->Their territory extends for several thousands of li. It has more than four hundred walled towns. There are several tens of smaller dependent kingdoms. The walls of the towns are made of stone. They have established postal relays at intervals, which are all plastered and whitewashed. There are pines and cypresses, as well as trees and plants of all kinds.\\
Their kings are not permanent. They select and appoint the most worthy man. If there are unexpected calamities in the kingdom, such as frequent extraordinary winds or rains, he is unceremoniously rejected and replaced. The one who has been dismissed quietly accepts his demotion, and is not angry. The people of this country are all tall and honest. They resemble the people of the China and that is why we call this kingdom Da Qin ['Great China'].
-->-- '''Gan Ying''', prospective Chinese ambassador to Rome, c. 97 A.D.

Home of temples with even ''bigger'' columns, and brutal sword-wielding Roman legionaries, all of whom had extremely clean, well-kept, elaborate armour and helmets (even down to the lowliest grunt soldier). Also home to {{gladiator|Games}}s, [[TheCaligula mad emperors]] and elaborately coiffed women with slinky, see-thru ''stolas''. Expect to see a lion eating a Christian or two.

A time when Myth/ClassicalMythology was SeriousBusiness for the pious. For more on the actual facts of the place, see UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire. UsefulNotes/TheRomanRepublic is [[TheGreatestHistoryNeverTold less often depicted]] in fiction, except for the bit right at the end when it ''became'' UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire (though occasionally you will see fiction set against the earlier struggle with Carthage or, more often, the slave revolt of Spartacus).

Roman architecture featured much more bricks than marble, but in the intervening centuries most of the bricks either crumbled, collapsed or were just stolen to make other buildings while those useless marble blocks and columns were left pretty much alone, so in Hollywood movies you're now treated to the sight of Imperial Rome made of shiny, gleaming travertino marble, with little or no brick houses to be seen.

SwordAndSandal works may feature a FantasyCounterpartCulture. May overlap with BibleTimes. See AncientGrome for unwitting crossovers with AncientGreece.

!! Popular tropes of this time period are:
* AndroclesLion
* BreadAndCircuses
* TheCaligula
* CanisLatinicus
* ColourCodedPatrician: Only the patrician class could wear [[PurpleIsPowerful Tyrian Purple]].
* CondemnedContestant
* EvilMatriarch: Shows up a lot in the surviving documents of Rome.
* FedToTheBeast: The aforementioned Roman habit of throwing people to the lions.
* FinishHim
* GladiatorGames
** GladiatorRevolt
* MadeASlave
* TheGloryThatWasRome
* TheQueensLatin

!! Works set in this time period are:


[[folder:Anime and manga]]
* ''Manga/ThermaeRomae'', set in the reign of the emperor Hadrian (and in 21st century Japan).
* ''Manga/AxisPowersHetalia'' has a character who is the personification of Ancient Rome, affectionately referred to as "Grandpa Rome" by his descendent Italy. While most of the series is set in more modern times, there are [[http://www.hetarchive.net/scanlations/nonlinear.php?blog-entry-1136 some comics]] that are from this time period.

[[folder:Comic Books]]
* ''ComicBook/{{Alix}}''
* ''ComicBook/{{Asterix}}''
* ''ComicBook/{{Murena}}''
* ''Nero Fox'' (the "Jive-Jumping Emperor of Ancient Rome"), a [[UsefulNotes/TheGoldenAgeOfComicBooks Golden Age]] DCComics FunnyAnimal character who was emperor of ancient Rome. The "jive-jumping" part referred to his anachronistic playing of 40s-era jazz/swing music on his "gobble pipe" (saxophone). His era's later revisited in TheEighties by a time-traveling Comicbook/CaptainCarrotAndHisAmazingZooCrew.
* ''ComicBook/SuskeEnWiske'': The stories "Het Geheim van de Gladiatoren" and "De Nerveuze Nerviërs" take place in this time period.
* ''ComicStrip/{{Nero}}'': In "De Rode Keizer" Nero and his friends travel back to the era of Emperor UsefulNotes/{{Nero}}, which of course leads to a lot of confusion.


* ''Film/{{Gladiator}}''
* ''Film/MontyPythonsLifeOfBrian'': takes place in Judea during life of Jesus Christ.
* The second segment of ''Film/HistoryOfTheWorldPartI''
* ''Film/{{Spartacus}}'' (based on a novel by Howard Fast)
* ''Literature/BenHur'' (based on a novel by Lew Wallace)
* ''Film/TheRobe'' (based on a novel by Lloyd C. Douglas)
** ''Film/DemetriusAndTheGladiators'', sequel to ''Film/TheRobe''
* ''The Sign of the Cross'', based on a play by Wilson Barrett
* Fellini's ''Satyricon'', loosely based on a work by the Ancient Roman author Petronius
* ''Film/{{Cleopatra}}''
* ''Literature/QuoVadis?'' (''See'' {{Literature}}, ''below''.)
* ''Film/{{Centurion}}'', set among the Ninth Legion in Scotland, right when Hadrian pulled back.
* ''Film/TheLastLegion'', also about the Ninth Legion.
* ''Film/{{Agora}}'', set in Roman Egypt.

* ''Literature/{{Pharsalia}}'' (61-65) by Lucan. It is an epic poem which covers the Roman Civil Wars.
* ''The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire'' (1776-1789) by Edward Gibbon's is considered the definitive, most exhaustively researched book ever written on the topic of history. It is a massive tome which took the better part of Gibbon's life to complete, as virtually every sentence is cited. Famously ignores all emperors from Augustus to Nerva (27 BC-98 AD). Starts with the rise of Trajan in 98 AD and continues through the entire history of UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire, and the ByzantineEmpire. A lengthy legacy section follows events into TheRenaissance.
* ''The Last Days of Pompeii'' (1834) by Edward Bulwer-Lytton. Adapted to film many times.
* ''Römische Geschichte'' (''Roman History'', 1854-1856) by Theodor Mommsen is a detailed work on the history of UsefulNotes/TheRomanRepublic. Followed by the sequel ''The Provinces of the Roman Empire'' (1885-1886) which is also very detailed. The primary work earned the author the 1902 UsefulNotes/NobelPrizeInLiterature. Mommsen had also prepared another sequel, covering UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire, but never finished it. His notes and plans for the incomplete work were first published in 1992.
* ''Literature/QuoVadis?'' (1896) by Henryk Sienkiewicz.
* ''The Silver Chalice'' (1952) by Thomas B. Costain. Made into an infamously bad movie in 1954.
* ''Literature/DetectivesInTogas'' (1953) by Henry Winterfeld.
* ''Literature/TheEagleOfTheNinth'' (1954), ''Literature/TheMarkOfTheHorseLord'' (1965), and other novels set in Roman Britain by Creator/RosemarySutcliff.
* ''Literature/EcceRomani'', the Latin textbook. First published in 1971.
* ''Literature/CambridgeLatinCourse'', the UK's counterpart to ''Ecce Romani''.
* The ''Literature/MarcusDidiusFalco'' series of detective novels. Started in 1989.
* ''Literature/MastersOfRome'' series by Colleen [=McCullough's=] . Started in 1990.
* The ''Literature/{{Roma Sub Rosa}}'' series by Steven Saylor. Started in 1991.
* ''Literature/TimeScout'' spends a lot of time in Ancient Rome. The series started in 1995.
* ''Literature/TheRomanMysteries'' by Caroline Lawrence. Started in 2001.
* ''Literature/LestDarknessFall'' by Creator/LSpragueDeCamp is an AlternateHistory sparked when a professor is teleported from the 20th century into ancient Rome and stops it from falling.
* Literature/ToBringTheLight is an alternate history in the other direction - someone from a future Rome is brought to bring about the founding of Rome.
* ''Literature/{{Romanitas}}'' by Sophia [=McDougall=] is another alternate timeline diverging with the success of Pertinax as Caesar after Commodus' death.
* ''Literature/TheLightBearer'' by Donna Gillespie follows the son of a Roman nobleman and a woman from a Germanic tribe.
* ''Literature/IClaudius'' and ''Claudius the God'' by Robert Graves.
* ''Literature/TheMarkOfTheLion'' trilogy by Francine Rivers, set circa A.D. 70. Published in the 1990s.
* ''Literature/{{Imperium}}'', Robert Harris' trilogy chronicling the life of the lawyer and politician Creator/{{Cicero}}.
* ''Literature/{{Julian}}''

[[folder:Live Action TV]]
* ''Series/{{Rome}}''
* ''Series/SpartacusBloodAndSand''
* ''Series/{{Masada}}''
* ''Series/IClaudius'' (based on a novel by Robert Graves)
* ''Series/TheCaesars''
* ''Series/TheRomanMysteries'' - The TV adaptation
* The ''Series/DoctorWho'' episodes ''The Romans'' obviously, ''The Fires of Pompeii'' and ''The Pandorica Opens''
* ''Series/{{Plebs}}'', a {{Britcom}} about a couple of plebeians trying to get by in Rome.
* ''Series/PompeiiTheLastDay''

* One of the eras in ''[[VideoGame/ProPinballTimeshock Pro Pinball: Timeshock!]]'' is named "Ancient Rome".

* Creator/WilliamShakespeare's
** ''Theatre/AntonyAndCleopatra''
** ''Theatre/{{Coriolanus}}''
** ''Theatre/{{Cymbeline}}''
** ''Theatre/JuliusCaesar''
** ''Theatre/TitusAndronicus''
* ''Theatre/AFunnyThingHappenedOnTheWayToTheForum''

[[folder:Video Games]]
* ''[[VideoGame/AgeOfEmpiresI Age of Empires: Rise of Rome]]''
* ''VideoGame/{{Caesar}}''
* ''Videogame/CenturionDefenderOfRome''
* ''VideoGame/TheEternalCity''
* ''VideoGame/RyseSonOfRome''
* ''VideoGame/ShadowOfRome''
* ''VideoGame/SpartanTotalWarrior''
* ''VideoGame/TotalWar''
** ''VideoGame/RomeTotalWar''
** ''VideoGame/TotalWarRomeII''

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* ''WesternAnimation/AsterixAndCleopatra'', ''WesternAnimation/TheTwelveTasksOfAsterix'',... in short: all the animated Asterix movies.
* ''WesternAnimation/TheRomanHolidays'' by Creator/HannaBarbera
* The ''WesternAnimation/{{Histeria}}'' episodes "A Blast From the Past" and "Return to Rome"
* ''Franchise/LooneyTunes'' short "Roman Legion-Hare", with Centurion General Yosemite Sam after WesternAnimation/BugsBunny.