History UsefulNotes / StockDinosaursNonDinosaurs

27th Oct '17 3:01:24 PM CJCroen1393
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''Rhamphorhynchus'' had a wingspan of about 2m/6ft, relatively short wings, a narrow snout slightly pointing upwards, robust hindlimbs, and long tail. Two recognizable traits are the protruding teeth and the diamond-shaped "fin" set vertically on the tip of its tail. As ''Rhamphorhynchus'' lived in coastal lagoons, the teeth were probably apt to catch fish in flight. The typical tailfin was made of soft tissue (it’s known only thanks to prints in the rocks).

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''Rhamphorhynchus'' had a wingspan of about 2m/6ft, relatively short wings, a narrow snout slightly pointing upwards, robust hindlimbs, and long tail. Two recognizable traits are the protruding teeth and the diamond-shaped "fin" set vertically on the tip of its tail. As ''Rhamphorhynchus'' lived in coastal lagoons, the teeth were probably apt to either catch fish in flight.flight or catch them by swimming and diving. The typical tailfin was made of soft tissue (it’s known only thanks to prints in the rocks).
25th Oct '17 12:11:38 PM ElSquibbonator
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Another long-standing cliche makes sea reptiles the pterosaurs' archenemies. You probably have already seen the scene of a "prehistoric leviathan" emerging abruptly from the surface of the sea, grabbing a giant flying reptile with its jaws (the victim is usually ''Pteranodon''), and dragging it underwater to eat it (Creator/DougalDixon once speculated that long-necked plesiosaurs would be specialist seabird hunters if they survived to the present). In RealLife this could be possible only for the biggest mosasaurs and pliosaurs[[note]]and even then, we don't have any evidence that either of these types of animals preyed on pterosaurs; in fact, we have more evidence that sharks and spinosaurid dinosaurs would have fancied a leathery-winged snack[[/note]]. Giant ichthyosaurs did roam the seas, but in their time pterosaurs were still ''very'' small. Even though giant plesiosaurs like ''Elasmosaurus'' could have interacted with giant pterosaurs, their small mouths were unable [[FridgeLogic to swallow whole]] [[GiantFlyer Giant Fliers]] like ''Pteranodon''. ''Pteranodon'' bones have been discovered in the belly of a plesiosaur fossil, but they come from a small, female or juvenile pterosaur, not a gigantic male, and in any case they were probably shaken about before being eaten, rather than swallowed whole.

to:

Another long-standing cliche makes sea reptiles the pterosaurs' archenemies. You probably have already seen the scene of a "prehistoric leviathan" emerging abruptly from the surface of the sea, grabbing a giant flying reptile with its jaws (the victim is usually ''Pteranodon''), and dragging it underwater to eat it (Creator/DougalDixon once speculated that long-necked plesiosaurs would be specialist seabird seabird/pterosaur hunters if they survived to the present). In RealLife this could be possible only for the biggest mosasaurs and pliosaurs[[note]]and even then, we don't have any evidence that either of these types of animals preyed on pterosaurs; in fact, we have more evidence that sharks large fish, predatory dinosaurs, and spinosaurid dinosaurs marine crocodiles would have fancied a leathery-winged snack[[/note]]. Giant ichthyosaurs did roam the seas, but in their time pterosaurs were still ''very'' small. Even though giant plesiosaurs like ''Elasmosaurus'' could have interacted with giant pterosaurs, their small mouths were unable [[FridgeLogic to swallow whole]] [[GiantFlyer Giant Fliers]] like ''Pteranodon''. ''Pteranodon'' bones have been discovered in the belly of a plesiosaur fossil, but they come from a small, female or juvenile pterosaur, not a gigantic male, and in any case they were probably shaken about before being eaten, rather than swallowed whole.
or more likely scavenged.
12th Oct '17 3:59:19 AM VagabondPeafowl
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A common misconception about the woolly mammoth is that it was ''larger'' than modern elephants: actually the "woolly" was the same size as its tropical, 21st-century cousins — perhaps this is due to the confusion with other mammoth species that ''were'' a bit larger, like the [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeMammals Columbian mammoth]]). Also note that only males had the typical huge, curly tusks: the females' tusks were not that different from those of modern elephants. As preserved fossil hair is often reddish-brown, some depictions show woollies with this color: actually, this is due to a chemical change since 10,000 years ago. When alive they were blackish, as seen in the ''Series/WalkingWithBeasts''.

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A common misconception about the woolly mammoth is that it was ''larger'' than modern elephants: actually the "woolly" was the same size as its tropical, 21st-century cousins — perhaps this is due to the confusion with other mammoth species that ''were'' a bit larger, like the [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeMammals Columbian mammoth]]).mammoth]]. Also note that only males had the typical huge, curly tusks: the females' tusks were not that different from those of modern elephants. As preserved fossil hair is often reddish-brown, some depictions show woollies with this color: actually, this is due to a chemical change since 10,000 years ago. When alive they were blackish, as seen in the ''Series/WalkingWithBeasts''.
25th Sep '17 8:51:43 AM HTD
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[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pterosauria Pterosaurs]] (usually called pterodactyls in media and in pop-language) are often referred as the "flying dinosaurs". They were closely related to them, but were not true dinosaurs.

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[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pterosauria Pterosaurs]] (usually called pterodactyls in media and in pop-language) pop language) are often referred as the "flying dinosaurs". They were closely related to them, but were not true dinosaurs.













* They weren't either dinosaurs, nor were they birds. Further, they were not even the ancestors of any modern flier[[note]]dinosaurs were[[/note]]: instead, they were only ''relatives'' of dinosaurs (and thus birds, of course).

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\n* They weren't either dinosaurs, nor were they birds. Further, they were not even the ancestors of any modern flier[[note]]dinosaurs were[[/note]]: instead, they were only ''relatives'' of dinosaurs (and thus birds, of course).



This is, for now, the ultimate GiantFlyer among prehistoric animals. Lived in North America at the very end of the Cretaceous 70-65 mya (but some think its distribution was worldwide). ''Quetzalcoatlus'' was discovered in the 1970s in Texas from incomplete remains. Its wingspan was estimated from 10m/35ft up to 16m/50ft, with the lower range being the most likely. [[RuleOfCool Of course]], pop-media have often followed the higher one. This "living airplane" took the Pteranodon's reputation over as "the biggest flier ever" in those years. Its describer named it from an Aztec divinity: Quetzalcoatl, the "feathered snake" (the animal itself is often called "the quetzalcoatl").

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This is, for now, the ultimate GiantFlyer among prehistoric animals. Lived in North America at the very end of the Cretaceous 70-65 mya (but some think its distribution was worldwide). ''Quetzalcoatlus'' was discovered in the 1970s in Texas from incomplete remains. Its wingspan was estimated from 10m/35ft up to 16m/50ft, with the lower range being the most likely. [[RuleOfCool Of course]], pop-media have often followed the higher one. This "living airplane" took the Pteranodon's ''Pteranodon'''s reputation over as "the biggest flier ever" in those years. Its describer named it from an Aztec divinity: Quetzalcoatl, the "feathered snake" (the animal itself is often called "the quetzalcoatl").



The astonishing thing is, in spite of being [[http://pterosaurs.wordpress.com/2008/05/16/azhdarchid-paleobiology-part-i/ as tall as a giraffe]] when on land, ''Quetzalcoatlus'' could still ''fly''. Giving its size, it should have been an extremely powerful flier, capable of frequenting several habitats, and maybe even traveling worldwide. An almost-identical relative, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hatzegopteryx Hatzegopteryx]]'', was recently described from Europe. It was estimated even bigger than ''Quetzalcoatlus'', with a 36 to 39ft wingspan and was probably even more menacing as well, with a more muscular frame and a shorter neck.

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The astonishing thing is, in spite of being [[http://pterosaurs.wordpress.com/2008/05/16/azhdarchid-paleobiology-part-i/ as tall as a giraffe]] when on land, ''Quetzalcoatlus'' could still ''fly''. Giving its size, it should have been an extremely powerful flier, capable of frequenting several habitats, and maybe even traveling worldwide. An almost-identical relative, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hatzegopteryx Hatzegopteryx]]'', was recently described from Europe.Europe in 2002. It was estimated even bigger than ''Quetzalcoatlus'', with a 36 to 39ft wingspan and was probably even more menacing as well, with a more muscular frame and a shorter neck.



Sorry, these ones aren't here. If you're looking for ''Nyctosaurus'', ''Pteranodon sternbergi'', ''Dsungaripterus'', ''Ornithocheirus'', ''Anurognathus'', and others, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeNonDinosaurianReptiles here.]]

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Sorry, these ones aren't here. If you're looking for ''Nyctosaurus'', ''Pteranodon sternbergi'', ''Geosternbergia'', ''Dsungaripterus'', ''Ornithocheirus'', ''Anurognathus'', and others, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeNonDinosaurianReptiles here.]]



Interestingly, unlike dinosaurs, marine reptiles were ''already'' well-known to science at the beginning of the 19th century. Their fossil record is overall wealthier and better-preserved than that of the dinosaurs. Significantly, the very ''first'' "antediluvian" reptiles entered in narrative media were not dinosaurs, but the ichthyosaur and the plesiosaur which battle each other in the novel ''Literature/JourneyToTheCenterOfTheEarth'' written by Jules Verne in 1864. Both animals were enormously oversized and depicted in a ''very'' fanciful way: if you read the novel, you'll find them more like MixAndMatchCritter-type [[SeaMonster sea monsters]] than their RealLife counterparts. The "ichthyosaur" is similar to a mixup of whales-crocodiles-dragons-snakes-whatnot, and has not the familiar fish-like shape of a RealLife Ichthyosaurus. The plesiosaur is a bit more realistic, but has a serpentine neck and the shell of a sea turtle. However, some of these errors are due to ScienceMarchesOn, as we’ll se in the single sections below.

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Interestingly, unlike dinosaurs, marine reptiles were ''already'' well-known to science at the beginning of the 19th century. Their fossil record is overall wealthier and better-preserved than that of the dinosaurs. Significantly, the very ''first'' "antediluvian" reptiles entered in narrative media were not dinosaurs, but the ichthyosaur and the plesiosaur which battle each other in the novel ''Literature/JourneyToTheCenterOfTheEarth'' written by Jules Verne in 1864. Both animals were enormously oversized and depicted in a ''very'' fanciful way: if you read the novel, you'll find them more like MixAndMatchCritter-type [[SeaMonster sea monsters]] than their RealLife counterparts. The "ichthyosaur" is similar to a mixup of whales-crocodiles-dragons-snakes-whatnot, and has not the familiar fish-like shape of a RealLife Ichthyosaurus.''Ichthyosaurus''. The plesiosaur is a bit more realistic, but has a serpentine neck and the shell of a sea turtle. However, some of these errors are due to ScienceMarchesOn, as we’ll se in the single sections below.



Another long-standing cliche makes sea-reptiles the pterosaurs' archenemies. You probably have already seen the scene of a "prehistoric leviathan" emerging abruptly from the surface of the sea, grabbing a giant flying reptile with its jaws (the victim is usually ''Pteranodon''), and dragging it underwater to eat it (Creator/DougalDixon once speculated that long-necked plesiosaurs would be specialist seabird hunters if they survived to the present). In RealLife this could be possible only for the biggest mosasaurs and pliosaurs[[note]]and even then, we don't have any evidence that either of these types of animals preyed on pterosaurs; in fact, we have more evidence that sharks and Spinosaurid dinosaurs would have fancied a leathery-winged snack[[/note]]. Giant ichthyosaurs did roam the seas, but in their time pterosaurs were still ''very'' small. Even though giant plesiosaurs like ''Elasmosaurus'' could have interacted with giant pterosaurs, their small mouths were unable [[FridgeLogic to swallow whole]] [[GiantFlyer Giant Fliers]] like ''Pteranodon''. ''Pteranodon'' bones have been discovered in the belly of a plesiosaur fossil, but they come from a small, female or juvenile pterosaur, not a gigantic male, and in any case they were probably shaken about before being eaten, rather than swallowed whole.

to:

Another long-standing cliche makes sea-reptiles sea reptiles the pterosaurs' archenemies. You probably have already seen the scene of a "prehistoric leviathan" emerging abruptly from the surface of the sea, grabbing a giant flying reptile with its jaws (the victim is usually ''Pteranodon''), and dragging it underwater to eat it (Creator/DougalDixon once speculated that long-necked plesiosaurs would be specialist seabird hunters if they survived to the present). In RealLife this could be possible only for the biggest mosasaurs and pliosaurs[[note]]and even then, we don't have any evidence that either of these types of animals preyed on pterosaurs; in fact, we have more evidence that sharks and Spinosaurid spinosaurid dinosaurs would have fancied a leathery-winged snack[[/note]]. Giant ichthyosaurs did roam the seas, but in their time pterosaurs were still ''very'' small. Even though giant plesiosaurs like ''Elasmosaurus'' could have interacted with giant pterosaurs, their small mouths were unable [[FridgeLogic to swallow whole]] [[GiantFlyer Giant Fliers]] like ''Pteranodon''. ''Pteranodon'' bones have been discovered in the belly of a plesiosaur fossil, but they come from a small, female or juvenile pterosaur, not a gigantic male, and in any case they were probably shaken about before being eaten, rather than swallowed whole.



Despite this, pliosaurs have been the least-portrayed group of sea reptiles, and still remain mainly documentary animals. ''Kronosaurus'' was long the most commonly shown pliosaur in books and documentaries until 1999, when a memorable appearance of an [[RuleOfCool extraordinarily oversized]] [[note]]The fictional length 80ft/25m was based on misidentified bone fragments; in reality, the species maxed out at 25ft/7m long.[[/note]] ''Liopleurodon'' on Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs rapidly made it the new iconic member of the family (very similarly to ''Deinonychus'' à ''Velociraptor'' thanks to ''Film/JurassicPark''). In the show, an old male ''Liopleurodon'' was described weighing 150 tons (a bit less than the blue whale) and [[UpToEleven the biggest predator of all time]]. In particular, the scene in which he pulls the ichthyosaur in pieces [[NightmareFuel disturbed many viewers]] (even though the sad final scene where he’s stranded and slowly dies gives it a bit of humanity). To give the idea about how the animal remained impressed in pop-consciousness: [[FollowTheLeader all successive depictions]] have shown ''Liopleurodon''s with the WWD blue-white color pattern. [[note]]For some reason, unlike dinosaurs and pterosaurs, marine reptiles are almost always shown with dull colors even in modern portraits. However, they might have been very colorful, like modern tropical seagoing animals.[[/note]] Another species that is starting to rise in popularity is ''Pliosaurus funkei'', known in popular culture as ''Predator X''. At an estimated 13 metres and 25 tons in weight (originally it was over 15 metres and 45 tons but ScienceMarchesOn), it's likely that it was the largest of this group and this was coupled with a bite that was estimated to be four times that of ''T. rex''. Is it any wonder this thing is becoming popular?

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Despite this, pliosaurs have been the least-portrayed group of sea reptiles, and still remain mainly documentary animals. ''Kronosaurus'' was long the most commonly shown pliosaur in books and documentaries until 1999, when a memorable appearance of an [[RuleOfCool extraordinarily oversized]] [[note]]The fictional length 80ft/25m was based on misidentified bone fragments; in reality, the species maxed out at 25ft/7m long.[[/note]] ''Liopleurodon'' on Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs rapidly made it the new iconic member of the family (very similarly to ''Deinonychus'' à ''Velociraptor'' thanks to ''Film/JurassicPark''). In the show, an old male ''Liopleurodon'' was described weighing 150 tons (a bit less than the blue whale) and [[UpToEleven the biggest predator of all time]]. In particular, the scene in which he pulls the ichthyosaur in pieces [[NightmareFuel disturbed many viewers]] (even though the sad final scene where he’s stranded and slowly dies gives it a bit of humanity). To give the idea about how the animal remained impressed in pop-consciousness: pop consciousness: [[FollowTheLeader all successive depictions]] have shown ''Liopleurodon''s with the WWD blue-white color pattern. [[note]]For some reason, unlike dinosaurs and pterosaurs, marine reptiles are almost always shown with dull colors even in modern portraits. However, they might have been very colorful, like modern tropical seagoing animals.[[/note]] Another species that is starting to rise in popularity is ''Pliosaurus funkei'', known in popular culture as ''Predator X''. At an estimated 13 metres and 25 tons in weight (originally it was over 15 metres and 45 tons but ScienceMarchesOn), it's likely that it was the largest of this group and this was coupled with a bite that was estimated to be four times that of ''T. rex''. Is it any wonder this thing is becoming popular?



Mosasaur heads were similar to those of modern lizards, but with longer snouts. Like the latter, they’d have had fleshy lips. Like modern snakes, their mouths had notably loose hinges between the jaws: this allowed mosasaurs to swallow big items without tearing them in pieces (which they could still do). The teeth were conical or specialized for crushing smaller species and serrated on the three largest species (the 40+-foot giants that are most often depicted), the upper ones placed in two rows on each half-jaw, again like modern snakes and monitors. According to stomach contents, mosasaurs were very generalist feeders: fish, sharks, squids, pterosaurs, early birds like ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife Hesperornis]]'' and even smaller mosasaurs have been found. [[note]]This ''doesn’t necessarily mean'' they were cannibals, though: the preyed-upon mosasaurs could be from different species than their predators. After all, modern orcas do eat smaller dolphins.[[/note]] We don’t known if mosasaurs had a forked tongue and ever-open eyes like many modern squamates, nor if they had heat-sensors like some boas and rattlesnakes: these things usually don't preserve in fossil record. However, it is interesting to know that a fairly close relative of both ''Mosasaurus'' and ''Tylosaurus'', ''Platecarpus'', is known to have a tail fluke on the dorsal and ventral sides of the tail, akin to sharks. It's thus possible that all mosasaurs shared this feature.

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Mosasaur heads were similar to those of modern lizards, but with longer snouts. Like the latter, they’d have had fleshy lips. Like modern snakes, their mouths had notably loose hinges between the jaws: this allowed mosasaurs to swallow big items without tearing them in pieces (which they could still do). The teeth were conical or specialized for crushing smaller species and serrated on the three largest species (the 40+-foot giants that are most often depicted), the upper ones placed in two rows on each half-jaw, again like modern snakes and monitors. According to stomach contents, mosasaurs were very generalist feeders: fish, sharks, squids, pterosaurs, early birds like ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife Hesperornis]]'' and even smaller mosasaurs have been found. [[note]]This ''doesn’t necessarily mean'' they were cannibals, though: the preyed-upon preyed upon mosasaurs could be from different species than their predators. After all, modern orcas do eat smaller dolphins.[[/note]] We don’t known if mosasaurs had a forked tongue and ever-open eyes like many modern squamates, nor if they had heat-sensors like some boas and rattlesnakes: these things usually don't preserve in fossil record. However, it is interesting to know that a fairly close relative of both ''Mosasaurus'' and ''Tylosaurus'', ''Platecarpus'', is known to have a tail fluke on the dorsal and ventral sides of the tail, akin to sharks. It's thus possible that all mosasaurs shared this feature.



Among the rare ''Archelon'' appearences in fiction, the most remembered is in Harryhausen's ''One Million Years B.C.''. The turtle is the first animal cavemen encounter in the island, [[UpToEleven upsized to be as big as a house]]. Surprisingly, many viewers think it was [[{{Slurpasaur}} live-acted by a Real Life turtle]], but it too is stop-motion like most other animals here. A Franchise/{{Pokemon}} based on ''Archelon'' made its debut in ''VideoGame/PokemonBlackAndWhite''; a two-stage fossil Pokemon, Tirtouga and Carracosta are interesting, as even fully grown they're actually ''smaller'' than their real world inspiration.

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Among the rare ''Archelon'' appearences in fiction, the most remembered is in Harryhausen's ''One Million Years B.C.''. The turtle is the first animal cavemen encounter in the island, [[UpToEleven upsized to be as big as a house]]. Surprisingly, many viewers think it was [[{{Slurpasaur}} live-acted by a Real Life turtle]], but it too is stop-motion like most other animals here. A Franchise/{{Pokemon}} based on ''Archelon'' made its debut in ''VideoGame/PokemonBlackAndWhite''; a two-stage fossil Pokemon, Pokémon, Tirtouga and Carracosta are interesting, as even fully grown they're actually ''smaller'' than their real world inspiration.



Sorry, these aren't here. If you're looking for ''Stenopterygius'', ''Temnodontosaurus'', ''Mixosaurus'', Polycotylids, Thalattosuchids, Nothosaurs, Placodonts, and others, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeNonDinosaurianReptiles here.]]

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Sorry, these aren't here. If you're looking for ''Stenopterygius'', ''Temnodontosaurus'', ''Mixosaurus'', Polycotylids, Thalattosuchids, Nothosaurs, Placodonts, polycotylids, thalattosuchians, nothosaurs, placodonts, and others, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeNonDinosaurianReptiles here.]]



A common misconception about the woolly mammoth is that it was ''larger'' than modern elephants: actually the "woolly" was the same size as its tropical, 21st-century cousins — perhaps this is due to the confusion with other mammoth species that ''were'' a bit larger, like the [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife Emperor mammoth]] and [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife Columbian mammoth]]). Also note that only males had the typical huge, curly tusks: the females' tusks were not that different from those of modern elephants. As preserved fossil hair is often reddish-brown, some depictions show woollies with this color: actually, this is due to a chemical change since 10,000 years ago. When alive they were blackish, as seen in the ''Series/WalkingWithBeasts''.

It's worth noting that mammoths, scientifically speaking, were just another type of elephant, since they belonged to the same phylogenetic branch. The Asian elephant is slightly more closely related to ''mammoths'' than to its more distant modern African relative (thus mammoths ''weren't'' the direct ancestors of elephants as sometimes said). On the other hand, the mastodon was ''not'' a true elephant, but just a distant relative of ''both'' modern pachyderms ''and'' mammoths — its scientific name, ''Mammut americanum'', is misleading. Like the true mammoths, the mastodon has left exquisite remains (ex. those in the Californian tarpits). Lived during the Ice Ages but in warmer climates than ''Mammuthus primigenius'', and was neighbour and possible prey for the "saber-toothed" ''Smilodon''. Interestingly, in some languages the adjective "mastodontic" has become a household word as a synonym of "huge," "enormous," but the animal wasn't actually that big compared with other extinct proboscideans (it was a bit smaller than a bush elephant). For other extinct elephant relatives, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeMammals Prehistoric Life]].

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A common misconception about the woolly mammoth is that it was ''larger'' than modern elephants: actually the "woolly" was the same size as its tropical, 21st-century cousins — perhaps this is due to the confusion with other mammoth species that ''were'' a bit larger, like the [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife Emperor mammoth]] and [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeMammals Columbian mammoth]]). Also note that only males had the typical huge, curly tusks: the females' tusks were not that different from those of modern elephants. As preserved fossil hair is often reddish-brown, some depictions show woollies with this color: actually, this is due to a chemical change since 10,000 years ago. When alive they were blackish, as seen in the ''Series/WalkingWithBeasts''.

''Series/WalkingWithBeasts''.

It's worth noting that mammoths, scientifically speaking, were just another type of elephant, since they belonged to the same phylogenetic branch. The Asian elephant is slightly more closely related to ''mammoths'' mammoths than to its more distant modern African relative (thus mammoths ''weren't'' the direct ancestors of elephants as sometimes said). On the other hand, the mastodon was ''not'' a true elephant, but just a distant relative of ''both'' modern pachyderms ''and'' mammoths — its scientific name, ''Mammut americanum'', is misleading. Like the true mammoths, the mastodon has left exquisite remains (ex. those in the Californian tarpits). Lived during the Ice Ages but in warmer climates than ''Mammuthus primigenius'', and was neighbour and possible prey for the "saber-toothed" ''Smilodon''. Interestingly, in some languages the adjective "mastodontic" has become a household word as a synonym of "huge," "enormous," but the animal wasn't actually that big compared with other extinct proboscideans (it was a bit smaller than a bush elephant). For other extinct elephant relatives, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeMammals Prehistoric Life]].



Other "mastodons" were more similar to elephants, but even they would appear cool-looking by our standards: see ''Anancus'', the "European mastodon," with its straight, spear-like upper tusks (while the lower ones were almost missing). Even closer to the proper elephants (forming the sister clade outside the elephant-mammoth group) were the Stegodonts. Among them, ''Stegodon ganesa'' had huge parallel tusks so close to each other that illustrations show the animal as obligated to keep its trunk ''aside'' the two tusks!

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Other "mastodons" were more similar to elephants, but even they would appear cool-looking by our standards: see ''Anancus'', the "European mastodon," with its straight, spear-like upper tusks (while the lower ones were almost missing). Even closer to the proper elephants (forming the sister clade outside the elephant-mammoth group) were the Stegodonts.stegodonts. Among them, ''Stegodon ganesa'' had huge parallel tusks so close to each other that illustrations show the animal as obligated to keep its trunk ''aside'' the two tusks!



Sorry, these aren't here. If you're looking for ''Mammuthus columbi'', ''Mammuthus imperator'', ''Mammuthus sungari'', ''Mammuthus trogontherii'', dwarf elephants, ''Titanohyrax'', ''Machairodus'', ''Homotherium'', ''Megantereon'', ''Dinofelis'', ''Miacis'', ''Bison priscus'', ''Bison antiquus'', ''Andrewsarchus'', ''Livyatan'', ''Mylodon'', ''Castoroides'', Ceratogaulids, ''Phoberomys'', ''Palaeochiropteryx'', ''Planetetherium'', ''Diprotodon'', ''Thylacosmilus'', ''Thylacoleo'', and others, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeMammals here.]]

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Sorry, these aren't here. If you're looking for ''Mammuthus columbi'', ''Mammuthus imperator'', ''Mammuthus sungari'', ''Mammuthus trogontherii'', dwarf elephants, ''Titanohyrax'', ''Machairodus'', ''Homotherium'', ''Megantereon'', ''Dinofelis'', ''Miacis'', ''Bison priscus'', ''Bison antiquus'', ''Andrewsarchus'', ''Livyatan'', ''Mylodon'', ''Castoroides'', Ceratogaulids, ''Phoberomys'', ''Palaeochiropteryx'', ''Planetetherium'', ''Diprotodon'', ''Thylacosmilus'', ''Thylacoleo'', and others, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeMammals here.]]
22nd Sep '17 5:55:50 PM schoi30
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''Gomphotherium'' resembled a cross between an elephant and a hippo, with its shovel-like lower jaws; ''Platybelodon'' was similar but took this to an extreme, with a huge mouth-opening. Smaller than modern elephants, they were once classified within the "mastodons," but the latter has revealed to be an artificial assemblage of archaic proboscideans, only united by one thing: they had a pair of tusks ''both'' in their upper jaw ''and'' in the lower one. In ''Gomphotherium'', ''Platybelodon'', and other "gomphotheres," the upper ones were small and normal-looking; the lower tusks were placed on the tip of the jaw, were flat and very untusk-like, maybe used to "gather" ground-level vegetation like a literal shovel. One gomphothere, ''Amebelodon'', had expecially long "shovels" on a relatively short mandible; others, like ''Stegotetrabelodon'', had more pointy lower tusks. Gomphotheres are often shown with bizarre ''flat'' trunks, but this is actually unproven — trunks have not bones within, so they didn't fossilize. However, recent studies suggest longer elephant-like trunks are more likely, as gomphothere tusks show signs of wear suggesting they were browsers as opposed to feeding on water plants as previously suggested. Interestingly, the aforementioned Mûmakil were shown in TheFilmOfTheBook with a pair of gomphothere-like lower tusks.

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''Gomphotherium'' resembled a cross between an elephant and a hippo, with its shovel-like lower jaws; ''Platybelodon'' was similar but took this to an extreme, with a huge mouth-opening. Smaller than modern elephants, they were once classified within the "mastodons," but the latter has revealed to be an artificial assemblage of archaic proboscideans, only united by one thing: they had a pair of tusks ''both'' in their upper jaw ''and'' in the lower one. In ''Gomphotherium'', ''Platybelodon'', and other "gomphotheres," the upper ones were small and normal-looking; the lower tusks were placed on the tip of the jaw, were flat and very untusk-like, maybe used to "gather" ground-level vegetation like a literal shovel. One gomphothere, ''Amebelodon'', had expecially long "shovels" on a relatively short mandible; others, like ''Stegotetrabelodon'', had more pointy lower tusks. Gomphotheres are often shown with bizarre ''flat'' trunks, but this is actually unproven — trunks have not bones within, so they didn't fossilize. However, recent studies suggest longer gomphotheres had elephant-like trunks are more likely, instead, as gomphothere the tusks show signs of wear suggesting they the animals were browsers as opposed to feeding on water plants as previously suggested. Interestingly, the aforementioned Mûmakil were shown in TheFilmOfTheBook with a pair of gomphothere-like lower tusks.
22nd Sep '17 5:53:56 PM schoi30
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''Gomphotherium'' resembled a cross between an elephant and a hippo, with its shovel-like lower jaws; ''Platybelodon'' was similar but took this to an extreme, with a huge mouth-opening. Smaller than modern elephants, they were once classified within the "mastodons," but the latter has revealed to be an artificial assemblage of archaic proboscideans, only united by one thing: they had a pair of tusks ''both'' in their upper jaw ''and'' in the lower one. In ''Gomphotherium'', ''Platybelodon'', and other "gomphotheres," the upper ones were small and normal-looking; the lower tusks were placed on the tip of the jaw, were flat and very untusk-like, maybe used to "gather" ground-level vegetation like a literal shovel. One gomphothere, ''Amebelodon'', had expecially long "shovels" on a relatively short mandible; others, like ''Stegotetrabelodon'', had more pointy lower tusks. Gomphotheres are often shown with bizarre ''flat'' trunks, but this is actually unproven — trunks have not bones within, so they didn't fossilize. Interestingly, the aforementioned Mûmakil were shown in TheFilmOfTheBook with a pair of gomphothere-like lower tusks.

to:

''Gomphotherium'' resembled a cross between an elephant and a hippo, with its shovel-like lower jaws; ''Platybelodon'' was similar but took this to an extreme, with a huge mouth-opening. Smaller than modern elephants, they were once classified within the "mastodons," but the latter has revealed to be an artificial assemblage of archaic proboscideans, only united by one thing: they had a pair of tusks ''both'' in their upper jaw ''and'' in the lower one. In ''Gomphotherium'', ''Platybelodon'', and other "gomphotheres," the upper ones were small and normal-looking; the lower tusks were placed on the tip of the jaw, were flat and very untusk-like, maybe used to "gather" ground-level vegetation like a literal shovel. One gomphothere, ''Amebelodon'', had expecially long "shovels" on a relatively short mandible; others, like ''Stegotetrabelodon'', had more pointy lower tusks. Gomphotheres are often shown with bizarre ''flat'' trunks, but this is actually unproven — trunks have not bones within, so they didn't fossilize. However, recent studies suggest longer elephant-like trunks are more likely, as gomphothere tusks show signs of wear suggesting they were browsers as opposed to feeding on water plants as previously suggested. Interestingly, the aforementioned Mûmakil were shown in TheFilmOfTheBook with a pair of gomphothere-like lower tusks.
15th Sep '17 6:10:51 PM ElSquibbonator
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Among the rare ''Archelon'' appearences in fiction, the most remembered is in Harryhausen's ''One Million Years B.C.''. The turtle is the first animal cavemen encounter in the island, [[UpToEleven upsized to be as big as a house]]. Surprisingly, many viewers think it was [[{{Slurpasaur}} live-acted by a Real Life turtle]], but it too is stop-motion like most other animals here. A Franchise/{{Pokemon}} based on ''Archelon'' made its debut in ''VideoGame/PokemonBlackAndWhite''; a two-tier fossil Pokemon, Tirtouga and Carracosta are interesting, as even fully grown they're actually ''smaller'' than their real world inspiration.

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Among the rare ''Archelon'' appearences in fiction, the most remembered is in Harryhausen's ''One Million Years B.C.''. The turtle is the first animal cavemen encounter in the island, [[UpToEleven upsized to be as big as a house]]. Surprisingly, many viewers think it was [[{{Slurpasaur}} live-acted by a Real Life turtle]], but it too is stop-motion like most other animals here. A Franchise/{{Pokemon}} based on ''Archelon'' made its debut in ''VideoGame/PokemonBlackAndWhite''; a two-tier two-stage fossil Pokemon, Tirtouga and Carracosta are interesting, as even fully grown they're actually ''smaller'' than their real world inspiration.
15th Sep '17 6:09:04 PM ElSquibbonator
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Today, more updated ichthyosaurs are regular sights in dino-books. They’re very useful to show evolutionary mechanisms, making a classic example of "convergent evolution" with fish and cetaceans. On the other hand, they are rarely seen in recent stories, much less than the long-necked plesiosaurs. Maybe they are not that exotic-looking, or just not impressive enough to attract writers’ interest. The species shown is always ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ichthyosaurus Ichthyosaurus]]'', because was the first discovered ([[OverlyLongGag in the 1810s in England, before the "first known dinosaurs]]," and the prototype of the group. Being only 8-10ft long in RealLife, expect to see it oversized and over-scary. And never mind that some other ichthyosaurs (''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife Temnodontosaurus, Cymbospondylus, Thalattoarchon, Shonisaurus]]''), being 25ft long or more and at least two of them being apex predators that killed huge prey, could be very apt for the role. The absence of ''Shonisaurus'' is particularly strange: as large as a sperm whale, it may be the biggest known sea reptile.

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Today, more updated ichthyosaurs are regular sights in dino-books. They’re very useful to show evolutionary mechanisms, making a classic example of "convergent evolution" with fish and cetaceans. On the other hand, they are rarely seen in recent stories, much less than the long-necked plesiosaurs. Maybe they are not that exotic-looking, or just not impressive enough to attract writers’ interest. The species shown is always ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ichthyosaurus Ichthyosaurus]]'', because was the first discovered ([[OverlyLongGag in the 1810s in England, before the "first known dinosaurs]]," and the prototype of the group. Being only 8-10ft long in RealLife, expect to see it oversized and over-scary. And never mind that some other ichthyosaurs (''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife Temnodontosaurus, Cymbospondylus, Thalattoarchon, Shonisaurus]]''), being 25ft long or more and at least two of them being apex predators that killed huge prey, could be very apt for the role. The absence of ''Shonisaurus'' is particularly strange: as large as a sperm whale, it may be the biggest known sea reptile.
reptile (and much bigger than the much-hyped [Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs ''Liopleurodon'']].)
15th Sep '17 6:06:45 PM ElSquibbonator
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Despite their impressiveness, ''Quetzalcoatlus'' has received great attention only in dino-books and documentaries, while is still rare in films and dino-stories. No matter that, with its size and terrestrial habits, it could have been the ''only'' pterosaur potentially dangerous for humans if alive today. A downsized ''Quetzalcoatlus'' flying robot capable of flapping its wing was built in the 1990s.

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Despite their impressiveness, ''Quetzalcoatlus'' has received great attention only in dino-books and documentaries, while is still rare in films and dino-stories. No matter that, with its size and terrestrial habits, it could have been the ''only'' pterosaur potentially dangerous for humans if alive today. A downsized ''Quetzalcoatlus'' flying robot capable of flapping its wing was built in the 1990s.
1990s, although it did not have the proportions that the animal is now known to have had.



Similarly, these animals are often collectively referred to as "swimming dinosaurs," but this time they were ''not'' close relatives of true dinosaurs; some of them were not even related to each other. If you'd like to see a seagoing dinosaur, watch ''[[EverythingsBetterWithPenguins March of the Penguins]]''.

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Similarly, these animals are often collectively referred to as "swimming dinosaurs," but this time they were ''not'' close relatives of true dinosaurs; some of them were not even related to each other. If you'd like There ''were'' aquatic dinosaurs (''Spinosaurus'', for one), not to see a seagoing dinosaur, watch ''[[EverythingsBetterWithPenguins March mention modern-day diving birds such as [[EverythingsBetterWithPenguins penguins]], but none of them were completely marine in the Penguins]]''.way that these reptiles were.
6th Sep '17 10:28:14 PM ElSquibbonator
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# '''Trope Maker:''' Sensationalism.

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# '''Trope Maker:''' Sensationalism.
Itself
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http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=UsefulNotes.StockDinosaursNonDinosaurs