History UsefulNotes / Turkey

5th Nov '17 1:15:30 AM Chabal2
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* ''TabletopGame/Warhammer40K'': THe GodEmperor's birthplace is usually said to be somewhere in Anatolia, around 8,000 BC.
24th Oct '17 8:30:58 AM AntonF
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Anatolia has been a cultural melting pot region for thousands of years. The place is the UrExample for "Asia"; the term came to be used for the continent later, by which time the name was suffixed with "Minor" to refer to the original location. It would probably take up pages after pages to describe the region's history before Alp Arslan and his army marched into the peninsula in the 11th century, so here's a summary. The Hurrians and Hitties were the first peoples to settle the area, having been recorded to live there since before the Late Bronze Age collapse [[OlderThanDirt circa 1200 BC]]. Both set up empires that were major powers in the ancient Middle East, though by the 1st millennium BC they were subsumed under the Assyrians. There were also the Urartu, the Hurrians' distant cousins who established a state at the Armenian Highlands in the east. Around 600 BC, the Iranians quickly began raising in power, first with Medes and Babylonia conquering Assyria, then Medes defeating Urartu, and finally the Achaemenids took the cake by absorbing all of them and the Babylonians, setting up an empire that stretches from Northern Greece all the way to Sindh.

to:

Anatolia has been a cultural melting pot region for thousands of years. The place is the UrExample for "Asia"; the term came to be used for the continent later, by which time the name was suffixed with "Minor" to refer to the original location. It would probably take up pages after pages to describe the region's history before Alp Arslan and his army marched into the peninsula in the 11th century, so here's a summary. The Hurrians and Hitties Hittites were the first peoples to settle the area, having been recorded to live there since before the Late Bronze Age collapse [[OlderThanDirt circa 1200 BC]]. Both set up created empires that were major powers in the ancient Middle East, though by the 1st millennium BC they were subsumed under the Assyrians. There were also the Urartu, the Hurrians' distant cousins who established a state at the Armenian Highlands in the east. Around 600 BC, the Iranians quickly began raising in power, first with Medes and Babylonia conquering Assyria, then Medes defeating Urartu, and finally the Achaemenids took the cake by absorbing all of them and the Babylonians, setting up an empire that stretches stretched from Northern Greece all the way to Sindh.



Anatolia was one of the first places reached by UsefulNotes/{{Christianity}} and the place is significant to Christians. Saint Paul was born in Tarsus, a city in the southern Cilician region, and several historic towns at western Anatolia were the so-called "seven churches of Asia" for whom John of Patmos was ordered to pass the [[Literature/BookOfRevelation revelation]]. Meanwhile, Armenia (whose possessions extended as far as the Mediterranean) became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as state religion when it did so in 301 AD, almost 80 years before the Romans did.

When the Roman Empire divided, Anatolia was ruled and became the principal territories of the Eastern half, which we would call as the UsefulNotes/ByzantineEmpire. See their article for more details. Their capital, [[UsefulNotes/{{Istanbul}} Constantinople]], in particular, was ''the'' [[TheCity city]] for Eastern Europeans and Middle Easterners during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. However, the Byzantines and indeed the Romans didn't rule in peace, for they were competing with the Persian Parthians and later the Sassanids. Though they occasionally gained advantages over each other, their permanent holdings cut right in the middle of the former Armenian kingdom, which they carved each for themselves. The Byzantine-Sassanian wars lasted [[ForeverWar over three centuries]], but nothing seemed to change at all, until, in their fatigue, the 7th century AD brought [[OutsideContextProblem a gamechanger]]...

to:

Anatolia was one of the first places reached by UsefulNotes/{{Christianity}} and the place is still significant to Christians. Saint Paul was born in Tarsus, a city in the southern Cilician region, and several region. Antioch, present-day Antakya, was where the term "Christian" emerged. Several historic towns at western Anatolia were the so-called "seven churches of Asia" for whom John of Patmos was ordered to pass the [[Literature/BookOfRevelation revelation]]. Meanwhile, Armenia (whose possessions extended as far as the Mediterranean) became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as state religion when it did so in 301 AD, almost 80 years before the Romans did.

When the Roman Empire divided, Anatolia was ruled and became as the principal territories of the Eastern half, which we would call later known as the UsefulNotes/ByzantineEmpire. See their article for more details. Their capital, [[UsefulNotes/{{Istanbul}} Constantinople]], in particular, was ''the'' [[TheCity city]] for Eastern Europeans and Middle Easterners during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. However, the Byzantines and indeed the Romans didn't rule in peace, for they were competing with the Persian Parthians and later the Sassanids. Though they occasionally gained advantages over each other, their permanent holdings cut right in the middle of the former Armenian kingdom, which they carved each for themselves. The Byzantine-Sassanian wars lasted [[ForeverWar over three centuries]], but nothing seemed to change at all, until, in their fatigue, the 7th century AD brought [[OutsideContextProblem a gamechanger]]...



The Turks were a conglomerate of nomadic peoples originated from Western Mongolia and Siberia. There were many confederations, some friendly, some hostile to each other. Although they were grouped with other "barbarian" nomadic peoples during antiquity, by the 6th century, they had set up a huge empire in Central Asia named the Turkic Khaganate, facilitating migrations to conquered areas. When the khaganate fell to civil war in 659, the Turks dispersed, some forming their own polities, others joined other nation's armies, etc. Some already reached Europe before the modern Turks did; the Bulgars formed a state in Ukraine which reached coastal Black Sea region, after which their ethnonym was claimed by a Slavic people we know today as the Bulgarians. Then there were the Khazars, who ruled the Pontic-Caspian Steppe and had extensive contacts (including marriage alliances) with the Byzantines. The Khazars notably had a Jewish aristocracy, which is very unusual outside the Levant.

The Turks of Turkey descended from the Oghuz confederation, who had a state in the eastern Caspian Sea in the 8th century. They worked their way to the top by [[RagsToRiches converting to Islam, becoming obedient slaves to others, then slowly dominating their military]]. By this method, several Turk-ruled empires cropped up in South, Central, and West Asia. The one which eventually reached Anatolia was the Seljuks under Alp Arslan, who famously defeated the Byzantines at Manzikert in 1071 and forced Romanos IV Diogenes to wash his feet, although [[CruelMercy he was released]]. Victory at Manzikert allowed the Seljuks to conquer the region up to the outer reaches of Constantinople and many Turks began to immigrate to Anatolia, thus Turkifying the region. They were succeeded by the Sultanate of Rum[[note]]"Rome"; Arabs used the term to call the Byzantines, who were successors of the Roman Empire[[/note]]. The Rum Sultanate was a major target of UsefulNotes/TheCrusades and finally disintegrated following the Mongol invasions of the early 14th century. Several petty kingdoms (''beyliks'') emerged from their ashes and ruled independently. One of these, a beylik located in the Bithynia region close to Constantinople began to consolidate the others, a brief Timurid invasion in 1402-1413 notwithstanding. Their name? The Ottomans.

A note about Turkification. People who hold anti-Turk view would argue that Anatolia only became largely Turkish-speaking because the current inhabitants were "not native" and probably came from the "barbarian east". The truth is more complicated than that. While it is true that the Oghuz Turks introduced Turkish, the locals were responsible for propagating them. Anatolia was already a very populous area in the Middle Ages and there was no room for a mass migration; the small community of pure Turk origin ruled over the largely unchanged indigenous people. To advance up the social hierarchy, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, etc. adopted Turkish and Islam, becoming Turks in the process, although their customs still persist. Those who refused kept their ethnonym to the present day. Ever wondered why the Caucasoid Turkish people look ''very'' different from the Mongoloid Central Asian Turks? This is why.

to:

The Turks were a conglomerate of nomadic peoples who originated from Western Mongolia and Siberia. There were many confederations, some friendly, some hostile to each other. Although they were grouped with other "barbarian" nomadic peoples during antiquity, by the 6th century, they had set up a huge empire in Central Asia named the Turkic Khaganate, facilitating migrations to conquered areas. When the khaganate fell to civil war in 659, 581, the Turks dispersed, some forming their own polities, others joined other nation's nations' armies, etc. Some already reached Europe before the modern Turks did; the Bulgars formed a state in Ukraine which reached coastal Black Sea region, after which their ethnonym was claimed by a Slavic people we know today as the Bulgarians. Then there were the Khazars, who ruled the Pontic-Caspian Steppe and had extensive contacts (including marriage alliances) with the Byzantines. The Khazars notably had a Jewish aristocracy, which is very unusual outside the Levant.

The Turks of Turkey were descended from the Oghuz confederation, who had a state in the eastern Caspian Sea in the 8th century. They worked their way to the top by [[RagsToRiches converting to Islam, becoming obedient slaves to others, then slowly dominating their military]]. By this method, several Turk-ruled empires cropped up in South, Central, and West Asia. The one which eventually reached Anatolia was were the Seljuks under Alp Arslan, who famously defeated the Byzantines at Manzikert in 1071 and forced Romanos IV Diogenes to wash his feet, although [[CruelMercy he was released]]. Victory at Manzikert allowed the Seljuks to conquer the region up to the outer reaches of Constantinople and many Turks began to immigrate to Anatolia, thus Turkifying the region. They were succeeded by the Sultanate of Rum[[note]]"Rome"; Arabs used the term to call the Byzantines, who were successors of the Roman Empire[[/note]]. The Rum Sultanate was were a major target of UsefulNotes/TheCrusades and finally disintegrated following the Mongol invasions of the early 14th century. Several petty kingdoms (''beyliks'') emerged from their ashes and ruled independently. One of these, a beylik located in the Bithynia region close to Constantinople began to consolidate the others, a brief Timurid invasion in 1402-1413 notwithstanding. Once cornering the Byzantines at all sides, they under Mehmed II besieged Constantinople and then defeated and killed Constantine XI Palaiologos in 1453, officiating the end of the Roman Empire [[LongRunner after 1480 years]]. Their name? The Ottomans.

Ottomans.

A note about Turkification. People who hold anti-Turk view would argue that Anatolia only became largely Turkish-speaking because the current inhabitants were are "not native" and probably came from the "barbarian east". The truth is more complicated than that. While it is true that the Oghuz Turks introduced Turkish, the locals were responsible for propagating them.it. Anatolia was already a very populous area in the Middle Ages and there was no room for a mass migration; the small community of pure Turk origin ruled over the largely unchanged indigenous people. To advance up the social hierarchy, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, etc. adopted Turkish and Islam, becoming Turks in the process, although their customs still persist. Those who refused kept their ethnonym ethnonyms to the present day. Ever wondered why the Caucasoid Turkish people look ''very'' different from the Mongoloid Central Asian Turks? This is why.
13th Oct '17 8:28:28 PM AntonF
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Turkey distinctly straddles the line between East and West, given its geographic location. It has often been a melting pot of multiple cultures, with it being built on top of a Greco-Roman Empire with influences from both the Caucuses and from the Middle East. As such, Turkey maintains a unique identity as being not quite European and not quite Middle Eastern, but somewhere in between.

[[folder: History]]

to:

Turkey distinctly straddles the line between East and West, given its geographic location. It has often been a melting pot of multiple cultures, with it being built on top of a Greco-Roman Empire with influences from both the Caucuses Caucasus and from the Middle East. As such, Turkey maintains a unique identity as being not quite European and not quite Middle Eastern, but somewhere in between.

between. Nevertheless, Turkey (or rather, the Anatolian Peninsula that makes up 90% of the country's land area) ''is'' widely considered to be a part the traditional Middle East since at least the Middle Ages.

[[folder: History]]
History - Before Turks]]

Anatolia has been a cultural melting pot region for thousands of years. The place is the UrExample for "Asia"; the term came to be used for the continent later, by which time the name was suffixed with "Minor" to refer to the original location. It would probably take up pages after pages to describe the region's history before Alp Arslan and his army marched into the peninsula in the 11th century, so here's a summary. The Hurrians and Hitties were the first peoples to settle the area, having been recorded to live there since before the Late Bronze Age collapse [[OlderThanDirt circa 1200 BC]]. Both set up empires that were major powers in the ancient Middle East, though by the 1st millennium BC they were subsumed under the Assyrians. There were also the Urartu, the Hurrians' distant cousins who established a state at the Armenian Highlands in the east. Around 600 BC, the Iranians quickly began raising in power, first with Medes and Babylonia conquering Assyria, then Medes defeating Urartu, and finally the Achaemenids took the cake by absorbing all of them and the Babylonians, setting up an empire that stretches from Northern Greece all the way to Sindh.

The ancient Greeks had a lot of tales about Anatolia, but their presence wasn't set until UsefulNotes/AlexanderTheGreat and the Macedonians conquered the Middle East following the Greco-Persian Wars in the 4th century BC (although some bits of coastal western Anatolia were colonized by proto-Greeks since the Mycenaean era). The enormous Greek influence slowly turned the area as part of the Hellenistic world, but nevertheless it remained culturally distinctive, especially in the east where Armenians were the boss. The [[UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire Romans]], though nominally conquering Anatolia in the 1st century BC, mostly left administration at the hands of the Greeks and locals.

Anatolia was one of the first places reached by UsefulNotes/{{Christianity}} and the place is significant to Christians. Saint Paul was born in Tarsus, a city in the southern Cilician region, and several historic towns at western Anatolia were the so-called "seven churches of Asia" for whom John of Patmos was ordered to pass the [[Literature/BookOfRevelation revelation]]. Meanwhile, Armenia (whose possessions extended as far as the Mediterranean) became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as state religion when it did so in 301 AD, almost 80 years before the Romans did.

When the Roman Empire divided, Anatolia was ruled and became the principal territories of the Eastern half, which we would call as the UsefulNotes/ByzantineEmpire. See their article for more details. Their capital, [[UsefulNotes/{{Istanbul}} Constantinople]], in particular, was ''the'' [[TheCity city]] for Eastern Europeans and Middle Easterners during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. However, the Byzantines and indeed the Romans didn't rule in peace, for they were competing with the Persian Parthians and later the Sassanids. Though they occasionally gained advantages over each other, their permanent holdings cut right in the middle of the former Armenian kingdom, which they carved each for themselves. The Byzantine-Sassanian wars lasted [[ForeverWar over three centuries]], but nothing seemed to change at all, until, in their fatigue, the 7th century AD brought [[OutsideContextProblem a gamechanger]]...

...and that was the Rashidun Caliphate, one of the biggest and most sudden empires to emerge from anywhere in the world. The Arabs utterly defeated and subsumed the Persians and they also managed to overran the Armenian holdings of the Byzantines, although the latter were spared of the Persians' fate due to sheer [[{{Determinator}} self-preservation]]. Nevertheless, the Byzantines were slowly turning into a VestigialEmpire, their power dwindling and dwindling through time.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: History - Age of Turks (1000s-1400s)]]
The Turks were a conglomerate of nomadic peoples originated from Western Mongolia and Siberia. There were many confederations, some friendly, some hostile to each other. Although they were grouped with other "barbarian" nomadic peoples during antiquity, by the 6th century, they had set up a huge empire in Central Asia named the Turkic Khaganate, facilitating migrations to conquered areas. When the khaganate fell to civil war in 659, the Turks dispersed, some forming their own polities, others joined other nation's armies, etc. Some already reached Europe before the modern Turks did; the Bulgars formed a state in Ukraine which reached coastal Black Sea region, after which their ethnonym was claimed by a Slavic people we know today as the Bulgarians. Then there were the Khazars, who ruled the Pontic-Caspian Steppe and had extensive contacts (including marriage alliances) with the Byzantines. The Khazars notably had a Jewish aristocracy, which is very unusual outside the Levant.

The Turks of Turkey descended from the Oghuz confederation, who had a state in the eastern Caspian Sea in the 8th century. They worked their way to the top by [[RagsToRiches converting to Islam, becoming obedient slaves to others, then slowly dominating their military]]. By this method, several Turk-ruled empires cropped up in South, Central, and West Asia. The one which eventually reached Anatolia was the Seljuks under Alp Arslan, who famously defeated the Byzantines at Manzikert in 1071 and forced Romanos IV Diogenes to wash his feet, although [[CruelMercy he was released]]. Victory at Manzikert allowed the Seljuks to conquer the region up to the outer reaches of Constantinople and many Turks began to immigrate to Anatolia, thus Turkifying the region. They were succeeded by the Sultanate of Rum[[note]]"Rome"; Arabs used the term to call the Byzantines, who were successors of the Roman Empire[[/note]]. The Rum Sultanate was a major target of UsefulNotes/TheCrusades and finally disintegrated following the Mongol invasions of the early 14th century. Several petty kingdoms (''beyliks'') emerged from their ashes and ruled independently. One of these, a beylik located in the Bithynia region close to Constantinople began to consolidate the others, a brief Timurid invasion in 1402-1413 notwithstanding. Their name? The Ottomans.

A note about Turkification. People who hold anti-Turk view would argue that Anatolia only became largely Turkish-speaking because the current inhabitants were "not native" and probably came from the "barbarian east". The truth is more complicated than that. While it is true that the Oghuz Turks introduced Turkish, the locals were responsible for propagating them. Anatolia was already a very populous area in the Middle Ages and there was no room for a mass migration; the small community of pure Turk origin ruled over the largely unchanged indigenous people. To advance up the social hierarchy, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, etc. adopted Turkish and Islam, becoming Turks in the process, although their customs still persist. Those who refused kept their ethnonym to the present day. Ever wondered why the Caucasoid Turkish people look ''very'' different from the Mongoloid Central Asian Turks? This is why.

[[/folder]]

[[folder:History - Age of Turks (1400s-present)]]



* Prominently featured in the New Testament, especially in the ''Literature/ActsOfTheApostles'' and the first part of ''Literature/TheBookOfRevelation'', as the ancient city of Antioch is located in Hatay province (now known as Antakya) and the latter also features the "Seven churches of Asia"[[note]] in Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamon, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea (modern-day Selçuk, İzmir, Bergama, Akhisar, Sart, Alaşehir, and Denizli, respectively)[[/note]].



* Any depiction of the Trojan War features Turkey by implication (Troy was [[RealityIsUnrealistic a real-life city]] located in the northwestern part of Asia Minor, near modern-day Çanakkale). However, the event most probably happened centuries before Creator/{{Homer}} started writing ''Literature/TheIliad'', and Homeric Troy was very obviously written by a Greek person who certainly wanted a romanticization (it's a ''poem''); for starters, real Trojans spoke Luwian (an extinct Indo-European language), not Greek.



* Also any fiction which prominently features Mount Ararat features Turkey in implication, because, despite it being ''the'' national symbol of Armenia since forever (seriously, it's featured everywhere, from folktales, literature, paintings, emblems, coins...), it's located in Turkey (RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgment, the folks in Armenia obviously have campaigned to "recapture" it, since the chunk of land that has the mountain was hastily exchanged in 1921 between Turkey and the Soviet-controlled Armenian SSR).

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* Also any fiction which prominently features Mount Ararat features Turkey in implication, because, despite it being ''the'' national symbol of Armenia since forever (seriously, it's featured everywhere, from folktales, literature, paintings, emblems, coins...), it's located in Turkey (RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgment, the folks in Armenia obviously have campaigned to "recapture" it, since the chunk of land that has the mountain was hastily exchanged in 1921 between Turkey and the Soviet-controlled Armenian SSR).
11th Oct '17 9:40:27 AM DoktorSoviet
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Out of that chaos, the military ruled ''de facto'' for a while with a puppet civilian government before a tenuous coalition government led by fiscal conservative parties emerged. When this coalition began to get to "cozy" in regards to religious issues, the military asked Prime Minister Necmettin Erbakan to resign, in what was deemed a "soft coup". A more left-leaning coalition formed but proved to be unstable, especially because the social-democratic DSP [[note]]''Demoktratik Sol Party'', in English the Democratic Left Party[[/note]] and the nationalist MHP were forced into a coalition despite being on [[EnemyMine opposite sides of the political spectrum.]] The end result was that the new center-right AKP [[note]]''Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi'', in English the ''Justice and Development Party''[[/note]] led by Recep Tayyip Erdoğan was swept into office. AKP has effectively governed Turkey for the past decade-and-a-half, and [[RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgement and the less said about it, the better.]]

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Out of that chaos, the military ruled ''de facto'' for a while with a puppet civilian government before government. Slowly democracy was re-introduced, but it was unstable at best with no ideology gaining a majority, causing many weak coalitions to form. All of this, of course, was under the spectre of another military intervention. Eventually a tenuous coalition government led by fiscal conservative Islamist parties emerged.emerged, with the dominant one being the decidedly Islamist RP [[note]]Refah Partisi, in English the "Welfare Party"[[/note]]. When this coalition began to get to "cozy" in regards to religious issues, the military asked Prime Minister Necmettin Erbakan to resign, in what was deemed a "soft coup". A more left-leaning coalition formed but proved to be unstable, especially because the social-democratic DSP [[note]]''Demoktratik Sol Party'', in English the Democratic Left Party[[/note]] and the nationalist MHP were forced into a coalition despite being on [[EnemyMine opposite sides of the political spectrum.]] Turkey was then [[FromBadToWorse wracked by an economic crisis]]. The end result was that the new center-right AKP [[note]]''Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi'', in English the ''Justice and Development Party''[[/note]] led by Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Erdoğan[[note]]The Mayor of Istanbul and a member of the RP, he was arrested after the military ultimatum but returned to politics after his release[[/note]] was swept into office. AKP has effectively governed Turkey for the past decade-and-a-half, and [[RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgement and the less said about it, the better.]]
11th Oct '17 12:52:25 AM FireCrawler2002
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Turkey ('''Turkish:''' ''Türkiye''), officially known as the Republic of Turkey ('''Turkish:''' ''Türkiye Cumhuriyeti'') one of a few countries spanning multiple continents. UsefulNotes/{{NATO}} member and applicant to UsefulNotes/TheEuropeanUnion.

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Turkey ('''Turkish:''' ''Türkiye''), officially known as the Republic of Turkey ('''Turkish:''' ''Türkiye Cumhuriyeti'') is a Southern European and Western Asian country, one of a few countries spanning multiple continents. UsefulNotes/{{NATO}} member and applicant to UsefulNotes/TheEuropeanUnion.
6th Oct '17 9:27:18 PM DoktorSoviet
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Abdulhamid II's reign saw the rise of the Young Turks movement, which was a group of young nationalists (mostly low-level bureaucrats and officers) who wanted to create a modern, a distinctly Turkish, Ottoman Empire. They rebelled in 1908 and forced a new constitution on the Empire while severely limiting the Sultan's power in favor of a brand new democracy. However, this democracy quickly found itself dominated by the young Turks' party, the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP). They would eventually triumph over their opponents, the Freedom and Accord Party. Meanwhile, UsefulNotes/Italy invaded Libya in 1911 and quickly seized it, and just a year later the Balkan Wars erupted, which caused the Turks to lose almost all of their European territory sans Instanbul. The messy break-up of Ottoman rule in the Balkans would directly lead to UsefulNotes/WorldWarI.

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Abdulhamid II's reign saw the rise of the Young Turks movement, which was a group of young nationalists (mostly low-level bureaucrats and officers) who wanted to create a modern, a and distinctly Turkish, Ottoman Empire. They rebelled in 1908 and forced a new constitution on the Empire while severely limiting the Sultan's power in favor of a brand new democracy. However, this democracy quickly found itself dominated by the young Young Turks' party, the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP). They would eventually triumph over their opponents, the Freedom and Accord Party. Meanwhile, UsefulNotes/Italy Italy invaded Libya in 1911 and quickly seized it, and just a year later the Balkan Wars erupted, which caused the Turks to lose almost all of their European territory sans Instanbul.Istanbul. The messy break-up of Ottoman rule in the Balkans would directly lead to UsefulNotes/WorldWarI.
6th Oct '17 9:24:17 PM DoktorSoviet
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The Ottoman Empire entered a long period of decline that is presumed to have started in the late 18th century, but didn't really take off until the 19th century. During that time, Egypt split off and became an independent nation, taking with it a vast amount of income and a large population. Greece won its independence after humiliating the Ottoman Empire in the 1820s, and other Balkan states would soon follow. There were numerous reasons for the Empire's decline. There'd been a string of fairly lackluster Sultans in the 18th century. The Ottoman Navy had been destroyed by a Western coalition at the Battle of Navarino, which ended Ottoman dominance over the Eastern Mediterranean. The Empire's tax system was incredibly inefficient note and the Sultan's grasp on most parts of his Empire was in name only. A lack of funds meant that the Empire could not afford to sustain a more powerful army, leading to the decline of the famous Janissary corps. It also meant that infrastructure projects, like railroads, were often left up to foreign investors. Outside of the religious madrasas, Turks had no education. Furthermore, the French Revolution spread liberal and nationalist ideals to the provinces of the Empire, encouraging unrest and eventually revolution.

to:

The Ottoman Empire entered a long period of decline that is presumed to have started in the late 18th century, but didn't really take off until the 19th century. During that time, Egypt split off and became an independent nation, taking with it a vast amount of income and a large population. Greece won its independence after humiliating the Ottoman Empire in the 1820s, and other Balkan states would soon follow. There were numerous reasons for the Empire's decline. There'd been a string of fairly lackluster Sultans in the 18th century. The Ottoman Navy had been destroyed by a Western coalition at the Battle of Navarino, which ended Ottoman dominance over the Eastern Mediterranean. The Empire's tax system was incredibly inefficient note [[note]]taxes in the Ottoman Empire were sold as "taxation rights" to private individuals. The Ottoman government would sell a contract to collect taxes in a specific area for a specific amount and allow the contract holder to take whatever, so long as they paid the contractual amount. This meant the state didn't need to hire bureaucrats, but it also meant that the tax collectors could be quite brutal and that the Ottoman state made significantly less money. Plus, the Empire had a small population spread over a vast area, which doesn't bode well for states because it means you need to spend more on infrastructure than a small nation, but you also have a smaller tax base to get revenue from.[[/note]] and the Sultan's grasp on most parts of his Empire was in name only. A lack of funds meant that the Empire could not afford to sustain a more powerful army, leading to the decline of the famous Janissary corps. It also meant that infrastructure projects, like railroads, were often left up to foreign investors. Outside of the religious madrasas, Turks had no education. Furthermore, the French Revolution spread liberal and nationalist ideals to the provinces of the Empire, encouraging unrest and eventually revolution.
6th Oct '17 9:20:26 PM DoktorSoviet
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The Ottoman Empire entered a long period of decline that is presumed to have started in the late 18th century, but didn't really take off until the 19th century. During that time, UsefulNotes/Egypt split off and became an independent nation, taking with it a vast amount of income and a large population. UsefulNotes/Greece won its independence after humiliating the Ottoman Empire in the 1820s, and other Balkan states would soon follow. There were numerous reasons for the Empire's decline. There'd been a string of fairly lackluster Sultans in the 18th century. The Ottoman Navy had been destroyed by a Western coalition at the Battle of Navarino, which ended Ottoman dominance over the Eastern Mediterranean. The Empire's tax system was incredibly inefficient note and the Sultan's grasp on most parts of his Empire was in name only. A lack of funds meant that the Empire could not afford to sustain a more powerful army, leading to the decline of the famous Janissary corps. It also meant that infrastructure projects, like railroads, were often left up to foreign investors. Outside of the religious madrasas, Turks had no education. Furthermore, the French Revolution spread liberal and nationalist ideals to the provinces of the Empire, encouraging unrest and eventually revolution.

to:

The Ottoman Empire entered a long period of decline that is presumed to have started in the late 18th century, but didn't really take off until the 19th century. During that time, UsefulNotes/Egypt Egypt split off and became an independent nation, taking with it a vast amount of income and a large population. UsefulNotes/Greece Greece won its independence after humiliating the Ottoman Empire in the 1820s, and other Balkan states would soon follow. There were numerous reasons for the Empire's decline. There'd been a string of fairly lackluster Sultans in the 18th century. The Ottoman Navy had been destroyed by a Western coalition at the Battle of Navarino, which ended Ottoman dominance over the Eastern Mediterranean. The Empire's tax system was incredibly inefficient note and the Sultan's grasp on most parts of his Empire was in name only. A lack of funds meant that the Empire could not afford to sustain a more powerful army, leading to the decline of the famous Janissary corps. It also meant that infrastructure projects, like railroads, were often left up to foreign investors. Outside of the religious madrasas, Turks had no education. Furthermore, the French Revolution spread liberal and nationalist ideals to the provinces of the Empire, encouraging unrest and eventually revolution.
3rd Oct '17 10:28:43 PM DoktorSoviet
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!!Turkey In Fiction!!

to:

!!Turkey In Fiction!!Fiction
3rd Oct '17 10:28:20 PM DoktorSoviet
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Turkey distinctly straddles the line between East and West, given its geographic location. It has often been a melting pot of multiple cultures, with it being built on top of a Greco-Roman Empire with influences from both the Caucuses and from the Middle East. As such, Turkey maintains a unique identity as being not quite European and not quite Middle Eastern, but somewhere in between.

[[folder: History]]



The Ottoman Empire entered a long period of decline that is presumed to have started in the late 18th century, but didn't really take off until the 19th century. During that time, UsefulNotes/Egypt split off and became an independent nation, taking with it a vast amount of income and a large population. UsefulNotes/Greece won its independence after humiliating the Ottoman Empire in the 1820s, and other Balkan states would soon follow. There were numerous reasons for the Empire's decline. There'd been a string of fairly lackluster Sultans in the 18th century. The Ottoman Navy had been destroyed by a Western coalition at the Battle of Navarino, which ended Ottoman dominance over the Eastern Mediterranean. The Empire's tax system was incredibly inefficient note and the Sultan's grasp on most parts of his Empire was in name only. A lack of funds meant that the Empire could not afford to sustain a more powerful army, leading to the decline of the famous Janissary corps. It also meant that infrastructure projects, like railroads, were often left up to foreign investors. Outside of the religious madrasas, Turks had no education. Furthermore, the French Revolution spread liberal and nationalist ideals to the provinces of the Empire, encouraging unrest and eventually revolution.

These shortcomings were periodically addressed throughout the 19th century by the sultans, starting with Mahmud II. After the disastrous Greek War of Independence, Mahmud set about modernizing the military by first abolishing and massacring the Janissary Corps, then inviting French and British advisers to open new officer schools. This had some unintended consequences, as the new teachers tended to bring with them Western ideals, and the officers-in-training learned English and French, meaning they now had the ability to read newspapers and literature from Europe. This helped further spur on the push for liberal reform. Under Mahmud II's successor Abdulmecid I, the new ''Tanzimat'' reforms were introduced. These included further military reforms, as well as major bureaucratic and tax reforms. This coincided with an attempt to build a sort of Ottoman national identity to try and reduce the strife between ethnic groups. ''Tanzimat'' proved to be moderately successful, as it managed to help modernize many parts of the Ottoman Empire. However, it only stymied its continuing decline, as monetary issues halted some of the reforms and forced the Empire further and further in debt to the French and British. The Ottoman Empire briefly flirted with establishing a constitutional monarchy and a parliament, but this didn't stick. Meanwhile, the Russians continued to fight the Turks, both in the Crimean War and the Russo-Turkish War. The latter ended up with the Ottoman Empire being severely diminished at the Congress of Berlin, where most of its Balkan possessions were split into independent nation states, Tunisia was conquered by France, and the British occupied Egypt. The newly independent country of Bosnia was invaded by the Austro-Hungarians in 1878, which would have dire consequences down the line.

Abdulhamid II's reign saw the rise of the Young Turks movement, which was a group of young nationalists (mostly low-level bureaucrats and officers) who wanted to create a modern, a distinctly Turkish, Ottoman Empire. They rebelled in 1908 and forced a new constitution on the Empire while severely limiting the Sultan's power in favor of a brand new democracy. However, this democracy quickly found itself dominated by the young Turks' party, the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP). They would eventually triumph over their opponents, the Freedom and Accord Party. Meanwhile, UsefulNotes/Italy invaded Libya in 1911 and quickly seized it, and just a year later the Balkan Wars erupted, which caused the Turks to lose almost all of their European territory sans Instanbul. The messy break-up of Ottoman rule in the Balkans would directly lead to UsefulNotes/WorldWarI.



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[[folder:Modern Turkey]]



Turkey has a notable cultural industry, especially in the music area - the Holly Valance song "Kiss Kiss" was originally sung in Turkish (strangely enough, the original singer is male, while a significant number of the various covers have been sung by women.) Plus belly dancers, which people tend to focus on. The oil wrestling is male-only, so it's usually ignored (of course, it largely depends on [[LGBTFanbase the demographic]]).



'''Famous Turks'''

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'''Famous Turks'''[[/folder]]

[[folder: Culture]]

Turkey has a notable cultural industry, especially in the music area - the Holly Valance song "Kiss Kiss" was originally sung in Turkish (strangely enough, the original singer is male, while a significant number of the various covers have been sung by women.) Plus belly dancers, which people tend to focus on. The oil wrestling is male-only, so it's usually ignored (of course, it largely depends on the demographic).

Turkish food is commonplace, especially in Europe. Many Turkish immigrants work as street vendors or restaurant owners, especially in Germany, and the food of choice is almost always kebab. Turks are also famous for creating sherbet, although some dispute this. Turkish food generally has a lot more in common with the food of the Balkans and Greece than with its southerly neighbors, usually emphasizing a large amount of dairy products like goat cheese and yogurt. ''Kahve''[[note]]coffee[[/note]] and ''Çay''[[note]]tea[[/note]] are the favored beverages, with the former still enjoyed in the ''kahvehane''[[note]]coffee houses[[/note]] of Istanbul. Unlike many Muslim-majority countries, the sale of alcohol is perfectly legal and although public drinking is typically discouraged (especially in more conservative areas), alcohol consumption isn't much different than in the West.

Turkey does have its own film industry, but it hasn't gained much notoriety outside of Turkey. Turkish television is much the same, with a lot of locally produced successes, but with little recognition outside of Turkey. Turkish media tends to be very melodramatic and bombastic, with shows and movies often surpassing the two-hour mark.

One interesting observation about Turkish culture is their love for cats, particularly in Istanbul. Besides cats just looking plain old cute, there are pragmatic reasons to keep them around to help kill pests. More importantly, cats are treated with a degree of reverence in Islam, with Muhammad praising them for their cleanliness. Because of this, they are often given free food and water and are allowed to wander into mosques at their leisure.

[[/folder]]


[[folder: Famous Turks]]




'''Turkey In Fiction'''

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\n'''Turkey * Sabiha Gökçen was one of Atatürk's adopted daughters, as well as being the worlds first female combat pilot.
* Ahmet Ertegun was one of the founders of Atlantic Records, and incredibly influential record label that had major hits in soul, rock, and R&B music. Atlantic would go on to be a label for musicians and bands like Ben E. King, Wilson Pickett, Music/ArethaFranklin, Music/OtisRedding, Percy Sledge, Music/LedZeppelin, Music/TheRollingStones, and was even the guy who brought Music/NeilYoung in to Music/CrosbyStillsNashAndYoung.
* Hamdi Ulukaya. Famous entrepreneur and founder of the yogurt brand Chobani. Hamdi was born and raised in the poor northern part of Anatolia bordering the Black Sea. He was the son of a shepherd, but he ended up coming to America to study, eventually founding the brand with the help of his family.
* Tarkan. No doubt it would be amiss not to mention Turkey's biggest pop star.

[[/folder]]

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!!Turkey
In Fiction'''Fiction!!
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