''Number The Stars'' is a HistoricalFiction children's novel by Lois Lowry.

The novel is about a Danish girl named Annemarie Johansen and her Jewish friend Ellen Rosen. They live in Copenhagen, Denmark during UsefulNotes/WorldWarII. They are forced to move out into Annemarie's Uncle Henrik's home after Nazi soldiers demand to know the whereabouts of Ellen's Jewish family. Ellen, now disguised as Annemarie's dead sister Lise, joins the Johansen family in Uncle Henrik's home. Annemarie has to face her fears in order to save her friend.

It received the ''John Newbery Medal'' in 1990.

!!This novel provides examples of:

* AnnoyingYoungerSibling: Kirsti.
* AsTheGoodBookSays: The title is taken from Psalm 147:4, in which the psalmist describes that God "tells the number of the stars [and] calls them each by name". During the time that the Johansen family is sheltering the Rosen family in Uncle Henrik's house [[spoiler:and staging "Great-Aunt Birte's wake"]], Peter reads a passage from the same psalm; but as Annemarie hears it, she thinks that it's impossible to number the stars in the sky.
* BittersweetEnding
* {{Bookends}}: In the beginning, Annemarie is racing with Ellen on the street. Near the end, she is running to deliver a package that will help the Rosens escape.
* CheatingWithTheMilkman: When the Nazis search the Johansens, Ellen is pretending to be Annemarie's sister. She has dark hair that is different from the others' blond hair, so the Nazis ask if they got her from the milkman.
* CoffinContraband: A coffin loaded with essential supplies for Danish-born Jewish refugees is used in order to avoid being seized by Nazi soldiers. There was a close encounter with one until the soldier was "advised" that the coffin bore the dead victim of typhus.
* DeathByNewberyMedal: [[spoiler:Peter dies during the time skip]], and Lise died in the backstory [[spoiler:when a Nazi car struck her]]. However, Ellen and other Danish Jews survive and are evacuated.
* DidNotDieThatWay: We are told that Annemarie's older sister Lise was killed when she was hit by a car near the beginning of the Nazi occupation of Denmark. At the end of the book, Annemarie's parents tell her the truth: [[spoiler:Lise was a member of LaResistance]]. She was hit by a car, but [[spoiler:it was a car driven by Nazis who deliberately ran her down as she tried to flee from them]].
* DoubleMeaningTitle: The title references the Star of David badges used by the Nazi regime to identify Jews, but also alludes to a famous passage from the Literature/BookOfGenesis about God's covenant with Abraham and the birth of the Jewish people (''"Look toward the heavens and number the stars, if you are able to, and so shall your descendants be"''). Might be a Triple-Meaning Title because it also references Psalm 147:4 (see AsTheGoodBookSays).
* DramaticNecklaceRemoval: The Nazis are coming, and Annemarie realizes that Ellen still has her Star of David necklace on, so she yanks it off just in time. However, she warns her that it will hurt, and at the end, she asks her father to fix it so she may wear it herself until Ellen comes back.
* DyeOrDie: Peter has red hair, so he must wear a hat to keep the Nazis from discovering him.
* GuileHero: Annemarie's parents are both quick-thinking and brilliant when dealing with the Nazi soldiers. When they ask why Ellen is brown-haired while Kirsti and Annemarie are blonde, Mr. Johansen just shows him baby pictures of his deceased daughter, Lise-- who luckily was born with brown hair. Annemarie realizes he even had the foresight to angrily rip the picture out of the album, because the true Lise's birthdate was written on the bottom of the picture and she was much older than Ellen appears to be. Mrs. Johansen later uses a [[DuckSeasonRabbitSeason Bugs Bunny-level reversal]] of opinion to keep from having to open the casket holding the Jewish refugees' supplies, by talking about how much she longed to give "Great-Aunt Birte" a final kiss goodbye even though the doctor advised a closed casket due to her dying of typhus.
* HairOfGoldHeartOfGold: The whole Johansen family, with their blond hair and good-nature. It is however [[spoiler: Lise's involvement in the Danish Resistance]] along with Annemarie and her parents move to help the Rosen family escape the Nazis that cement their status of bearing golden hearts.
** UndergroundRailroad: Helping the Jews hide or escape from the Nazis.
* HeroesWantRedheads: [[spoiler: Lise's involvement in the Danish Resistance makes her one and she was engaged to Peter.]]
* ImpersonationGambit: The Jewish Ellen goes under the guise of Lise to avoid capture.
* LaResistance: The Danish Resistance.
* MakeItLookLikeAnAccident: [[spoiler: Lise died because she was hit by a car. In the end, it is revealed that she was intentionally hit by the Nazis, because she was part of LaResistance.]]
* ObfuscatingStupidity: Annemarie and Mrs. Johansen do this when dealing with the Nazis.
* TitleDrop: During the [[spoiler: fake funeral]], Peter reads from Psalm 147, which describes God as "He Who [[TitleDrop numbers the stars]] one by one."
* YouDontWantToCatchThis: A casket is used to hold the supplies of the Jews in hiding. A German soldier comes in and they say that they are holding a funeral for "Great-Aunt Birte". The soldier tells them to open the casket, but Annemarie's mother says that "Great-Aunt Birte" died of typhus, and the doctor warned them against exposure.