Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан; Russian: Киргизия), officially known as Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz: Кыргыз Республикасы Kyrgyz Respublikasy; Russian: Кыргызская Республика), is a Central Asian country bordered by Kazakhstan from the North, China in the east, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the west and south. It was formerly a part of the Soviet Union. Early Chinese and Muslim sources state that the early Kyrgyz were red-haired and blond. Today, most Kyrgyz are of mixed Eurasian descent, although East Asian features seem to dominate. Due to its location along the backbones of the high Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges, ancient empires who conquered the region were mainly nomadic in nature; the Xiongnu, the Scythians, the Xianbei, the Hephthalites, and the Rourans were among the famous examples. The Turkic imprint of the land was marked in the 6th century, when the Rourans were toppled by the Turkic Khaganate, who ruled most of Central Asia. However, the ancestors of the Kyrgyz, known as the Yenisei Kyrgyz, were still living in Mongolia and Siberia by this time. When the Uyghurs took control of the Khaganate in the 8th century, the Kyrgyz began to emigrate to the conquered areas, partly due to the increasing pressure from the Mongols. From this time, two lines of the Kyrgyz branched off. Those who remained behind inherited the language and faith of their Yenisei forefathers. A small community of them still exists in China's Xinjiang and Manchuria. Meanwhile, the numerically larger emigrants crossed paths with two unrelated Turkic confederations: the Cuman-Kipchaks in the northwest and the Karluk Kara-Khanids in the southwest. From the former, they adopted their language, while from the latter, they adopted Islam. In their new land, the Kyrgyz were mostly subservient to peoples who claimed the area. They were under control of the Qara Khitai in the 12nd century, then the Mongols in the 13th century, the Chagatai from the 13th to the 17th century, and the Oirats until the 18th century Tsarist Russia expanded to Kyrgyzstan during the 19th century, taking the land from Qing China. Revolts during the Russian Revolution by the native Kyrgyz only ended in failure, and they were incorporated to the USSR, getting SSR status in 1936. The Kyrgyz were often lumped together with the Kazakhs, the word Kara-Kyrgyz was used to the actual Kyrgyz. While industrialization in the country merited some successes, the country was swept away by the events of the fall of the Soviet Union. Kyrgyzstan later declared independence in 1991. The first president of Kyrgyzstan was Askar Akayev. While his technocratic credentials earned him some praise for reforming parts of the economy, he was increasingly became autocratic. Not to mention the claims that he is a descendant of a medieval Kyrgyz hero and the rumors that Boris Yeltsin of Russia had played drums on his balding head while drunk. All in all, Akayev was deposed in 2005 during protests against his regime. Then a second Kyrgyz revolution flared up in 2010, the protesters accusing President Kurmanbek Bakiyev of being ending up like Akayev. Like his predecessor, he was soon sacked from his post, and a woman named Roza Otunbayeva, a former foreign minister, led a transitional government. Occasional flareups between the Kyrgyz majority and the Uzbek minority, often causing violent riots, have also been a source of trouble in the country, not to mention poor economic record. Almazbek Atambayev then succeeded Otunbayeva as President in 2011.
The Kyrgyz flag
The red field symbolizes valor. At the center is a golden sun, representing bounty; at its center is the tündük (stylized as a red ring and two sets of three lines), the crown of a yurt, symbolizing the family; and its 40 rays recall the Epic of Manas, in which the titular hero consolidates 40 Kyrgyz tribes against the Mongols.