----
* ScienceFiction book cover illustrations. Artists such as Chris Foss, Peter Elson, Michael Whelan, Frank Kelly Freas, Bob Eggleton, and their imitators illustrated tons of memorable illustrations for SF book covers and magazines during the 60, 70s and 80s. Their art was frequently collected into volumes such as the ''Terran Trade Authority'' and ''Great Space Battles''. A large majority of these covers featured [[CoolSpaceship elaborate spaceships]], {{big dumb object}}s, {{space battle}}s, futuristic scenes and alien landscapes. Today's science fiction book covers are more mundane and minimalize the art in favor of displaying the author's name (especially if he's a big name) in bigger fonts as well as extra space for blurbs. Art, when present, typically feature human subjects, human character content being a selling point to today's more diverse (increasingly female) demographic. This is one of the reasons Elson (who has stated that his human figure drawing skills weren't up to par) became less prolific after spaceship covers went out of fashion. Books based on licensed properties (''Franchise/StarTrek'', ''Franchise/DoctorWho'', or ''Franchise/StarWars'') have moved away from hand drawn illustrations, replacing it with artwork that is clearly rendered using swiped (and Photoshopped) images from the franchise in question, probably to give the books a uniform appearance. Works that have been turned into recent blockbuster movies often reject illustrated covers entirely in favor of using photoshots of characters from the film (such as in print runs of ''Literature/TheLordOfTheRings'' after 2001).
** The ScienceFiction cover art which had enjoyed some popularity in the Eastern Bloc during the heyday of Communism exploded like a supernova just after 1990 - throughout [[TheNineties the 1990s]], all translations and reprints of Western Sci Fi featured glorious covers imitating the above-quoted artists, with complex spaceships, images of deep space, galaxies, and [[SexSells space-suited buxom heroines]] (with the bad habit of copying Western covers from completely unrelated works for both translations and original books). Once the decade ended, the cover art style had become more tasteful, restricted and subtle.
* Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries illustrations and advertisements were often hand-painted by artists, but beginning with the 70's, hand-illustrated advertisements and posters began to die out. While there are still illustrated advertisements in many magazines, they are often outright cartoons that don't even try to be photorealistic (as strange as it may now sound, those colorful, Norman Rockwell-style painted ads of the 1960s and earlier were done by illustrators trained at prestigious art schools, and were hailed at the time for their startling realism, in sharp contrast to the Surrealism and Abstract Expressionism of "serious" art world).
* Painting as a whole:
** Art was once patronized by religious organizations like the Catholic Church, and this led to many paintings on religious subjects. Later they were patronized by kings and aristocrats, this led to many paintings on "historical" subjects or offical portraits of royal families. The collapse of the political power of the Church and the erosion of royal authority, led to an end in this genre and the concept of ''state patronage'' of art itself. The artistic marketplace which began in the Amsterdam of Rembrandt, eventually became the model of art. Artists would paint subjects and ideas that they could sell and auction away, this meant the rise of art as commodity.
** In the 20th century, figurative painting (i.e. paintings which represented people, places, objects and events) gave way for expressionist, surrealist, abstract, and geometric styles. The portrait painting and the move towards realism and perspective were once the avant-garde, but with the exception of the likes of Lucian Freud, figurative painting is not as respected by contemporary critics of painting. The main reason for this is the arrival of portrait photography and cinema, which took the place of the classic portrait. The end result is that painting itself is challenged by photography/installation art/plastic art and it no longer seems possible for a painter like Creator/PabloPicasso to take the world by storm with a work like "Guernica".
* Futurism was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy and spread throughout Europe in the early 20th century. It emphasized and glorified themes associated with contemporary concepts of the future, including speed, technology, youth, and violence, and objects such as the car, the airplane, and the industrial city. The Futurists practiced in every medium of art, including painting, sculpture, ceramics, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, urban design, theatre, film, fashion, textiles, literature, music, architecture, and even gastronomy. Unfortunately, both [[UsefulNotes/FascistItaly the fascists in Italy]] and [[UsefulNotes/NaziGermany the Nazis in Germany]] found the Futurist movement to be subversive and outlawed it. Futurist artists were targeted, and most died in concentration camps. The USSR also clamped down on its own futurist movement in the '30s following the rise of UsefulNotes/JosefStalin, favoring SocialistRealism instead. For extra black {{irony}}, many (though by no means all) of the most prominent Futurists had been enthusiastic supporters of fascism, or at least ambiguously positive about it, embracing the ideology due to their admiration of the dynamism of violence, nationalism, and power -- at least, until [[HoistByHisOwnPetard they themselves started getting jailed and murdered]] by the fascists' CulturePolice for creating "degenerate art". This retrospectively tainted the entire movement, and the survivors quickly found new art movements to be a part of. While some of the ideals of Futurism influenced later art movements and remain as significant components of modern Western culture, especially in ScienceFiction, the original Futurist movement was as dead as Julius Caesar by 1944, and the shadow of fascism lingered over it for decades.
----