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Line Boil

Line boil is the inevitable wobble of hand-drawn lines, particularly noticeable when characters are redrawn in every frame even though they are standing still. Early 20th century animators considered line boil an imperfection that should be minimized. Limited Animation deals with line boil by using the same drawing for parts of the character that aren't moving and only re-drawing the parts that move, though this may make the immobile parts seem frozen in place, a problem that occurs in computer animation as well. To avoid this "freezing" effect, line boil and other types of wobbling and jittering are sometimes purposely used and even exaggerated.


Examples:

Anime and Manga

Commercials
  • Red Bull commercials.
  • The Pop-Tarts commercials, which draw heavy influence from (but are not made by) Don Hertzfeldt.

Film
  • The biography portions of Sita Sings the Blues, one of the 4 art styles in the movie since the creator didn't want the audience to lose interest.

Magazine
  • Freelance cartoonist John Caldwell, whose work has appeared in MAD, animates with exaggerated line boil.

Music
  • The music video for a-ha's "Take Me On." Funny enough, line boil was considered extremely undesirable in rotoscoping in the early days of animation.

Video Games

Web Animation

Western Animation
  • Ed, Edd n Eddy, at least the characters. Lampshaded in "Smile for the Ed", with Edd's line "Eddy actually thinks he can pass off a crayon drawing as a school photo? I mean, the lines are all wiggly."
  • The pilot episode of Rocko's Modern Life (Trash-O-Madness) featured unusually squiggly lines.
    • Likewise, another Nicktoon, Doug, had squiggly animation in its pilot episode, "Doug Can't Dance", as well.
  • The 1974 British cartoon Roobarb and its second season/sequel Roobarb and Custard Too, upon where everything including the coloring wobbled.
  • Henry's Cat, from the creator of Roobarb. Imagine an acid trip, but for toddlers.
  • The PBS Kids P-Pals.
  • The Cat Came Back
  • One episode of Arthur featured a parody of Dr. Katz, Professional Therapist, with all of the characters drawn this way (see its entry below).
  • Most of the shorts on O Canada, which included Bob and Margaret, that later became its own show. (though seasons 3 and 4 of Bob and Margaret did not feature the line boil effect)
  • The Killing of an Egg (or Ei om Zeep), a 1977 short by Dutch animator Paul Driessen that ran from time to time on Nickelodeon back in the early 90's.
  • John K's Simpsons couch gag varies between extremely still lines and extremely boiling lines.
  • Cartoons animated in Squiggle Vision:
  • Stickin' Around which used software by the name of Boiler Paint unrelated to Squigglevision.
  • Winsor McCay's groundbreaking 1911 short based on his Little Nemo comic strip features this, as well as boiling colors, since each character in the cartoon was hand-drawn and hand-colored.
    • 1914's Gertie the Dinosaur, also by McCay, features it in the background, as the entire drawing had to be retraced for every frame. McCay actually liked the effect, as the unsteadiness of the lines seemed to make the whole scene come alive.
  • The 1960's cartoon The New Adventures of Superman has a bit of line boil.