Remember that bedtime story about the ugly duckling who became a swan? The image of a princess sleeping on a ton of mattresses... and a pea? The FairyTale about a mermaid who sold her voice to a sorceress to try to win the love of a human prince? Meet the Danish author of all the saddest and sweetest of the fairy tales we all grew up with, tales seen referenced in pop culture so frequently that most people have no idea they were written by the same author.

Born on April 2, 1805 (which is now "National Children's Book Day"), '''Hans Christian Andersen''' (abbreviated H. C. Andersen in Denmark) grew up to become to fairy tales what Creator/{{Shakespeare}} became to drama. His works range from the simple to the epic, are full of complex but meaningful symbolism, and span the SlidingScaleOfIdealismVersusCynicism. Among his most well known fairy tales today are:

* "Literature/TheEmperorsNewClothes"
* "Literature/TheLittleMatchGirl"
* "Literature/TheLittleMermaid"
* "Literature/TheNightingale"
* "Literature/ThePrincessAndThePea"
* "Literature/TheShadow"
* "The Shepherdess and the Chimney Sweep"
* "Literature/TheSteadfastTinSoldier"
* "Literature/TheSnowQueen"
* "Literature/{{Thumbelina}}"
* "Literature/TheUglyDuckling"
* "Literature/TheTinderBox"

The most familiar version of "The Little Mermaid" in the western world is probably Disney's, which deviates strongly from the original: Hans Christian's protagonist has NoNameGiven, no bikini top made from seashells, and no {{Non Human Sidekick}}s, but does have a grandmother, and wants to marry the prince for "an immortal soul" (yes, in the Christian sense) as much as for romantic love. Not to mention the minor fact that said prince marries another girl, meaning she'll die unless she stabs him, which she doesn't. And then there's a bit of disconnected DeusExMachina {{Aesoptinum}} MoodWhiplash, but [[FanonDiscontinuity we don't talk about that]].

Interestingly, Creator/OscarWilde still thought the story too upbeat and penned an even darker version, "The Fisherman and His Soul" as a reaction. In this charming tale a human must [[DealWithTheDevil sell his immortal soul]] in order to marry a mermaid.

Other works have come through the adaptation process about as reasonably intact as can be expected. "The Snow Queen", basically an epic {{Gender Flip}}ped RescueRomance heavy on the symbolism, has been turned into a science-fiction novel, an animated movie, and an anime by NHK, ''Manga/CardcaptorSakura's'' network. The Disney film ''Disney/{{Frozen}}'' was originally meant to be an adaptation of "The Snow Queen", and even had it as its WorkingTitle (and it's still titled that in some countries), but ended up developing into its own original story with inspiration from the fairy tale.

TheOtherWiki says he was also quite possibly bisexual, so that's fun too. It's also noted that Andersen himself, his eccentric behavior and arrogance usually led to him getting kicked out by the various nobles who housed him.

!!Andersen's works provide examples of:
%% Zero context examples have been commented out. Please write up a full example before uncommenting.
* AccentuateTheNegative: Features prominently in "The Snow Queen", but is also an important point in the tale "Something", where a {{caustic critic}} is "something" because he does that constantly. Also the Snail in "The Snail and the Rosebush", and the Devil in "The Philosopher's Stone".
* AnAesop: Often a SpaceWhaleAesop as in "The Rose Elf" (don't kill your sister's beloved, or the spirits that live inside the blossoms will murder you in your sleep).
* AndIMustScream: "The Girl Who Trod on the Loaf", in which the cruel, vain protagonist becomes a statue in Hell, able to hear everything said about her on Earth, almost all of which is nasty [[spoiler: until an angel begins to cry for her and sets her soul free]].
%%* AnimateInanimateObject: The shoes in "The Red Shoes".
* BeCarefulWhatYouWishFor: In his story, "The Galoshes of Fortune", the eponymous shoes grant the wishes of whoever is wearing them. This usually ends badly, as the characters are unaware of their power.
* BeautyEqualsGoodness: More than one of his characters ponder this, with ''truth'' as the third platonic entity in the mix. {{The Shadow}} is the inverted example. ''The Philosopher's stone'' plays it straight.
* {{Bowdlerise}}: When companies adapt his works, most writers attempts to remove the DiedHappilyEverAfter trope with varying results.
%%* BreakTheHaughty: "The Wicked Prince" and "The Girl Who Trod on the Loaf".
* ComeBackMyPet: In "The Nightingale", the Emperor of China tames a nightingale, but neglects it in favor of a clockwork bird. When Death comes for the Emperor, it is the live Nightingale who charms the GrimReaper with his sweet song.
* CrankyNeighbor: A mild variety, mostly on the subject of UsefulNotes/{{Denmark}} and UsefulNotes/{{Norway}}. Mostly in "The Rags", where the two nationalities lash out towards eachother, with an ironic twist. Also in ''The Elf Mound'', where the Norwegian Troll King is trying to get a bride from the more Danish fairy stock. She finds the Norwegian trolls rude.
%%* {{Curse}}
* DealWithTheDevil: "The Little Mermaid": For an ordeal seeking the mere chance at ''gaining'' a soul, she gives up her centuries-long lifespan and her voice, while gaining human legs with extraordinary grace, but feel like she's ''walking on knives'', making her feet bleed everytime she dances. If she marries the prince, she'll gain a soul, but if he marries someone else, she'll die permanently.
* DiedHappilyEverAfter:
** The "good" ending to "The Little Mermaid" is like this. When she refuses to kill the prince to regain her life as a mermaid, she instead becomes a spirit of the air, watching over children and waiting to gain a soul and go to heaven. (Well, at least it's better than the "she becomes sea-foam, eternally kissing the hull of the prince's ship" ending.) The ending is meant to be happy because mermaids naturally have no souls -- by sacrificing herself instead of her prince, the mermaid earned the right to [[EarnYourHappyEnding win her own happy ending]].
** Dying horribly (which appears to be intended as happily) and going to Heaven seems to be Andersen's idea of the ultimate HappyEnding.
** Averted, however in "The Nightingale", which has a regular HappyEnding: the protagonist, thought to be already dead by everyone, survives after all.
* DisobeyThisMessage: The fairy in "The Garden of Paradise" tells the prince that she is bound to beckon to him and to say "Follow me". As she is a ForbiddenFruit, the prince needs to disobey that instruction.
%%* {{Disneyfication}}: A lot of his works has been adapted into animated features for kids, most of them naturally being done by Disney. ''WesternAnimation/{{Thumbelina}}'' also fell into this, [[FollowTheLeader despite being done]] by Creator/DonBluth.
* DisproportionateRetribution:
** "The Girl Who Trod on the Loaf". Not wanting to visit your family because you're ashamed of how poor they are, and using the loaf you're supposed to give them as a stepping-stone to stop your shoes getting muddy? Kind of a JerkAss move. She did also have a habit of torturing animals for fun...worth going to Hell for?
** "The Storks". A young boy leads several other boys into singing a song that taunts a family of storks. As revenge, [[spoiler: the storks refuse to bring any of the boys baby brothers or sisters... except for the boy who led the song. The storks bring him a dead baby brother.]]
** "In the Duck Yard". An injured songbird is resting in a duck yard, where a proud and haughty Portuguese duck resides. The songbird makes the mistake of comparing the Portuguese to a cat, so [[spoiler: the duck decapitates the songbird.]]
** ''The Red Shoes'', in which the protagonist is punished for paying more attention to the title objects than to her family or to church sermons by being forced to dance in them until she dies. Oh, and the shoes keep on dancing, [[spoiler: even after her feet get chopped off!]]
%%* TheFairFolk: The Snow Queen and the Ice Maiden, among many others.
%%* FairyTale
* FashionHurts: The Little Mermaid wears uncomfortable oysters on her tail.
* ForbiddenFruit: The fairy in "The Garden of Paradise". Should she be kissed, the garden will be ruined.
%%* GossipEvolution: "It's Perfectly True".
%%* GrimReaper: Appears in "The Nightingale".
%%* HappilyEverAfter
* HopeSpot: Many tales come out as this. The small tale has a {{happy ending}}, but ''the big picture'' is always a different matter.
%%* AnIcePerson: The Snow Queen, The Ice Maiden.
%%* IncorruptiblePurePureness: Eliza in "The Wild Swans" turned {{curse}}d toads into red poppies.
* {{Irony}}: In "Red Shoes", all the protagonist wanted to do was dance. This was literally all she could do.
%%* IWantMyBelovedToBeHappy: Aphtanides in "The Shepherd's Story of the Bond of Friendship".
* KickTheDog: Inge, "The Girl Who Trod on the Loaf", is first introduced as a child tormenting insects.
%%* LeafBoat: ''Thumbelina'' is probably the UrExample.
%%* LivingShadow: "Literature/TheShadow", appropriately enough. It had a DownerEnding, too.
%%* MouseWorld: "Thumbelina".
* MutualEnvy: In "The Goloshes of Fortune", the titular goloshes cause wishes to come true (although no one who wears them is aware of this property). A watchman puts them on and, looking up into a lieutenant's window, wishes he was the lieutenant. He enters the consciousness of the lieutenant -- and the lieutenant, looking down enviously, wishes he was the watchman, which restores the watchman to himself.
%%* NaiveEverygirl: "The Little Match Girl".
%%* NamelessNarrative: Used in several of his stories.
%%* ThePowerOfLove
%%* PragmaticAdaptation
%%* RageAgainstTheHeavens: "The Wicked Prince".
%%* RipVanWinkle (without the snapback): The end of "The Marsh King's Daughter".
* {{Satan}}: Features in "Literature/TheSnowQueen", and in "The Philosopher's Stone", among other works. He is prominent when Andersen discusses truth vs untruth. Satan is clearly the "prince of lies", while God is the equivalent of truth.
* SecretTestOfCharacter: It's implied that the only reason that Literature/{{the Little Mermaid}} does not dissolve into sea-foam at the end is [[spoiler: that she refused to kill the prince. Killing him would have lost her her chance at an immortal soul forever]].
%%* ScareEmStraight: Present in many of his works.
* SwanBoats: In the fairy tale "Ole-Luk-Oie", Hjalmar dreams that he rides in a boat pulled by swans.
%%* TooGoodForThisSinfulEarth: "The Little Match Girl", "The Little Mermaid".
!!Andersen has appeared as a HistoricalDomainCharacter in the following works:
* [[VideoGame/FateExtra Fate Extra CCC]] and VideoGame/FateGrandOrder, where he is a Caster-type Servant.