->''"Vintery, mintery, cutery, corn\\
Apple seed and apple thorn\\
Wire, briar, limber lock\\
Three geese in a flock\\
One flew East\\
One flew West\\
And one flew over the cuckoo's nest."''
-->-- '''IronicNurseryTune'''

''One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest'', a 1962 novel by Creator/KenKesey, takes place in an insane asylum run by Miss Ratched, the Big Nurse, who rules over the patients with an iron fist... and her machines, of course, according to narrator Chief Bromden.

She has so much power over them that no one dares to stand up to her, until one day when Randle Patrick [=McMurphy=] swaggers into the ward, and things are never the same again as he takes everything the Big Nurse stands for and destroys it right before everyone's eyes.

Was adapted into [[Film/OneFlewOverTheCuckoosNest a critically-acclaimed 1975 movie]] directed by Creator/MilosForman, and starring Creator/JackNicholson as [=McMurphy=] and Louise Fletcher as Nurse Ratched.

!!This novel provides examples of:

* AlliterativeName: Billy Bibbit, Charles Cheswick
* AmbiguousDisorder: Of all the supporting cast that get focus, no one has an explicitly given mental illness that puts them there, putting it all up to speculation. Chief seems to have some form of schizophrenia with his visions of the mists.
* AmbiguouslyGay: Harding at first. It's confirmed when his wife shows up. He admits it, by way of euphemisms, to [=McMurphy=] prior to the story's climax.
* AntiHero: [=McMurphy=] is an UnscrupulousHero. He's racist, sexist, loud, rude, and scams the other patients out of their money regularly. He originally got busted for statutory. But he's the only thing that can get them out of their shells and remind them that they're not a bunch of worthless rabbits. Eventually he genuinely cares about them in spite of himself.
* BattleaxeNurse: Miss Ratched.
* BedlamHouse: The novel is set in one of these, which maintains an outward appearance of being a modern, progressive facility.
* BewareTheQuietOnes: The aides take some lumps because they underestimate quiet patients. The first is Pete Bancini, an aging patient with the mental capacity of a toddler, who has a brief moment of lucidity that results in
* BigBrotherIsWatching: Through her glass window... Appropriately, the Big Nurse's nickname is an allusion to Big Brother. Chief believes that The Combine is the actual Big Brother, while the nurse is just its high-ranking officer.
* BittersweetEnding: [[spoiler:[=McMurphy=] wins the fight against Ratched, but at the cost of part of his brain, which ultimately forces Chief Bromden to euthanize him by [[VorpalPillow smothering him with a pillow]] before finally escaping to his ancient tribal lands.]]
* BlitheSpirit: [=McMurphy=]. He's definitely a flawed guy, but still teaches the patients not to fear Nurse Ratched or her arbitrary rules.
* BoisterousBruiser: [=McMurphy=].
* ButtMonkey: Harding, and Mr. Turkle, the night orderly.
* ChekhovsGun: The Hydrotherapy Console.
* CureYourGays: Given that Harding doesn't show any signs of mental illness but is more-than-{{ambiguously gay}}, this could very well be why he's in the institution - especially since homosexuality was still considered a mental disorder when the book was written.
* DCupDistress: Nurse Ratched resents having large breasts and tries to hide them.
* DeadpanSnarker: Harding. He surpasses deadpan so well that it's hard to tell that's what he's doing at first, but after the fishing trip it becomes much more clear.
* DeathOfPersonality: As a result of [[spoiler:[=McMurphy's=] lobotomy]].
* DepravedDwarf: Warren the orderly.
* DoomedMoralVictor: [[spoiler:[=McMurphy=]'s attack on Ratched leads to his death but also to her downfall and improved conditions for his fellow inmates.]]
* DragonInChief: Nurse Ratched has authority over her asylum that is unchecked even by her superiors.
* DrivenToSuicide: [[spoiler: Poor Billy Bibbit and old Charles Cheswick.]]
* ElectricTorture: In real life, electroshock therapy is mainly painless and quick but with varying results. For a short time after the treatment, the patient may have trouble forming new memories, but the vast majority of patients feel better and are able to use a wider range of treatments. In the past the shock could damage the body through the reaction to the shock, but modern electroconvulsive therapy is done with a muscle relaxant and a short-acting anesthetic, making it mostly painless. In this book, however, it's... well, ElectricTorture, and that portrayal had a worrying amount of impact on medicine. Doctors were shamed out of using EST for decades after the release of Cuckoo's Nest, despite its generally positive results.
* EmptyShell: Patients who are lobotomized become this.
* {{Epigraph}}:
-->''Wire, briar, limber-lock\\
Three geese in a flock\\
One flew east, one flew west\\
One flew over the cuckoo's nest''
* EvenTheGuysWantHim: Bromden momentarily questions his sexuality when contemplating [=McMurphy's=] magnetism.
* EvilIsDeathlyCold: Subtly invoked the white-clad, emotionless Big Nurse, in contrast with the friendly, redheaded [=McMurphy=]. Both are usually described in terms suggesting winter and summer, respectively.
* FieryRedhead: [=McMurphy=] is a readheaded Irishman whose string of convictions includes a number of assaults.
* FightingIrish: [=McMurphy=] is a readheaded Irishman whose string of convictions includes a number of assaults.
* FirstPersonPeripheralNarrator: "Chief" Bromden, who takes center stage over the hero [=McMurphy=] because his hallucinations [[RuleOfSymbolism highlight the symbolism of the book]], and because we have to look up to [=McMurphy=]. We can't ''be'' him.
* FunWithAcronyms: Randle Patrick [=McMurphy=], R.P.M., is in constant, often circular (metaphorical) motion.
* GagBoobs: Nurse Ratched. The book makes several references to the Big Nurse's "oversized badges of femininity", and [=McMurphy=] kids her about them multiple times, knowing that she resents having such a prominent set of breasts.
* GentleGiant: Bromden measures at a staggering 6 ft, 8 in. (203 cm), but is as timid as the other inmates.[[spoiler: [[CharacterDevelopment Until he apparently finishes MacMurphy's "training program".]]]]
* GoAmongMadPeople: [=McMurphy=] feigned insanity and got himself sent to the asylum thinking it would be an easy way out from his prison sentence. He was dead wrong.
* HateSink: Nurse Ratched.
* TheHeroDies: [[spoiler:[=McMurphy=] himself at the end.]]
* HiddenBuxom: Nurse Ratched resents having large breasts and tries to hide them.
* HookerWithAHeartOfGold: Candy and Sandy.
* HospitalHottie: The inmates comment that Nurse Ratched would be quite attractive if she weren't so emotionless and intimidating.
* InsanityDefense: [=McMurphy=] ''claims'' he's insane to get transferred to the institution to serve out the rest of his sentence in cushy surroundings, and is more than a little alarmed when he realizes that 'the rest of his sentence' is no longer the few months he thought it was, but when the doctors decide that he's no longer a threat to himself or others -- which, considering he's pissed off the evil Nurse Ratched, could mean an indefinite stay.
* IntimatePsychotherapy: [=McMurphy=] brings prostitutes onto the mental ward to [[SexAsRiteOfPassage make the other patients into men]]. After sleeping with one of the prostitutes, [[spoiler:Billy Bibbit]] becomes confident enough to finally stand up to Nurse Ratched. [[spoiler:This all goes down the toilet once Nurse Ratched threatens to tell Billy's mother about what happened, which drives poor Billy to suicide.]]
* {{Irony}}:
** The ''entire plot'' is a large-scale example of situational irony. [[spoiler:[=McMurphy=] cons his way into being committed because he's too lazy to serve out a light sentence on the work farm for statutory rape. The fact that [=McMurphy=] knows he doesn't belong there makes him chafe with the staff, which leads to him not only getting labeled ''genuinely'' insane, but also ''lobotomized''... and then '''dead'''. It really hits home for him when he asks about the end of his prison sentence, only to find that, in a psychiatric hospital, he stays there for as long as the doctors feel that he's 'sick'.]]
** Patients in the Disturbed Ward, which houses patients with violent or self-harming tendencies, are treated much more humanely than the ones in Nurse Ratched's ward. The nurse in the Disturbed Ward actually tries to keep patients there longer to keep them away from Ratched.
* JailBait: Why [=McMurphy=] was incarcerated to begin with.
* JaywalkingWillRuinYourLife: [=McMurphy=] got into this whole jail to mental hospital [[spoiler:to lobotomy and ultimately to death]] situation because he committed statutory rape on a fifteen-year-old girl. At the time of the book's publication (1962) [[JailBait statutory rape of the kind involving an adult and a teenager]] [[ValuesDissonance was considered to be less of an issue than it is considered to be today.]]
* KarmicTrickster: Deconstructed with [=McMurphy=], since he [[spoiler: lacks the usual KarmicProtection]].
* LastNameBasis: Compare: The patients all call each other by the last names, while the Big Nurse has them on a first-name basis.
* LeastIsFirst: Charles Cheswick is the only man who is initially enthusiastic for [=McMurphy's=] scheme to change the ward schedule.
* {{Lobotomy}}:
** The patient who was an angry lunatic before he undergoes the procedure becomes an empty shell after his lobotomy. His eyes are described as being like burnt-out lightbulbs.
** After [=McMurphy=] attacks Ratched, [[spoiler:he is lobotomized and left in a vegetative state. Bromden {{mercy kill}}s him.]]
* MadBomber: Scanlon. We're never told whether or not he has ever acted on his urges, but he is the only Acute patient other than [=McMurphy=] who is committed involuntarily.
* MadnessMantra: Ruckly, one of the Chronics, responds to everything by mumbling "Fffffuuck da wife".
* MaliciousMisnaming: Nurse Ratched calls [=McMurphy=] "[=McMurry=]" as a power play. [=McMurphy=] lets her know (without stating it straight out) that he knows it's intentional, and at one point he returns the favor by calling her "Nurse Rat-shed."
* TheMan: Bromden refers to "the Combine", an all-encompassing, mechanized MindControlConspiracy that represents systems of social control and conformity. The Combine's chief representative in the story is not a man but a woman -- specifically, Big Nurse Ratched.
* MercyKill: [[spoiler:After [=McMurphy=] gets a lobotomy, Bromden decides to put him out of his misery by [[VorpalPillow suffocating him with a pillow]].]]
* MeaningfulName: Bromden, related to ''bromide'', a tranquilizer.
* MessianicArchetype: [=McMurphy=]. Lampshaded when he and 12 other guys all go fishing. Harding compares the EST victim to Jesus on the cross. [=McMurphy=] is also friends with a prostitute called Mary. Bromden describes [=McMurphy=] as a "giant sent from the sky to save us." Billy Bibbit commits suicide after betraying him.
* MindControlConspiracy: Chief Bromden vs. the Combine.
* MindScrew: Sometimes Bromden will go off on bizarre tangents that can make things very difficult to follow if you aren't paying attention.
* MissingTheGoodStuff: [=McMurphy=] is very unhappy about being prevented by Nurse Ratched from watching the World Series on television. Subverted when he entertains himself and the other inmates by "announcing" an imaginary game while staring at the darkened TV screen.
* MyBelovedSmother: Billy Bibbit is terrified of his mother, though we never learn why as we don't even hear from her or see her.
* NomDeMom: The Metis narrator is named Chief Bromden. He inherited "Chief" from his Indian dad, Chief Tee Ah Millatoona, but "Bromden" from his white mom.
* NoMedicationForMe: It is mentioned that the anti-seizure medication causes your teeth to fall out, which is a good reason why some of the patients don't want to take it.[[note]]In real life decreased salivation ("cotton mouth") is a side-effect of most psychoactive drugs of various kinds and daily use over a long period of time is likely to wreck your teeth.[[/note]] One gets the unfortunate side effect mentioned above, and decides he'd rather have the seizures; the other is terrified of having a seizure, and takes the medication intended for the first epileptic as well as his own to make sure he avoids it.
* ObfuscatingDisability: [[spoiler:Chief Bromden]]. To clarify, [[spoiler: he IS insane, just not a deaf mute.]]
* ObfuscatingInsanity: Adopted by [=McMurphy=] to get transferred to the hospital from the work farm he was originally sentenced to. It soon enough becomes clear that he's actually put himself in a worse spot.
* OnlySaneMan: [=McMurphy=], literally.
* OrderliesAreCreeps: The orderlies act as Nurse Ratched's enforcers. [=McMurphy=] beating one up in a fist fight is considered a triumphant achievement for the patients.
* OrderVersusChaos: With chaos portrayed as good.
* PoliticallyIncorrectHero: [=McMurphy=] is both racist and sexist (although some of this can be attributed to ValuesDissonance). He repeatedly calls the black orderlies "coons," and at one point he claims that women who aren't sex objects are oppressive to men. When he first arrives at the mental hospital, before he knows any of the real reasons to object to Nurse Ratched's reign, his initial objection to her power is that it's "unnatural" for men to be so completely under the authority of a woman.
* PorkyPigPronunciation: Billy.
* PrisonRape: Not exactly prison, but the orderlies at the Pendleton insane asylum love to give patients showers. They always check the patient's temperature at the same time they shower the patient, and they go down to Miss Ratched beforehand to get a rectal thermometer and a bottle of Vaseline. She admonishes them to use the minimum amount of Vaseline necessary, but they take the whole bottle inside with them, and they turn up the water pressure till the noise makes it impossible to hear anything that's going on inside...
* PsychoPsychologist: The actual doctors are sane if ineffectual, but then there's Miss Ratched, and the orderlies who may need help a lot worse than the patients.
* TheQuietOne: Bromden. [[spoiler: Until later]].
* RealMenWearPink: Contrast the closeted homosexual Harding (who fears showing signs of weakness) with the straight, [[RatedMForManly boisterous]] [=McMurphy=] who isn't afraid to express his softer side once in a while.
* ReasonableAuthorityFigure: Dr. Spivey. Unfortunately, he has [[AuthorityInNameOnly no real power]].
* Room101: The Disturbed Ward subverts this. Despite the electroshock therapy and lobotomies performed there, it's actually a ''refuge'' from Nurse Ratched's tyranny, and the staff will often try to prolong a patient's time on the Disturbed Ward because Ratched is just that nasty.
* {{Sadist}}: Nurse Ratched is a coldly vindictive and utterly hateful ControlFreak who uses her position to bully, intimidate, torture and lobotomise the patients in her care. She accepts no challenge to her authority. [[spoiler: She is perfectly capable of intentionally driving her patients to suicide out of petty revenge. In addition, she allows the orderlies to rape the inmates in order to break them further and cement her own power.]]
* ScaryBlackMan: The three aides, Warren, Washington, and Williams, are horribly abusive to the patients. [[FreudianExcuse Warren at least has the excuse of having seen his mother raped by whites as a child.]]
* TheSchizophreniaConspiracy: "Chief" Bromden isn't given an explicit diagnosis but is usually interpreted as schizophrenic. One of the main themes of the novel is the patients' struggle against the "Combine", a vast force trying to control all of society through forced conformity. Not that this was Kesey's commentary on TheFifties in any way...
* SesquipedalianLoquaciousness, SpockSpeak: Our garrulous friend, Harding.
* SexIsLiberation: Billy.
* ShownTheirWork:
** Kesey worked at the Oregon State Hospital's mental ward (then and still notorious for its poor quality) as an orderly and stated that the Big Nurse is based off an amalgamation of several nurses he had worked with.
** He talked a fellow orderly into secretly giving him electroshock treatment as part of the research, and did a ''lot'' of acid. His hallucinations provided the basis of Bromden's schizophrenic narration.
** When Chief Bromden speaks just after [=McMurphy=] offers him a piece of gum, this is a reference to a real incident when a catatonic schizophrenic who had been silent for 19 years finally spoke after he was reinforced with chewing gum.
** When Harding describes the origins of electroconvulsive therapy, the bit about two psychiatrists visiting a slaughterhouse is not made up: those were Cerletti and Bini, who visited an abattoir in 1938 and got the idea that an epileptic fit could be induced by electricity. The idea that inducing seizures could have therapeutic effects, however, was proposed a few years earlier. Harding's BriefAccentImitation of them, however, as Germans, is false. As is evident by their names, they were Italian.
* TheSociopath: What [=McMurphy=] [[ObfuscatingInsanity pretends to be]] to get committed. Unfortunately for him, Nurse Ratched actually ''is'' one.
* SoftSpokenSadist: Nurse Ratched.
* SpeechImpediment: Billy.
* SupportingProtagonist: Bromden is the narrator, but [=McMurphy=] is the protagonist.
* TerrifiedOfGerms: George Sorenson is constantly washing his hands until the skin is raw, but is such a germophobe he won't use soap. After the fishing trip and the participants are forced to take a special shower to be deloused, George has a meltdown.
* ThroughTheEyesOfMadness: The novel is narrated by "Chief" Bromden, a paranoid schizophrenic who hears machinery clanking in the walls, sees his fellow patients controlled like marionettes by Nurse Ratched, and repeatedly claims the entire ward is enveloped in a thick white fog that makes it impossible to see or move. At the beginning he claims that everything he describes "Is true even if it didn't happen." His narration doubles both as a terrifyingly astute metaphor, and a description of his own view of a reality that was long ago fucked over.
* TitleDrop: The child's poem containing the title appears when Bromden narrates [[spoiler:the repressed memories from his childhood that come to his mind during electroshock therapy]].
* TheTrickster: [=McMurphy=].
* {{Troll}}: [=McMurphy=]'s main strategy in his war with the [[ControlFreak tyrannical]] Nurse Ratched is being one.
* TroubledAbuser: Warren, one of the ScaryBlackMan attendants who are downright abusive toward the patients of the mental hospital they work in, is said to have [[HarmfulToMinors seen his mother being raped by a white man as a child]].
* UnreliableNarrator: Bromden is schizophrenic, and often hallucinates {{Literal Metaphor}}s and ties things into an overarching MindControlConspiracy. He cops to altering what happened by stating that his narration is true, even if it didn't happen this way.
* UnusualEuphemism: "Poozle."
* VisualPun: [=McMurphy's=] boxers, depicting [[Literature/MobyDick white whales]], which was given to him by a literary student because he "[[GagPenis was a symbol]]."
* VorpalPillow: Chief Bromden sets [=McMurphy=] free from the asylum by suffocating him with a pillow.
* WhamLine:
** More illustrative of a character than something that fundamentally changes our perception of them, but it still comes as a shock: we know [[spoiler:Bromden is faking being deaf/mute right from the start.]] What we don't know until roughly the halfway point is that [[spoiler:Mac has him figured out quite early on: Chief reacts when Mac warns him about the black aide coming, to which Mac responded with a snicker and "I thought somebody told me you was deef."]]
** Another line that's often overlooked is this simple statement from Harding which casts a new light on the Acutes' situation and makes [=McMurphy=] realise that he's the only hope for these men:
-->'''Harding:''' I'm voluntary. I'm not committed.
* YouJustToldMe: [=McMurphy=] runs through the hallways of the asylum warning the patients that an orderly is on their way to check on them. Everyone stops what they're doing and pretends to sleep, including Chief Bromden. After it turns out to be a false alarm, [=McMurphy=] casually says to Bromden, "Hey Chief, I could've sworn they told me you was deaf!"