realistic aims have been to be {{kingmaker}}s in a hung parliament, which they did in the 2010 election, deciding to ally with the Tories after talks with Labour failed. [[note]]This was, given the parliamentary mathematics, the best move: the alternatives were a centre-left alliance, which would've been too prone to nationalist interests, or a Conservative minority government, which might have quickly collapsed too.[[/note]] They have now suffered from that decision, having gone from 56 [=MPs=] down to 12 as of 2017. Some of this was because people thought they had betrayed their voters by a) getting into a coalition with the Tories (see what we mean about the Tories' hatedom?)[[note]] The backlash was so intense because there are a ''lot'' of constituencies where the voters either outright hate or deeply mistrust the Conservative party but Labour commands insufficient support to win the seat. Many voters voted Liberal Democrat because it at least it kept the Tories out, so when the Lib Dems jumped into coalition with the Tories, voters felt personally betrayed by the Lib Dems' decision to essentially let the Conservatives get into power by the back door with their help.[[/note]] and b) splitting in half to vote to raise tuition fees despite promising not to[[note]]For older readers, this is a spectacular case of the FleetingDemographicRule: not only had Labour broken election promises not to raise fees back in 1998 and 2004 (and indeed they introduced them to begin with), they didn't have the excuse of coalition politics for doing so, and they were also planning to raise tuition fees ''again'' until around 8:40pm, 11 May 2010. The Tories had similar plans too, and have indeed followed through with yet *another* rise in 2017[[/note]]. The rest was because many of their [=MPs=] depended on tactical voting to keep Labour/the Tories out in their seat, and the coalition meant this broke down on both sides.\\
\\
sides.

They have currently been superseded by the Scottish National Party as the third-largest party in Westminster (though maintaining a much larger presence than the SNP at local government level), bringing the traditional idea of the "Big Three" parties into serious contention, something ironically lampshaded every now and then by former leader Tim Farron. They managed to make a small recovery in the 2017 election, increasing their tally from 8 to 12 [=MPs=][[note]]They won eight seats (seven of which were lost in 2015), but lost five, leaving the party in an odd position where its representation in the current parliament looks very different to the previous one)[[/note]], but time will tell as to whether they will be able to recover to the tens of [=MPs=] they used to return at each election. Farron resigned after the 2017 election, being replaced by party veteran Vince Cable, who returned to parliament in that election and had previously been interim leader a decade prior.\\
\\
prior.



!!! The regional parties
!!!! In Scotland

to:

!!! [[/folder]]

[[folder:
The regional parties
Regional Parties]]

!!!! In ScotlandSco'land


Added DiffLines:

[[/folder]]
28th Jul '17 4:36:34 AM MAI742
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The political economy of the UK, plain and simple - though, [[HollywoodCuisine nowhere near as much so (nor as bland) as the food]].

[[foldercontrol]]

[[folder: Legal definition and status]]



!!The House of Commons

to:

!!The [[/folder]]

[[folder: The
House of Commons
Commons]]



!!! Elections to the Commons

to:

!!! Elections to the Commons
[[/folder]]

[[folder: Elections]]



!!! After the elections
The party that can command a majority is the ruling party. Their elected leader, chosen by the party through varying methods,[[note]]Labour and the Lib Dems by the single transferable vote, the Tories by run-off voting[[/note]] then chooses a cabinet of which he/she serves as ''primus inter pares'' (first among equals). These men and women are responsible for various departments of government; there are currently 27 cabinet members (including the Prime Minister) who between them hold 42 positions — during the Labour governments of Blair and Brown, Harriet Harman acquired the nickname "Three Hats Harman" for having three separate posts. They're often referred to as "The X Secretary", but their actual title is "The Secretary of State for X". Cabinet membership is not subject to Parliamentary approval, and may not even be along party lines (although, these days, it nearly always is), so it chops and changes frequently, with much attendant press speculation.

to:

!!! After the elections
The
[[/folder]]

[[folder: Forming a Government]]

If a
party that can command a majority majority, it is often considered the ruling party. Their elected leader, chosen by the party through varying methods,[[note]]Labour and the Lib Dems by the single transferable vote, the Tories by run-off voting[[/note]] then chooses a cabinet of which he/she serves as ''primus inter pares'' (first among equals). These men and women are responsible for various departments of government; there are currently 27 cabinet members (including the Prime Minister) who between them hold 42 positions — during the Labour governments of Blair and Brown, Harriet Harman acquired the nickname "Three Hats Harman" for having three separate posts. They're often referred to as "The X Secretary", but their actual title is "The Secretary of State for X". Cabinet membership is not subject to Parliamentary approval, and may not even be along party lines (although, these days, it nearly always is), so it chops and changes frequently, with much attendant press speculation.



!!!The traditional "Big Three" parties

to:

!!!The traditional "Big Three" parties[[/folder]]

[[folder: The Conservative Party]]



* The '''Conservative Party'''\\

to:

* The '''Conservative Party'''\\



Current Leader (House of Lords): Baroness Evans of Bowes Park.]][[/labelnote]]\\
\\
Formally the Conservative and Unionist Party, indicating their position on UsefulNotes/TheIrishQuestion (and now the 'Scottish Question'), although hardly anyone ever remembers this. The party which currently has the PM and the Cabinet (Executive Branch). he traditional party for rural voters, suburban voters, the aspirational working class/Nouveau Riche types, and the wealthy. they have tended to take a more populist approach to politics in recent years, especially during the UsefulNotes/MargaretThatcher years and under UsefulNotes/DavidCameron's leadership, and are usually perceived these days as a centre-right party with a middle-class focus and classical liberal economic tendencies.[[note]]And they actually mean their rhetoric. Especially under Thatcher and Cameron, the Tories enacted/are enacting wide-ranging cuts to attempt to close the deficit.[[/note]] They've moved towards the middle in recent years, although they still have some right-wing traditionalist opinions. The popular opinion between 1997 and 2015 was that there was very little difference between them and Labour.\\
\\
In living memory they have been popular in the South-East of England and rural areas. The party colour is blue, and their icon appears to be a child's drawing of a tree, supposedly an attempt by the PR staff of David Cameron to emphasise the party's environmentalist credentials; it also harks back to the traditional symbol of Toryism, the Royal Oak. From 1975 to 2006, the symbol was a torch of liberty. They are popularly known as the "'''Tories'''", a term that [[AppropriatedAppellation originally was an insult against Irish cattle thieves]] and which was the name of the modern party's forebear. The current leader is UsefulNotes/TheresaMay, who assumed leadership after the resignation of UsefulNotes/DavidCameron, but the most famous member is probably former Mayor of London, UsefulNotes/BorisJohnson, famous for [[ColbertBump his appearances on the show]] ''Series/HaveIGotNewsForYou''. Has a substantial {{Hatedom}} they gained under UsefulNotes/MargaretThatcher that they've never got rid of, to the point where the Tories are seriously seen by a substantial amount (mainly northerners and the working class) of the population as evil incarnate.\\
\\
The Conservatives currently form a minority government in Westminster, after losing their majority in the 2017 election. While largely put down to poor leadership, utterly bland campaigning, and a rather questionable manifesto, the reasons for their failing so badly in the face of what was believed to be an open goal when the election was called will likely be analysed for months to come. Their one success story in the 2017 election has been increasing their number of seats in Scotland to 13, after years of only having one Scottish MP, and indeed it is the presence of these Scottish [=MPs=] which has given the numbers to try and form a minority government. To form this government, the Conservatives are relying on the support of the Northern Irish DUP (see below), which while being their only possible ally in the current Parliament, is raising a few eyebrows among both supporters and detractors alike.\\
\\

to:

Current Leader (House of Lords): Baroness Evans of Bowes Park.]][[/labelnote]]\\
\\
]][[/labelnote]]

Basically [[UsefulNotes/AmericanPoliticalSystem the USA's Republican Party]] with less money, guns, and foxes but every bit as much lust for all three.
Formally the ''the Conservative and Unionist Party, Party'', indicating their position on UsefulNotes/TheIrishQuestion (and now the 'Scottish Question'), although hardly anyone ever remembers this. Question').

The party is split between three semi-distinct factions:

* [[UsefulNotes/PoliticalIdeologies Neoliberals]]: radicalised (neo)liberal extremists who believe in the power of The Free Market. Party insiders claim these may actually be a minority despite being the most vocal. Perhaps 1/4 of MPs, say insiders.
* [[UsefulNotes/PoliticalIdeologies Social Liberals]]: (christian) semi-socialists who believe that it is their (God-given) duty to about the survival and wellbeing of most everyday people. At most 1/5 of the party according to insiders.
* [[TheGenericGuy Shills]]: unprincipled, self-interested, risk-averse, faceless suits. These scurry, scuttle, and slither between the other factions based upon
which currently has way they feel the PM prevailing winds to be blowing. They have no backbone except when it comes to the question of their own benefits and welfare claims from the Cabinet (Executive Branch). he traditional public purse.

Party members are invariably wealthy men (or women, women can be born into the middle or upper classes too, #feminism) of independent means, but even so the funders (corporations and much richer people) of the Neoliberal wing have a ''very'' great deal of dosh to shower on those willing to bend the knee and swear fealty to The Free Market. As such virtually the entire
party pretends to be convinced Neoliberals, though rumour has it that only a minority actually are.

This pursuit of money makes the party as a whole a puppet of the country's wealthiest individuals and corporations, which says and does whatever it is 'advised' to by the 'experts' who work
for rural voters, suburban voters, (neo)liberal thinktanks owned by the aspirational working class/Nouveau Riche types, same people and entities. There is probably no better example than privatising the wealthy. they have tended to take a more populist approach to politics entire state healthcare and schooling systems: almost every (neo)liberal think tank claims that in recent years, especially during theory privatisation would make these services better and cheaper (that's true, neoliberalism ''alays'' works on paper), but almost every British university and non-liberal think tank agrees that in every instance in which this has been done in the real world the opposite is true.

The Conservative Party wasn't always completely hostage to special interests. Under
UsefulNotes/MargaretThatcher years in the 1980s the party's members realised that it was possible to install themselves, their children, and under UsefulNotes/DavidCameron's leadership, and are usually perceived these days as a centre-right their friends into the upper class by profiting from unleashing the financial sector. Doing this put them at odds with the party with members who wanted a middle-class focus British government of, by, and classical liberal economic tendencies.[[note]]And they actually mean their rhetoric. Especially under Thatcher for the landed gentry rather than bankers and Cameron, the Tories enacted/are enacting wide-ranging cuts corporate suits.

Moving on
to attempt to close the deficit.[[/note]] They've moved towards the middle trivia, in recent years, although they still have some right-wing traditionalist opinions. The popular opinion between 1997 and 2015 was that there was very little difference between them and Labour.\\
\\
In
living memory they have been popular they've secured the majority of their votes in the South-East of England and rural areas.districts. The party colour is blue, and their icon appears to be a child's drawing of a tree, supposedly an attempt by the PR staff of David Cameron to emphasise the party's environmentalist credentials; it also harks back to the traditional symbol of Toryism, the Royal Oak. From 1975 to 2006, the symbol was a torch of liberty. They are popularly known as the "'''Tories'''", a term that [[AppropriatedAppellation originally was an insult against Irish cattle thieves]] and which was the name of the modern party's forebear. The current leader is UsefulNotes/TheresaMay, who assumed leadership after the resignation of UsefulNotes/DavidCameron, but the most famous member is probably former Mayor of London, UsefulNotes/BorisJohnson, famous for [[ColbertBump his appearances on the show]] ''Series/HaveIGotNewsForYou''. Has a substantial {{Hatedom}} they gained under UsefulNotes/MargaretThatcher that they've never got rid of, to the point where the Tories are seriously seen by a substantial amount (mainly northerners and the working class) of the population as evil incarnate.\\
\\
incarnate.

The Conservatives currently form a minority government in Westminster, Westminster after losing their majority in the 2017 election. While largely put down to poor leadership, utterly bland campaigning, and a rather questionable manifesto, the reasons for their failing so badly in the face of what was believed to be an open goal when the election was called will likely be analysed for months to come.election. Their one success story in the 2017 election has been increasing their number of seats in Scotland to 13, after years of only having one Scottish MP, and indeed it is the presence of these Scottish [=MPs=] which has given the numbers to try and form a minority government. To form this government, the Conservatives are relying on the support of the Northern Irish DUP (see below), which while being their only possible ally in the current Parliament, is raising a few eyebrows among both supporters and detractors alike.\\
\\
below).




[[/folder]]

[[folder: The Labour Party]]



* The '''Labour Party'''\\



\\
Started off as a socialist, working man's party (hence the name) but became increasingly concerned with more liberal middle-class issues in the late 1980s and moved closer to the centre under Neil Kinnock and especially Tony Blair, before moving slightly back to the left under Jeremy Corbyn.[[note]]We've skipped over a thumping great chunk of their history here, but it's not something you'd make movies about. Apart from the Miners and General Strikes of UsefulNotes/JamesCallaghan's time, but that's another story.[[/note]] In the mid 1990s, Blair dubbed his centrist vision for the party "New Labour", a piece of branding designed to distance Labour from its bitter infighting and more left-wing early 1980s incarnation, which the image-obsessed Blair thought had a negative perception amongst voters; this label came to be used more as a term of abuse by the party's enemies rather than a badge of honour, and the party itself has since dropped it. There was between 1994 and 2010 a dangerous divide between the Blairites, named after UsefulNotes/TonyBlair, and UsefulNotes/Brownites, named after Gordon Brown, and no one was quite sure what the difference was; the general consensus was that Brown was deemed slightly more socialist and Eurosceptic.\\
\\
Officially a left-wing democratic socialist party, the party has taken a "broad church" approach to working class politics, inclusive of ideologies ranging from staunch Marxism to centrist "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Way Third Way]]" politics, which has secured their reputation for infighting. They've even flirted with authoritarian right-wing policies, especially with regard to civil liberties — to the point that a historically very conservative Tory triggered a by-election in 2006 to protest a counter-terrorism bill — and anything UsefulNotes/PeterMandelson got his hands on, which mostly appeared to be desperate attempts at populism. They are traditionally popular in London, the North of England, Scotland, South Wales, large urban areas, and among trade unionists. The Labour party's current icon is the rose (a traditional symbol of European social-democratic parties), and the party colour, used in election materials and identification of Labour constituencies on maps, is red.\\
\\
You'll see a number of Labour members listed as "Lab/Co-Op". This means that they are also sponsored by the Co-operative Party, the political arm of the UK Co-operative movement (as in the supermarket chain Co-op). The Co-op Party differ very little from Labour, apart from an emphasis on fair trade, and don't run candidates themselves. Labour lost its majority in the general election of May 6, 2010, and Brown was already planning to resign when the Liberal Democrats began flirting with forming a coalition with both Labour and the Conservatives. Although they made it clear they would only consider a coalition with Labour if Brown resigned, upon learning Brown was already going to resign, they formed a coalition with the Conservatives, citing the pragmatism of greater numbers for passing policy.[[note]]Any Labour-Lib Dem deal in 2010 would still have been short of a majority by 11 seats, and therefore would have required support from the SNP, Plaid Cymru, the Greens and parties from Northern Ireland[[/note]]\\
\\
Brown's successor was Ed Miliband, who bested [[SiblingRivalry his brother David]] (and three other candidates who had little to no chance of victory) in a tight leadership election. [[Series/DeadRingers Jon Culshaw]] was reportedly happy, as [[FanNickname Mili-E]] sounds exactly the same as Jon's impression of UsefulNotes/TonyBlair. However he too suffered a crushing defeat in the 2015 elections. At the time this was reported to be from a combination of Labour's lack of alternative to the Conservatives' economic policies, and the public's apparent inability to see Miliband as Prime Minister.\\
\\
Miliband resigned shortly after losing, triggering another leadership election. Initially pretty much no one cared, but the elevation of dark horse candidate Jeremy Corbyn from an outsider to front runner to actual ''winner'' galvanised supporters and the public throughout the contest, with him being seen by many as the only alternative to a "Tory-lite" leader. Corbyn, a veteran socialist from the left wing of Labour, developed enormous popularity among the party's rank and file membership. However, most Labour [=MPs=] were less enthusiastic about his leadership, with many fearing his more left-wing views would doom the party in a general election. In summer 2016, conflict between Corbyn and the Parliamentary Party culminated in yet another leadership challenge less than a year into his premiership. Corbyn's loyal support among membership won that election by an even greater margin, and, for better for worse, Labour has cemented his position as leader.\\
\\
With press coverage of the Labour Party being rather stacked against them since Corbyn's ascension (many British newspapers [and their owners] having much more incentive to support the Conservatives' more right-wing views), many had written off Labour as being doomed to fall even to third-party status in the next election. However, in the snap election of 2017, Labour managed to climb all the way back from a 20 point lag in the polls to a 1 point lag in two months, leaving the Conservatives without an overall majority in the Commons and making net gains of 30 seats. While obviously not being an outright victory, the sheer unexpected dark-horse nature of this result, not to mention the implication that Jeremy Corbyn might *actually* be able to win after all, has confounded both pollsters and more right-wing Labour [=MPs=] alike.\\
\\

to:

\\
Started off as

Historically
a socialist, working man's party (hence the name) but became increasingly concerned with more liberal middle-class issues in the late 1980s and moved closer to the centre under Neil Kinnock and especially Tony Blair, before moving slightly back to the left under Jeremy Corbyn.[[note]]We've skipped over a thumping great chunk of their history here, but it's not something you'd make movies about. Apart from the Miners and General Strikes of UsefulNotes/JamesCallaghan's time, but that's another story.[[/note]] In the mid 1990s, Blair dubbed his centrist vision for the party "New Labour", a piece of branding designed to distance Labour from its bitter infighting and more left-wing early 1980s incarnation, which the image-obsessed Blair thought had a negative perception amongst voters; this label came to be used more as a term of abuse by the party's enemies rather than a badge of honour, and the party itself has since dropped it. There was between 1994 and 2010 a dangerous divide between the Blairites, named after UsefulNotes/TonyBlair, and UsefulNotes/Brownites, named after Gordon Brown, and no one was quite sure what the difference was; the general consensus was that Brown was deemed slightly more socialist party which advanced the interests of working people against the hereditary elite, the Labour Party has been captured by monied interests twice - the 1930s and Eurosceptic.\\
\\
Officially
the 1990s. Money loves a left-wing democratic corrupted socialist party, the party has taken a "broad church" approach to working class politics, inclusive such as that of ideologies ranging from staunch Marxism to centrist "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Way Third Way]]" politics, which has secured their reputation for infighting. They've even flirted François Hollande, since they have all the economic policies of a pro-wealth party with authoritarian right-wing policies, especially all the pretence of a real socialist party. Thus it was with regard to civil liberties — to 'New Labour' under the point that a historically very conservative Tory triggered a by-election in 2006 to protest a counter-terrorism bill — and anything UsefulNotes/PeterMandelson got his hands on, which mostly appeared to be desperate attempts at populism. They are traditionally popular in London, the North of England, Scotland, South Wales, large urban areas, and among trade unionists. The Labour party's money-grubbing Tony Blair (whose current icon net worth is the rose (a traditional symbol of European social-democratic parties), [[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/tony-blair/11670425/Revealed-Tony-Blair-worth-a-staggering-60m.html at least 60 million quid]] thanks to post-retirement speaking gigs and the party colour, used in election materials and identification of Labour constituencies on maps, is red.\\
\\
other kickbacks).

You'll see a number of Labour members listed as "Lab/Co-Op". This means that they are also sponsored by the Co-operative Party, the political arm of the UK Co-operative movement (as in the supermarket chain Co-op). The Co-op Party differ very little from Labour, apart from an emphasis on fair trade, and don't run candidates themselves. Labour lost its majority in the general election of May 6, 2010,

Many had believed that Corbyn was so anti-corporation
and Brown was already planning to resign when the Liberal Democrats began flirting with forming a coalition with both Labour and the Conservatives. Although they made it clear they would only consider a coalition with Labour if Brown resigned, upon learning Brown was already going to resign, they formed a coalition with the Conservatives, citing the pragmatism of greater numbers for passing policy.[[note]]Any Labour-Lib Dem deal in 2010 would still have been short of a majority by 11 seats, and therefore would have required support from the SNP, Plaid Cymru, the Greens and parties from Northern Ireland[[/note]]\\
\\
Brown's successor was Ed Miliband, who bested [[SiblingRivalry his brother David]] (and three other candidates who
anti-upper-class that he had little to no chance of victory) in a tight retaining the leadership election. [[Series/DeadRingers Jon Culshaw]] was reportedly happy, as [[FanNickname Mili-E]] sounds exactly of the same as Jon's impression of UsefulNotes/TonyBlair. However he too suffered a crushing defeat in the 2015 elections. At the time this was reported to be from a combination of Labour's lack of alternative to the Conservatives' economic policies, and the public's apparent inability to see Miliband as Prime Minister.\\
\\
Miliband resigned shortly after losing, triggering another leadership election. Initially pretty much no one cared, but the elevation of dark horse candidate Jeremy Corbyn from an outsider to front runner to actual ''winner'' galvanised supporters and the public throughout the contest, with him being seen by many as the only alternative to a "Tory-lite" leader. Corbyn, a veteran socialist from the left wing of Labour, developed enormous
party despite his popularity among the party's rank middle- and file membership. lower-upper, middle, and working classes. However, most Labour [=MPs=] even after new members were less enthusiastic about his leadership, with many fearing his more left-wing views would doom barred from voting in the party in a general election. In summer 2016, conflict between Corbyn and the Parliamentary Party culminated in yet another leadership challenge less than a year into his premiership. Corbyn's loyal support among membership won that election Corbyn won by an even greater margin, and, for better for worse, Labour has cemented his position as leader.\\
\\
With press coverage of the Labour Party being rather stacked against them since Corbyn's ascension (many British newspapers [and their owners] having much more incentive to support the Conservatives' more right-wing views), many had written off Labour as being doomed to fall even to third-party status in the next election. However,
a 2:1 majority. Moreover in the snap election of 2017, he led Labour managed to climb all the way back from a 20 point 20-point hypothetical to a 2-point real lag in the polls to a 1 point lag voting - all in two months, leaving the Conservatives without an overall majority in the Commons spite, or perhaps because, of astoundingly unfavourable media coverage from virtually every pro-corporation and making net gains of 30 seats. While obviously not being an outright victory, the sheer unexpected dark-horse nature of this result, not to mention the implication that Jeremy Corbyn might *actually* be able to win after all, has confounded both pollsters and more right-wing Labour [=MPs=] alike.\\
\\
pro-upper-class corporation.
24th Jul '17 4:58:34 AM Karl304
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Current Leader (House of Lords): Baroness Evans of Bowes Park.]][[/labelnote]]

Formally the Conservative and Unionist Party, indicating their position on UsefulNotes/TheIrishQuestion (and now the 'Scottish Question'), although hardly anyone ever remembers this. The party which currently has the PM and the Cabinet (Executive Branch). The party of country folk, the aspirational working class/Nouveau Riche types, and the wealthy. For a long time associated with the "ruling class" and the "establishment", they have spent much more money upon marketing and Public Relations training since UsefulNotes/MargaretThatcher and particularly under UsefulNotes/DavidCameron. The party is marketed as being "centre-right" to make its policies seem more reasonable and popular, though it is of course quite radically pro-wealth internationally or even compared to British politics under Thatcher.

In practical terms this means pro-establishment "supply side economics" which enrich the upper class by extracting money from the working and middle classes. These policies include refusing to regulate the banking sector on the grounds that it is self-regulating and therefore can't produce stock market bubbles or crashes (because 2008 was the result of 'just a few bad apples' rather than a industry-wide failure), refusing to collect more than 20 billion pounds a year in avoided taxes by the wealthy and major companies on the grounds that if the taxes were collected they would all leave and no taxes could be collected from them (not that they're paying much or in some cases any right now), preventing increases in NHS funding to bring about the system's disintegration in the near future ('solved' by claiming that the resultant failures result from immigrant usage and not de-funding), and refusing to crack down on zero-hours and other exploitative contracts (because it is preferable that some British citizens earn £2.20 an hour, keeping wages in general down, to them being on the dole).

They use the money collected from wealthy donors and the support of media outlets to counteract the effects of these unpopular policies. Firstly, they use it to claim that these policies are in fact in the public's best interests (e.g. uncollected taxes, since there's 'no way to collect them without reducing tax revenue'). Where this fails, they portray themselves as not actually supporting these policies (e.g. 'NHS funding is actually increasing', which is true but not in proportion to need) or being 'powerless' to stop them (e.g. 'it's too hard to crack down on zero hours contracts'). They also promote fear and panic about Islamic Terrorism, which they imply or proclaim to be an existential threat which results from irrational opposition to 'British values' rather than foreign or domestic policies, to occupy people's attention. They also imply or outright state that criticism of the Conservatives would weaken the country or strengthen 'the enemy'. This was the logic behind the approach of trying to tie Jeremy Corbyn to the IRA ''and'' HAMAS ''and'' Marxist Revolutionaries simultaneously during the last election.

Politics boffins call this combination of upper class economic and war+fearmongering social policy [[UsefulNotes/PoliticalIdeologies Neoliberal-Neoconservatism]]. Economically, they raise eyebrows in the universities ([[Series/YesMinister both of them]], and more besides) for taking so-called "[[UsefulNotes/EconomicTheories Neoclassical Economics"]] seriously. Neoclassical economic policies, e.g. refusing to regulate the banking sector, caused The Great Recession and are generally considered to be a dire case of [[ArtisticLicense/{{Economics}} Artistic License - Economics]].

In living memory they have been popular in the South-East of England and rural areas. The party colour is blue, and their icon appears to be a child's drawing of a tree, supposedly an attempt by the PR staff of David Cameron to emphasise the party's environmentalist credentials; it also harks back to the traditional symbol of Toryism, the Royal Oak. From 1975 to 2006, the symbol was a torch of liberty. They are popularly known as the "'''Tories'''", a term that [[AppropriatedAppellation originally was an insult against Irish cattle thieves]] and which was the name of the modern party's forebear. The current leader is UsefulNotes/TheresaMay, who assumed leadership after the resignation of UsefulNotes/DavidCameron, but the most famous member is probably former Mayor of London, UsefulNotes/BorisJohnson, famous for [[ColbertBump his appearances on the show]] ''Series/HaveIGotNewsForYou''. Has a substantial {{Hatedom}} they gained under UsefulNotes/MargaretThatcher that they've never got rid of, to the point where the Tories are seriously seen by a substantial amount (mainly northerners and the working class) of the population as evil incarnate.

In 2010 The Conservatives came to power by blaming New Labour for causing The Great Recession in Britain and promising to fix it, albeit not by changing their fundamental supply side approach to economic policy. This was not enough to secure a parliamentary majority, but thankfully the Liberal Democrats also agreed with them upon economic policy and were absorbed into a coalition. The Conservatives then implemented Fiscal Austerity, shrinking the economy on the logic that this was the best way to grow the economy. Note that this was spun as "exercising fiscal responsibility" to "balance the budget" because Labour had foolishly "maxed out the nation's credit card" - the deliciously moralistic but economically illiterate language of Neoclassical supply side economics at its best.

The supply side logic of shrinking the economy being the best way of growing it went that, because businesses and individuals would rationally calculate that they weren't going to be taxed as much in the decades to come, they would spend more now. If that doesn't sound like how people actually make decisions, [[ArtisticLicense/{{Economics}} that's because you're right - it isn't.]] It did shrink the economy, but the extra spending to produce growth again never materialised. Ordinary people were already too indebted to spend more, the banks were reluctant to lend to people or businesses because increased lending would have reduced their incomes (which come from debt repayments whose value would have been reduced by inflation), and businesses needed loans which the banks weren't issuing in order to open up or expand. The banking sector did however reap sufficient profits as a result of massive tax-evasion to drag the country's on-paper growth figure into positive figures despite the rest of the economy shrinking.

The Conservatives currently form a minority government in Westminster, after losing their majority in the 2017 election. The party and its supportive media outlets put the loss down to Theresa May's personality, leadership style, bland campaign, and a manifesto which was too blatantly anti-poor. May did not have Cameron's seamless ability to lie about things like NHS funding, becoming flustered when people drew attention to her deceptions and defaulting to repeating empty slogans when pressured. Naturally, pro-Labour outlets like to ascribe the failure more to the minimal and unpalatable content of her un-costed manifesto, but even they don't deny that her presentation of it was a factor.

Their one success story in the 2017 election has been increasing their number of seats in Scotland to 13, after years of only having one Scottish MP, and indeed it is the presence of these Scottish [=MPs=] which has given the numbers to try and form a minority government. To form this government, the Conservatives are relying on the support of the Northern Irish DUP (see below), which while being their only possible ally in the current Parliament, is raising a few eyebrows among both supporters and detractors alike.

to:

Current Leader (House of Lords): Baroness Evans of Bowes Park.]][[/labelnote]]

]][[/labelnote]]\\
\\
Formally the Conservative and Unionist Party, indicating their position on UsefulNotes/TheIrishQuestion (and now the 'Scottish Question'), although hardly anyone ever remembers this. The party which currently has the PM and the Cabinet (Executive Branch). The he traditional party of country folk, for rural voters, suburban voters, the aspirational working class/Nouveau Riche types, and the wealthy. For a long time associated with the "ruling class" and the "establishment", they have spent much tended to take a more money upon marketing and Public Relations training since populist approach to politics in recent years, especially during the UsefulNotes/MargaretThatcher years and particularly under UsefulNotes/DavidCameron. The UsefulNotes/DavidCameron's leadership, and are usually perceived these days as a centre-right party is marketed as being "centre-right" to make its policies seem more reasonable with a middle-class focus and popular, though it is of course quite radically pro-wealth internationally or even compared to British politics under Thatcher.

In practical terms this means pro-establishment "supply side economics" which enrich the upper class by extracting money from the working and middle classes. These policies include refusing to regulate the banking sector on the grounds that it is self-regulating and therefore can't produce stock market bubbles or crashes (because 2008 was the result of 'just a few bad apples' rather than a industry-wide failure), refusing to collect more than 20 billion pounds a year in avoided taxes by the wealthy and major companies on the grounds that if the taxes were collected
classical liberal economic tendencies.[[note]]And they would all leave and no taxes could be collected from them (not that they're paying much or in some cases any right now), preventing increases in NHS funding to bring about the system's disintegration in the near future ('solved' by claiming that the resultant failures result from immigrant usage and not de-funding), and refusing to crack down on zero-hours and other exploitative contracts (because it is preferable that some British citizens earn £2.20 an hour, keeping wages in general down, to them being on the dole).

They use the money collected from wealthy donors and the support of media outlets to counteract the effects of these unpopular policies. Firstly, they use it to claim that these policies are in fact in the public's best interests (e.g. uncollected taxes, since there's 'no way to collect them without reducing tax revenue'). Where this fails, they portray themselves as not
actually supporting these policies (e.g. 'NHS funding is actually increasing', which is true but not mean their rhetoric. Especially under Thatcher and Cameron, the Tories enacted/are enacting wide-ranging cuts to attempt to close the deficit.[[/note]] They've moved towards the middle in proportion to need) or being 'powerless' to stop recent years, although they still have some right-wing traditionalist opinions. The popular opinion between 1997 and 2015 was that there was very little difference between them (e.g. 'it's too hard to crack down on zero hours contracts'). They also promote fear and panic about Islamic Terrorism, which they imply or proclaim to be an existential threat which results from irrational opposition to 'British values' rather than foreign or domestic policies, to occupy people's attention. They also imply or outright state that criticism of the Conservatives would weaken the country or strengthen 'the enemy'. This was the logic behind the approach of trying to tie Jeremy Corbyn to the IRA ''and'' HAMAS ''and'' Marxist Revolutionaries simultaneously during the last election.

Politics boffins call this combination of upper class economic and war+fearmongering social policy [[UsefulNotes/PoliticalIdeologies Neoliberal-Neoconservatism]]. Economically, they raise eyebrows in the universities ([[Series/YesMinister both of them]], and more besides) for taking so-called "[[UsefulNotes/EconomicTheories Neoclassical Economics"]] seriously. Neoclassical economic policies, e.g. refusing to regulate the banking sector, caused The Great Recession and are generally considered to be a dire case of [[ArtisticLicense/{{Economics}} Artistic License - Economics]].

Labour.\\
\\
In living memory they have been popular in the South-East of England and rural areas. The party colour is blue, and their icon appears to be a child's drawing of a tree, supposedly an attempt by the PR staff of David Cameron to emphasise the party's environmentalist credentials; it also harks back to the traditional symbol of Toryism, the Royal Oak. From 1975 to 2006, the symbol was a torch of liberty. They are popularly known as the "'''Tories'''", a term that [[AppropriatedAppellation originally was an insult against Irish cattle thieves]] and which was the name of the modern party's forebear. The current leader is UsefulNotes/TheresaMay, who assumed leadership after the resignation of UsefulNotes/DavidCameron, but the most famous member is probably former Mayor of London, UsefulNotes/BorisJohnson, famous for [[ColbertBump his appearances on the show]] ''Series/HaveIGotNewsForYou''. Has a substantial {{Hatedom}} they gained under UsefulNotes/MargaretThatcher that they've never got rid of, to the point where the Tories are seriously seen by a substantial amount (mainly northerners and the working class) of the population as evil incarnate.

In 2010 The Conservatives came to power by blaming New Labour for causing The Great Recession in Britain and promising to fix it, albeit not by changing their fundamental supply side approach to economic policy. This was not enough to secure a parliamentary majority, but thankfully the Liberal Democrats also agreed with them upon economic policy and were absorbed into a coalition. The Conservatives then implemented Fiscal Austerity, shrinking the economy on the logic that this was the best way to grow the economy. Note that this was spun as "exercising fiscal responsibility" to "balance the budget" because Labour had foolishly "maxed out the nation's credit card" - the deliciously moralistic but economically illiterate language of Neoclassical supply side economics at its best.

The supply side logic of shrinking the economy being the best way of growing it went that, because businesses and individuals would rationally calculate that they weren't going to be taxed as much in the decades to come, they would spend more now. If that doesn't sound like how people actually make decisions, [[ArtisticLicense/{{Economics}} that's because you're right - it isn't.]] It did shrink the economy, but the extra spending to produce growth again never materialised. Ordinary people were already too indebted to spend more, the banks were reluctant to lend to people or businesses because increased lending would have reduced their incomes (which come from debt repayments whose value would have been reduced by inflation), and businesses needed loans which the banks weren't issuing in order to open up or expand. The banking sector did however reap sufficient profits as a result of massive tax-evasion to drag the country's on-paper growth figure into positive figures despite the rest of the economy shrinking.

incarnate.\\
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The Conservatives currently form a minority government in Westminster, after losing their majority in the 2017 election. The party and its supportive media outlets While largely put the loss down to Theresa May's personality, leadership style, poor leadership, utterly bland campaign, campaigning, and a manifesto which was too blatantly anti-poor. May did not have Cameron's seamless ability to lie about things like NHS funding, becoming flustered when people drew attention to her deceptions and defaulting to repeating empty slogans when pressured. Naturally, pro-Labour outlets like to ascribe the failure more to the minimal and unpalatable content of her un-costed rather questionable manifesto, but even they don't deny that her presentation the reasons for their failing so badly in the face of it what was a factor.

believed to be an open goal when the election was called will likely be analysed for months to come. Their one success story in the 2017 election has been increasing their number of seats in Scotland to 13, after years of only having one Scottish MP, and indeed it is the presence of these Scottish [=MPs=] which has given the numbers to try and form a minority government. To form this government, the Conservatives are relying on the support of the Northern Irish DUP (see below), which while being their only possible ally in the current Parliament, is raising a few eyebrows among both supporters and detractors alike.
alike.\\
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Current Leader (House of Lords): Baroness Smith of Basildon.]][[/labelnote]]

Started off as a socialist, working man's party (hence the name) but of course the wealthy have always been trying to lure its leadership away from their roots. This happened in the 1930s, 1970s, and particularly in the 1990s-2000s. Each of these flirtations with pro-wealth "supply side economics" like that practiced by The Conservatives has been followed by a return to Socialist policies under Attlee (1940s), Kinnock (1980s), and now Jeremy Corbyn. We've skipped over a thumping great chunk of their history here, but it's not something you'd make movies about. Apart from the Miners and General Strikes of UsefulNotes/JamesCallaghan's time, but that's another story.

In the mid 1990s Blair again led the party to abandon its democratic roots in pursuit of money. This brought a great deal of free media coverage from outlets which understood that because Blair had the same economic policies as The Conservatives but didn't have the same emotional baggage, his party was the best vehicle for forcing them upon the public. Balir dubbed the party "New Labour" because his Public Relations staff counselled him that the "Labour" name was associated with Socialist and Trade Unionist policies. The label came to be used more as a term of abuse by the party's enemies rather than a badge of honour, and the party has dropped it since returning to Socialism. There was between 1994 and 2010 a dangerous divide between the Blairites, named after UsefulNotes/TonyBlair, and UsefulNotes/Brownites, named after Gordon Brown. Actual policy difference were few and far between, and hard to discern, but Brown is thought to have been more "Eurosceptic".

The party is officially dedicated to using peaceful and democratic means to rein in the excesses of UsefulNotes/Capitalism. It has taken a "broad church" approach to working class politics, inclusive of positions ranging from Workplace Democracy to State Marxism to the Neoliberal [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Way Third Way]]"/'Tory-Lite' policies of Blair. This has given them an occasional reputation for infighting. They've even flirted with repressive measures which limit civil liberties, such as Brown's infamous move to implement compulsory national ID cards, and anything UsefulNotes/PeterMandelson got his hands on, which mostly appeared to be desperate attempts at populism. For the past century they've been most popular in the country's urban areas. The Labour party's current icon is the rose (a traditional symbol of European social-democratic parties) and the party colour, used in election materials and identification of Labour constituencies on maps, is red.

You'll see a number of Labour members listed as "Lab/Co-Op". This means that they are also sponsored by the Co-operative Party, the political arm of the UK Co-operative movement (as in the supermarket chain Co-op). The Co-op Party differ very little from Labour, apart from an emphasis on fair trade, and don't run candidates themselves. Labour lost its majority in the general election of May 6, 2010. [[note]] Brown was already planning to resign when the Liberal Democrats began flirting with forming a coalition with both Labour and the Conservatives. Although they made it clear they would only consider a coalition with Labour if Brown resigned, upon learning Brown was already going to resign, they formed a coalition with the Conservatives, citing the pragmatism of greater numbers for passing policy. Note that any Labour-Lib Dem deal would still have been short of a majority by 11 seats, and would have required support from the SNP, Plaid Cymru, the Greens ''and'' parties from Northern Ireland à la Theresa May [[/note]] Brown's successor was Ed Miliband, who bested [[SiblingRivalry his brother David]] (and three other candidates who had little to no chance of victory) in a tight leadership election. [[Series/DeadRingers Jon Culshaw]] was reportedly happy, as [[FanNickname Mili-E]] sounds exactly the same as Jon's impression of UsefulNotes/TonyBlair. However he too suffered a crushing defeat in the 2015 elections. Pro-wealth media outlets asserted that this was the result of the public doubting Miliband's leadership abilities, but Socialist and foreign observers cited the continued use of supply side economic policy. Namely, Miliband wished to continue the nationally self-destructive policy of fiscal Austerity which The Conservatives had implemented.

Miliband resigned shortly after the 2015 election, triggering another leadership election. Initially pretty much no one cared, but the elevation of dark horse candidate Jeremy Corbyn from an outsider to front runner to actual winner galvanised supporters and the public throughout the contest, with him being seen by many as the only alternative to a "Tory-lite" leader. Corbyn, a principled socialist for many decades, developed enormous popularity among the party's rank and file membership. However, most Labour [=MPs=] believed that it was impossible for the party to win without sympathetic media coverage and large political donations by wealthy individuals and corporations - which it was only possible to get by continuing to use supply side economics. In summer 2016, conflict between Corbyn and the Parliamentary Party culminated in yet another leadership challenge less than a year into his premiership. Corbyn's loyal support among membership won that election by an even greater margin, and, for better for worse, Labour has cemented his position as leader.

With press coverage of the Labour Party being rather stacked against them since Corbyn's ascension (many British newspapers [and their owners] having much more incentive to support the Conservatives' more right-wing views), many had written off Labour as being doomed to fall even to third-party status in the next election. However, in the snap election of 2017, Labour managed to climb all the way back from a 20 point lag in the polls to a 1 point lag in two months, leaving the Conservatives without an overall majority in the Commons and making net gains of 30 seats. While obviously not being an outright victory, the sheer unexpected dark-horse nature of this result, not to mention the implication that Jeremy Corbyn might *actually* be able to win after all, has confounded both pollsters and more right-wing Labour [=MPs=] alike.

to:

Current Leader (House of Lords): Baroness Smith of Basildon.]][[/labelnote]]

]][[/labelnote]]\\
\\
Started off as a socialist, working man's party (hence the name) but of course the wealthy have always been trying to lure its leadership away from their roots. This happened became increasingly concerned with more liberal middle-class issues in the 1930s, 1970s, late 1980s and particularly in moved closer to the 1990s-2000s. Each of these flirtations with pro-wealth "supply side economics" like that practiced by The Conservatives has been followed by a return to Socialist policies centre under Attlee (1940s), Neil Kinnock (1980s), and now especially Tony Blair, before moving slightly back to the left under Jeremy Corbyn. We've Corbyn.[[note]]We've skipped over a thumping great chunk of their history here, but it's not something you'd make movies about. Apart from the Miners and General Strikes of UsefulNotes/JamesCallaghan's time, but that's another story.

story.[[/note]] In the mid 1990s 1990s, Blair again led the party to abandon its democratic roots in pursuit of money. This brought a great deal of free media coverage from outlets which understood that because Blair had the same economic policies as The Conservatives but didn't have the same emotional baggage, his party was the best vehicle for forcing them upon the public. Balir dubbed his centrist vision for the party "New Labour" because his Public Relations staff counselled him that Labour", a piece of branding designed to distance Labour from its bitter infighting and more left-wing early 1980s incarnation, which the "Labour" name was associated with Socialist and Trade Unionist policies. The image-obsessed Blair thought had a negative perception amongst voters; this label came to be used more as a term of abuse by the party's enemies rather than a badge of honour, and the party itself has since dropped it since returning to Socialism. it. There was between 1994 and 2010 a dangerous divide between the Blairites, named after UsefulNotes/TonyBlair, and UsefulNotes/Brownites, named after Gordon Brown. Actual policy Brown, and no one was quite sure what the difference were few and far between, and hard to discern, but was; the general consensus was that Brown is thought to have been was deemed slightly more "Eurosceptic".

The party is officially dedicated to using peaceful
socialist and Eurosceptic.\\
\\
Officially a left-wing
democratic means to rein in socialist party, the excesses of UsefulNotes/Capitalism. It party has taken a "broad church" approach to working class politics, inclusive of positions ideologies ranging from Workplace Democracy to State staunch Marxism to the Neoliberal [[https://en.centrist "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Way Third Way]]"/'Tory-Lite' policies of Blair. This Way]]" politics, which has given them an occasional secured their reputation for infighting. They've even flirted with repressive measures which limit authoritarian right-wing policies, especially with regard to civil liberties, such as Brown's infamous move liberties — to implement compulsory national ID cards, the point that a historically very conservative Tory triggered a by-election in 2006 to protest a counter-terrorism bill — and anything UsefulNotes/PeterMandelson got his hands on, which mostly appeared to be desperate attempts at populism. For the past century they've been most They are traditionally popular in London, the country's North of England, Scotland, South Wales, large urban areas. areas, and among trade unionists. The Labour party's current icon is the rose (a traditional symbol of European social-democratic parties) parties), and the party colour, used in election materials and identification of Labour constituencies on maps, is red.

red.\\
\\
You'll see a number of Labour members listed as "Lab/Co-Op". This means that they are also sponsored by the Co-operative Party, the political arm of the UK Co-operative movement (as in the supermarket chain Co-op). The Co-op Party differ very little from Labour, apart from an emphasis on fair trade, and don't run candidates themselves. Labour lost its majority in the general election of May 6, 2010. [[note]] 2010, and Brown was already planning to resign when the Liberal Democrats began flirting with forming a coalition with both Labour and the Conservatives. Although they made it clear they would only consider a coalition with Labour if Brown resigned, upon learning Brown was already going to resign, they formed a coalition with the Conservatives, citing the pragmatism of greater numbers for passing policy. Note that any [[note]]Any Labour-Lib Dem deal in 2010 would still have been short of a majority by 11 seats, and therefore would have required support from the SNP, Plaid Cymru, the Greens ''and'' and parties from Northern Ireland à la Theresa May [[/note]] Ireland[[/note]]\\
\\
Brown's successor was Ed Miliband, who bested [[SiblingRivalry his brother David]] (and three other candidates who had little to no chance of victory) in a tight leadership election. [[Series/DeadRingers Jon Culshaw]] was reportedly happy, as [[FanNickname Mili-E]] sounds exactly the same as Jon's impression of UsefulNotes/TonyBlair. However he too suffered a crushing defeat in the 2015 elections. Pro-wealth media outlets asserted that At the time this was reported to be from a combination of Labour's lack of alternative to the result of the public doubting Miliband's leadership abilities, but Socialist and foreign observers cited the continued use of supply side Conservatives' economic policy. Namely, policies, and the public's apparent inability to see Miliband wished to continue the nationally self-destructive policy of fiscal Austerity which The Conservatives had implemented.

as Prime Minister.\\
\\
Miliband resigned shortly after the 2015 election, losing, triggering another leadership election. Initially pretty much no one cared, but the elevation of dark horse candidate Jeremy Corbyn from an outsider to front runner to actual winner ''winner'' galvanised supporters and the public throughout the contest, with him being seen by many as the only alternative to a "Tory-lite" leader. Corbyn, a principled veteran socialist for many decades, from the left wing of Labour, developed enormous popularity among the party's rank and file membership. However, most Labour [=MPs=] believed that it was impossible for were less enthusiastic about his leadership, with many fearing his more left-wing views would doom the party to win without sympathetic media coverage and large political donations by wealthy individuals and corporations - which it was only possible to get by continuing to use supply side economics.in a general election. In summer 2016, conflict between Corbyn and the Parliamentary Party culminated in yet another leadership challenge less than a year into his premiership. Corbyn's loyal support among membership won that election by an even greater margin, and, for better for worse, Labour has cemented his position as leader.

leader.\\
\\
With press coverage of the Labour Party being rather stacked against them since Corbyn's ascension (many British newspapers [and their owners] having much more incentive to support the Conservatives' more right-wing views), many had written off Labour as being doomed to fall even to third-party status in the next election. However, in the snap election of 2017, Labour managed to climb all the way back from a 20 point lag in the polls to a 1 point lag in two months, leaving the Conservatives without an overall majority in the Commons and making net gains of 30 seats. While obviously not being an outright victory, the sheer unexpected dark-horse nature of this result, not to mention the implication that Jeremy Corbyn might *actually* be able to win after all, has confounded both pollsters and more right-wing Labour [=MPs=] alike. \n\\
\\



They have currently been superseded by the Scottish National Party as the third-largest party in Westminster (though maintaining a much larger presence than the SNP at local government level), bringing the traditional idea of the "Big Three" parties into serious contention, something ironically lampshaded every now and then by former leader Tim Farron. They have managed to make a small recovery in the 2017 election, increasing their tally from 8 to 12 [=MPs=][[note]]They won eight seats (seven of which were lost in 2015), but lost five, leaving the party in an odd position where its representation in the current parliament looks very different to the previous one)[[/note]], but time will tell as to whether they will be able to recover to the tens of [=MPs=] they used to return at each election. Farron resigned after the election, being replaced by party veteran Vince Cable, who returned to parliament in the election and had previously been interim leader a decade prior.\\

to:

They have currently been superseded by the Scottish National Party as the third-largest party in Westminster (though maintaining a much larger presence than the SNP at local government level), bringing the traditional idea of the "Big Three" parties into serious contention, something ironically lampshaded every now and then by former leader Tim Farron. They have managed to make a small recovery in the 2017 election, increasing their tally from 8 to 12 [=MPs=][[note]]They won eight seats (seven of which were lost in 2015), but lost five, leaving the party in an odd position where its representation in the current parliament looks very different to the previous one)[[/note]], but time will tell as to whether they will be able to recover to the tens of [=MPs=] they used to return at each election. Farron resigned after the 2017 election, being replaced by party veteran Vince Cable, who returned to parliament in the that election and had previously been interim leader a decade prior.\\
21st Jul '17 8:18:18 AM MAI742
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Politics boffins call this combination of upper class economic and war+fearmongering social policy [[UsefulNotes/PoliticalIdeologies Neoliberal-Neoconservatism]]. Economically, they raise eyebrows in the universities ([[Series/YesMinister both of them]], and more besides) for taking so-called "[[UsefulNotes/EconomicTheories Neoclassical Economics"]] seriously. Neoclassical economic policies, e.g. refusing to regulate the banking sector, caused The Great Recession and are generally considered to be a serious case of ArtisticLicense/{{Economics}}.

to:

Politics boffins call this combination of upper class economic and war+fearmongering social policy [[UsefulNotes/PoliticalIdeologies Neoliberal-Neoconservatism]]. Economically, they raise eyebrows in the universities ([[Series/YesMinister both of them]], and more besides) for taking so-called "[[UsefulNotes/EconomicTheories Neoclassical Economics"]] seriously. Neoclassical economic policies, e.g. refusing to regulate the banking sector, caused The Great Recession and are generally considered to be a serious dire case of ArtisticLicense/{{Economics}}.
[[ArtisticLicense/{{Economics}} Artistic License - Economics]].
21st Jul '17 8:17:05 AM MAI742
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They use the money collected from wealthy donors and the support of media outlets to counteract the effects of these unpopular policies. Firstly, they use it to claim that these policies are in fact in the public's best interests (e.g. uncollected taxes, since there's 'no way to collect them without reducing tax revenue'). Where this fails, they portray themselves as not actually supporting these policies (e.g. 'NHS funding is actually increasing', which is true but not in proportion to need) or being 'powerless' to stop them (e.g. 'it's too hard to crack down on zero hours contracts'). They also promote fear and panic about Islamic Terrorism, which is supposedly conducted by first- rather than second- or third-generation immigrants, to occupy people's attention. They also imply or outright state that criticism of the Conservatives would weaken the country or strengthen 'the enemy'. This was the logic behind the approach of trying to tie Jeremy Corbyn to the IRA ''and'' HAMAS simultaneously during the last election.\\
\\

to:

They use the money collected from wealthy donors and the support of media outlets to counteract the effects of these unpopular policies. Firstly, they use it to claim that these policies are in fact in the public's best interests (e.g. uncollected taxes, since there's 'no way to collect them without reducing tax revenue'). Where this fails, they portray themselves as not actually supporting these policies (e.g. 'NHS funding is actually increasing', which is true but not in proportion to need) or being 'powerless' to stop them (e.g. 'it's too hard to crack down on zero hours contracts'). They also promote fear and panic about Islamic Terrorism, which is supposedly conducted by first- they imply or proclaim to be an existential threat which results from irrational opposition to 'British values' rather than second- foreign or third-generation immigrants, domestic policies, to occupy people's attention. They also imply or outright state that criticism of the Conservatives would weaken the country or strengthen 'the enemy'. This was the logic behind the approach of trying to tie Jeremy Corbyn to the IRA ''and'' HAMAS ''and'' Marxist Revolutionaries simultaneously during the last election.\\
\\
election.
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