"If you are as happy to be accepting this office as I am to be leaving it, then you are a very happy man."
—James Buchanan "welcoming" Abraham Lincoln.
"Meanwhile the nation's chief executive, James Buchanan, did nothing."James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 — June 1, 1868) was the fifteenth President of the United States, serving from 1857 to 1861, and the fifth representing the institution known as the Democratic Party. He immediately followed Franklin Pierce, but, more notably, preceded Abraham Lincoln. He was the last president born in the 18th century and the only president from Pennsylvania, although that state currently isn't very proud of that. Buchanan remains the only President to never marry; his niece fulfilled the duties of First Lady. He was engaged to a woman at one point, but they broke up and she died (likely suicide) shortly after. Is often believed (including during his lifetime) to have been a closeted gay man, who allegedly had a long relationship with Alabama Senator William King, who died six weeks into his term as Franklin Pierce's Vice President. The truth died with Buchanan, since his relatives burned his diaries and personal documents upon his death, as per his request. Buchanan began his political career in the House of Representatives in 1814. He was not popular with fellow politicians. Andrew Jackson gave him the position of Minister to Russia in an attempt to keep him out of the country, where he would, in Jackson's words, "do the least harm. I would have sent him to the North Pole if we had kept a minister there." Unfortunately, this lead to the impression that he had serious diplomatic/political credentials. This post was followed by time in the Senate, as Secretary of State under James K. Polk, and as Minister to Great Britain. Part of the reason he won the election in 1856 was because he was out of the country during the unpopular presidency of Franklin Pierce and couldn't be blamed for any of the administration's hated policies, particularly the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. It also helped that the main opposition party of the last two decades, the Whigs, had disintegrated since the previous election, and the opposition vote was divided between former president Millard Fillmore's "Know Nothing" party and the newly-formed Republican Party. Those who know their American history dates know full-well what happened during his presidency. Tensions between the North and the South reached their peak, and it would have taken a skilled executive to reach a compromise that could have avoided conflict. Buchanan's policy was, to put it bluntly, to do nothing and either let everyone calm down or wait until someone else came up with a solution. Needless to say, it didn't work. He was a notorious doughface (Northerner with Southern sympathies) and his Cabinet was dominated by Southerners like his Secretary of War John Floyd. After the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860, seven southern states seceded from the Union during the last few months of the Buchanan presidency (and four would later follow). Although each of the three previous Presidents had played a part in creating the circumstances that led to the Civil War (Zachary Taylor's belligerent approach to the slave states got things off on the wrong foot, Millard Fillmore signed an ultimately ill-advised compromise agreement, and Franklin Pierce proceeded to piss off the free states by breaking the terms of said agreement), the final, fatal lurch towards the conflict happened on Buchanan's watch. It didn't help that he ordered the invasion of Utah for the purpose of persecuting an unpopular Christian denomination (to be fair, he did this after receiving false information about Mormons taking over every post in the territory), or that the economy entered a panic the year he entered office. Shortly before his death in 1868, Buchanan said "History will vindicate my memory from every unjust aspersion." It didn't. Buchanan's desire to merely maintain the status quo (he said that secession was illegal but using military force to stop secession was also illegal) did nothing to mend a bitterly divided nation. By the end he was only interested in holding off the by-now inevitable civil war long enough for him to get out of office and leave the problems to the next president. He also once admitted after he left office that he didn't try to stop the South because he was afraid that hostile African Americans would try to take over the nation. Today, he is considered to be one of the worst presidents in US history, if not the absolute worst. Fun fact: He was near-sighted in one eye and long-sighted in the other and one sat higher in the socket than the other. Whenever he had to focus on something, he'd have to tilt his head and shut the appropriate eye.
—Ken Burns, "The Civil War"