History UsefulNotes / RepublicanItaly

26th May '16 9:32:08 AM megarockman
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* '''Libya''' was first split between Britan, France and UK - only to become independent in 1951;

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* '''Libya''' was first split between Britan, France the UK and UK - France, only to become independent in 1951;
3rd Sep '15 6:19:58 AM faunas
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After the Cold War ended (and thus the United States' interest in keeping left-wingers out of power vanished), the nepotism- and corruption-laden political system, dubbed '''Tangentopoli''' (Italian for "Bribeville") was exposed by the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mani_pulite ''Clean Hands'']] investigations of '''1992'''. These involved a big part of the Senate and House and caused the [[TheGreatPoliticsMessUp collapse of the old dominant parties]] except the Italian Republican Party (the only party that survived and kept its name to this day) and the Communists, who changed their name to the Democratic Party of the Left (PDS) for other reasons (chiefly the fact that "Communism" [[TheGreatPoliticsMessUp had become passé]], though this wasn't as apparent to the [[WeAREStrugglingTogether minority of members who instead created the considerably less popular Communist Refoundation Party, which in turn spawned the splinter Party of Italian Communists]]), the emergence of new parties in their stead, the adoption of a mixed member proportional representation electoral system after the 1993 referendum, and generally had such a large impact that the period afterwards is called the "Second Republic".

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After the Cold War ended (and thus the United States' interest in keeping left-wingers out of power vanished), the nepotism- and corruption-laden political system, dubbed '''Tangentopoli''' (Italian for "Bribeville") was exposed by the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mani_pulite ''Clean Hands'']] investigations of '''1992'''. These involved a big part of the Senate and House and caused the [[TheGreatPoliticsMessUp collapse of the old dominant parties]] except the Italian Republican Party (the only party that survived and kept its name to this day) and day), the Communists, who changed their name to the Democratic Party of the Left (PDS) for other reasons (chiefly the fact that "Communism" [[TheGreatPoliticsMessUp had become passé]], though this wasn't as apparent to the [[WeAREStrugglingTogether minority of members who instead created the considerably less popular Communist Refoundation Party, which in turn spawned the splinter Party of Italian Communists]]), Communists]]) and the neo-fascist Italian Social Movement, who also changed their name to National Alliance (also because fascism was passé, and because it wanted to get rid of its fascist heritage, although just like with the communists there were those who did not agree, such as Pino Rauti's Tricolour Flame), the emergence of new parties in their stead, the adoption of a mixed member proportional representation electoral system after the 1993 referendum, and generally had such a large impact that the period afterwards is called the "Second Republic".
5th Aug '15 6:13:16 PM TompaDompa
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* ''Film/CasinoRoyale''

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* ''Film/CasinoRoyale''''Film/CasinoRoyale2006''
5th Jul '15 1:47:42 AM t0by
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TheMafia was also very active during this period, routinely threatening the safety of the country. When magistrates began a maxi-investigation that led to over 400 convictions in 1987, the (Sicilian) Mafia was certainly not happy about it; between 1992 and 1993 a series of bombings and the [[HeroicSacrifice murder of two Sicilian magistrates, Giacomo Falcone and Paolo Borsellino]] prompted the Italian authorities to actively fight the Mafia, often with very good results.

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TheMafia was also very active during this period, routinely threatening the safety of the country. When magistrates began a maxi-investigation that led to over 400 convictions in 1987, the (Sicilian) Mafia was certainly not happy about it; between 1992 and 1993 a series of bombings and the [[HeroicSacrifice murder of two Sicilian magistrates, Giacomo Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino]] prompted the Italian authorities to actively fight the Mafia, often with very good results.
6th May '15 2:15:55 PM Morgenthaler
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* ''[[Film/TheBourneSeries The Bourne Identity]]''
* ''[[Film/TheBourneSeries The Bourne Supremacy]]''

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* ''[[Film/TheBourneSeries The Bourne Identity]]''
''Film/TheBourneIdentity''
* ''[[Film/TheBourneSeries The Bourne Supremacy]]''''Film/TheBourneSupremacy''
19th Apr '15 9:44:58 AM ferox
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The Communist party, meanwhile, gained consensus and another civil war seemed inevitable.

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The Communist party, Party, meanwhile, gained consensus and another civil war seemed inevitable.
19th Apr '15 9:44:03 AM ferox
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* The city of '''Trieste''' was declared "free territory".

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* The city of '''Trieste''' was declared "free territory".
a "Free Territory" under U.N. protection.
19th Apr '15 9:43:25 AM ferox
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* '''Libya''' was first split between Britan, France and UK only to become independent in 1951;
* '''Italian Somaliland''' became a U.N. Trust Territory which was managed by Italy until 1960, when it was merged with the British Somaliland and granted independence;

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* '''Libya''' was first split between Britan, France and UK - only to become independent in 1951;
* '''Italian Somaliland''' became a U.N. Trust Territory which was managed by Italy until 1960, when it was merged with the British Somaliland and granted independence;
19th Apr '15 9:42:44 AM ferox
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By the end of UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, Italy was in ruins: the war reduced most factories to rubble, roads, railways were unusable and millions of people were left without a home. The last years of war saw Italians from both sides, Fascists and members of the [[LaResistance Italian Resistance]], fighting each other. There was also bitter resentment against the King and the Monarchy, fueled by Victor Emmanuel's support of Fascism and the Royal Family's hasty escape from Rome during the German occupation of Italy. The Communist party, meanwhile, gained consensus and another civil war seemed inevitable.

The King - in the (admittedly, vain) hope to restore the Royal Family's reputation - abdicated in favour his eldest son, prince Umberto, who was crowned on 9 May 1946 as '''Umberto II ''' and remained King of Italy for just over a month, which is why he was nicknamed ''il Re di Maggio'' ("the King of May"). During his incredibly short reign, he had to defuse the various sources of tension within the country which could have led to another unnecessary bloodbath; at that time, some Sicilian factions were pushing for independence (thus threatening the unity and the stability of the whole nation), while the Yugoslavians wanted to annex much of North-Eastern Italy. However, he - showing the good sense his father lacked - promptly granted Sicily fiscal and political autonomy, making the indepentist campaigners run out of steam; sent fresh troops to the border and called for a referendum which would hopefully strengthen his position.

to:

By the end of UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, Italy was in ruins: the war reduced most factories to rubble, roads, railways were unusable and millions of people were left without a home. The last years of war saw Italians from both sides, Fascists and members of the [[LaResistance Italian Resistance]], fighting each other. There was also bitter resentment against the King and the Monarchy, fueled by Victor Emmanuel's support of Fascism and the Royal Family's hasty escape from Rome during the German occupation of Italy.

The Communist party, meanwhile, gained consensus and another civil war seemed inevitable.

The old King - in the (admittedly, vain) hope to restore the Royal Family's reputation - abdicated in favour his eldest son, prince Umberto, who was crowned on 9 '''9 May 1946 1946''' as '''Umberto II ''' II''' and remained King of Italy for just over a month, which is why he was nicknamed ''il Re di Maggio'' ("the King of May"). During his incredibly short reign, he had to defuse the various sources of tension within the country which could have led to another unnecessary bloodbath; at that time, some Sicilian factions were pushing for independence (thus threatening the unity and the stability of the whole nation), while the Yugoslavians wanted to annex much of North-Eastern Italy. However, he - showing the good sense his father lacked - promptly granted Sicily fiscal and political autonomy, making the indepentist campaigners run out of steam; sent fresh troops to the border and called for a referendum which would hopefully strengthen his position.



On '''June 2, 1946'', the first free referendum since 1921 took place and that was also the first time Italian women were allowed to vote. Electoral results showed a nation almost split in two, with Northern Italians voting ''en masse'' for the Republic while Central and Southern Italians were willing to keep the Monarchy; but there were also widespread accusations that the anti-monarchists rigged the result, with the new government proclaiming the victory of the Republic ''well before'' the counting of the votes had even finished or repressing manifestations in support of the King (as it happened in Naples' via Medina on 11 June 1946: the Police was instructed to fire upon the protesters, leaving nine dead and a hundred people wounded). Umberto II, fearing that the country to plunge again into a civil war, chose not to contest the result and joined the rest of his family in Portugal.

Italy had become a Republic, and a couple of years later the 2nd of June became the (controversial) Italian national holiday.

to:

On '''June 2, 1946'', 1946''', the first free referendum since 1921 took place and that was also the first time Italian women were allowed to vote. Electoral results showed a nation almost split in two, with Northern Italians voting ''en masse'' for the Republic while Central and Southern Italians were willing to keep the Monarchy; but there were also widespread accusations that the anti-monarchists rigged the result, with the new government proclaiming the victory of the Republic ''well before'' the counting of the votes had even finished or repressing manifestations in support of the King (as it happened in Naples' via Medina on 11 June 1946: the Police was instructed to fire upon the protesters, leaving nine dead and a hundred people wounded). Umberto II, fearing that the country to could plunge again into a civil war, chose not to contest the result and joined the rest part of his family in Portugal.

Italy had become a Republic, and a couple of years later the 2nd of June became the (controversial) (mildly controversial) Italian national holiday.
19th Apr '15 9:40:32 AM ferox
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The King - in the vain hope to restore the Royal Family's reputation - abdicated in favour his eldest son, prince Umberto, who was crowned on 9 May 1946' as '''Umberto II ''' and remained King of Italy for just over a month - which is why he was called ''il Re di Maggio'' ("the King of May"). During his incredibly short reign, he had to defuse the various sources of tension within the country which could have led to another unnecessary bloodbath; at that time, some Sicilian factions were pushing for independence (thus threatening the unity and the stability of the whole nation), while the Yugoslavians wanted to annex much of North-Eastern Italy. However, he - showing the good sense his father lacked - promptly granted Sicily fiscal and political autonomy, making the indepentist campaigners run out of steam; sent fresh troops to the border and called for a referendum which would hopefully strengthen his position.

to:

The King - in the vain (admittedly, vain) hope to restore the Royal Family's reputation - abdicated in favour his eldest son, prince Umberto, who was crowned on 9 May 1946' 1946 as '''Umberto II ''' and remained King of Italy for just over a month - month, which is why he was called nicknamed ''il Re di Maggio'' ("the King of May"). During his incredibly short reign, he had to defuse the various sources of tension within the country which could have led to another unnecessary bloodbath; at that time, some Sicilian factions were pushing for independence (thus threatening the unity and the stability of the whole nation), while the Yugoslavians wanted to annex much of North-Eastern Italy. However, he - showing the good sense his father lacked - promptly granted Sicily fiscal and political autonomy, making the indepentist campaigners run out of steam; sent fresh troops to the border and called for a referendum which would hopefully strengthen his position.



On '''June 2, 1946'', the first free referendum since 1921 took place and that was also the first time Italian women were allowed to vote. Electoral results showed a nation almost split in two, with Northern Italians voting ''en masse'' for the Republic while Central and Southern Italians were willing to keep the Monarchy; but there were also widespread accusations that the anti-monarchists rigged the result, with the new government proclaiming the victory of the Republic ''well before'' the counting of the votes had even finished or repressing manifestations in support of the King (as it happened in Naples' via Medina on 11 June 1946: the Police was instructed to fire upon the protesters, leaving nine dead and a hundred people wounded). Umberto II, not wanting the country to plunge again into a civil war, chose not to contest the result joined the rest of his family in Portugal.

to:

On '''June 2, 1946'', the first free referendum since 1921 took place and that was also the first time Italian women were allowed to vote. Electoral results showed a nation almost split in two, with Northern Italians voting ''en masse'' for the Republic while Central and Southern Italians were willing to keep the Monarchy; but there were also widespread accusations that the anti-monarchists rigged the result, with the new government proclaiming the victory of the Republic ''well before'' the counting of the votes had even finished or repressing manifestations in support of the King (as it happened in Naples' via Medina on 11 June 1946: the Police was instructed to fire upon the protesters, leaving nine dead and a hundred people wounded). Umberto II, not wanting fearing that the country to plunge again into a civil war, chose not to contest the result and joined the rest of his family in Portugal.



Italy had already signed an Armistice with the Allies in 1943, which would later lay the foundation for the Peace Treaty. In brief - Italy was, by virtue of the Treaty, obliged to disband a good part of the Navy (most of its vessels were ceded to the Allied powers) [[note]] one of these - the Italian battleship ''Giulio Cesare'' - was ceded to the Soviets who, in 1955, lost it in a mysterious incident; that ship is said to have been sunk by disgruntled members of her former crew with the blessing of the Italian government and the NATO.[[/note]] and the country was not allowed to deploy the Army (which was reduced in size) outside its borders; minorities had their status recognised. Finally, Italy had to pay hefty economic reparations and was forced to relinquish all its overseas possessions along with parts of its North-Eastern territory, as following:

to:

Italy had already signed an Armistice with the Allies in 1943, which would later lay the foundation for the Peace Treaty. In brief - Italy was, by virtue of the Treaty, obliged to disband a good part of the Navy (most of its vessels were ceded to the Allied powers) [[note]] one of these - the Italian battleship ''Giulio Cesare'' - was ceded to the Soviets who, in 1955, lost it in a mysterious incident; that ship is said to have been sunk by disgruntled members of her former crew with the blessing of the Italian government and the NATO.[[/note]] and the country was not allowed to deploy the Army (which was reduced in size) outside its borders; minorities had their status recognised. Finally, Italy had to pay hefty economic reparations and was forced to relinquish all its overseas possessions along with parts of its North-Eastern territory, as following:



Italian '''brands''', too, became fashionable: Olivetti, [=FIAT=], Piaggio, Ferrari, Lancia, Alfa Romeo... not to mention the several designer clothes and furniture that were exported all over the world. The factories of Northern Italy experienced a dramatic shortage of manpower and millions of workers from Southern Italy emigrated there in search of a better life - unemployment was virtually non-existent - and social services were extended while a raft of measures were adopted to improve Italians' livelihoods. Italy seemed prosperous as never before: a hitherto poor, agricultural country became the fifth most industrialised nation in the world.

to:

Italian '''brands''', too, became fashionable: Olivetti, [=FIAT=], Piaggio, Ferrari, Lancia, Alfa Romeo... you name it, not to mention the several designer clothes clothing and furniture firms that were exported begun exporting all over the world. The factories of Northern Italy experienced a dramatic shortage of manpower and millions of workers from Southern Italy emigrated there in search of a better life - unemployment was virtually non-existent - and social services were extended while a raft of measures were adopted to improve Italians' livelihoods. Italy seemed prosperous as never before: a hitherto poor, agricultural country became the fifth most industrialised nation in the world.



All in all, the Cold War-era '''strategy of tension''' with its assorted intrigues (Operation Gladio and the Propaganda Due lodge) and links to the "years of lead", the government's failure to alleviate the North-South divide (most of the money sank thanks to corruption, and incompetent planning led to factories being plonked down in less than optimal places), a string of governments so incompetent or irresponsible with economics that Italy ran a gigantic budget deficit all throughout the Cold War accumulating an enormous amount of public debt and the power of the Mafia in Southern Italy, just for starters, made the First Republic looking like a very resilient CrapsaccharineWorld, where Italians enjoyed a high standard of living despite all the aforementioned pervasive problems. The collapsing value of the [[RidiculousExchangeRates lira]] as far back as 1957 led the government to pass various laws mandating the indexation of wages to inflation, which was extended in 1975 to create the "moving staircase" system whereby workers received an additional flat fee to automatically compensate them for three months' of price increases and quarterly wage revisions, making wages rise faster than prices. Combined with Italy's extremely generous welfare provisions, this meant that Italian workers were among the best paid, most protected, and best treated in Europe; the costliness of this system and state inefficiency later forced Italy to adopt harsh austerity measures to cope with the resulting rise in public debt.

to:

All in all, the Cold War-era '''strategy of tension''' with its assorted intrigues (Operation Gladio and the Propaganda Due lodge) and links to the "years "Years of lead", Lead", the government's failure to alleviate the North-South divide (most of the money sank thanks to corruption, and incompetent planning led to factories being plonked down in less than optimal places), a string of governments so incompetent or irresponsible with economics that Italy ran a gigantic budget deficit all throughout the Cold War accumulating an enormous amount of public debt and the power of the Mafia in Southern Italy, just for starters, made the First Republic looking like a very resilient CrapsaccharineWorld, where Italians enjoyed a high standard of living despite all the aforementioned pervasive problems. The collapsing value of the [[RidiculousExchangeRates lira]] as far back as 1957 led the government to pass various laws mandating the indexation of wages to inflation, which was extended in 1975 to create the "moving staircase" system whereby workers received an additional flat fee to automatically compensate them for three months' of price increases and quarterly wage revisions, making wages rise faster than prices. Combined with Italy's extremely generous welfare provisions, this meant that Italian workers were among the best paid, most protected, and best treated in Europe; the costliness of this system and state inefficiency later forced Italy to adopt harsh austerity measures to cope with the resulting rise in public debt.



!!'''A Third Republic?'''

to:

!!'''A Third Republic?'''
Republic? We hoped so.'''



The current Prime Minister is '''Matteo Renzi''' (PD), who was sworn in on '''22 February 2014''' after the resignation of his predecessor. The current President is '''Sergio Mattarella''', who was elected by the Parliament on '''31 January 2015''' after his predecessor Napolitano decided to resign after serving less than two years of his second term. Contrarily to the last time, the election went very smoothly: after many discussions between the parties in the preceding days, during the first three votings - which require a majority of two thirds rather than half plus one - most of the parliamentarians of the majority left a blank ballot, then Mattarella was elected at the fourth voting, and with almost two thirds of the total votes anyway.

to:

The current Prime Minister is '''Matteo Renzi''' (PD), who was sworn in on '''22 February 2014''' after the resignation of his predecessor.

The current President is '''Sergio Mattarella''', who was elected by the Parliament on '''31 January 2015''' after his predecessor Napolitano decided to resign after serving less than two years of his second term. Contrarily to the Unlike last time, the election went very smoothly: after many discussions between the parties in parties, most of the preceding days, members of the parliamentary majority left a blank ballot during the first three votings - which require a majority of two thirds rather than half plus one - most of the parliamentarians of the majority left a blank ballot, then one. Mattarella was then elected at the fourth voting, and with almost two thirds of the total votes anyway.


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And the crisis is only making things worse.
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