History UsefulNotes / PrehistoricLIfeMammals

10th Sep '16 10:44:20 AM Wooboo
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* A recent discovery (2008) made in Peru, ''Livyatan melvillei'' possesses what may be the largest functional teeth of any animal (that is, not counting tusks). The size of the partially preserved skull indicates that ''Livyatan'' reached a length between 44-57 feet, possessing a head three meters long. It was quite similar to the modern sperm whale, only it had teeth in both of its jaws. And these teeth were ''massive'', at their largest growing to a little over a foot in length. It is theorized to be one of the area's apex predators, along with the giant shark ''C. megalodon'', who lived in the same area at the same time. It's also theorized that they may have had a similar taste in preferred prey too: baleen whales, though it is theorized that they had a wide and varied appetite. It also happens to be one of those prehistoric animals whose name is a reference, too. "Livyatan" is the Hebrew name for the legendary Biblical sea monster Leviathan (note that the translation of the word "whale" in modern Hebrew is just "livyatan"), and "melvillei" is coined after Herman Melville, the author of ''[[Literature/MobyDick Moby-Dick]]''. A tooth discovered Beaumaris Bay, Australia in 2016 seems to indicate that ''melvillei''--or a closely related species--may have had a wider habitat range than previously indicated, and existed in the area for another two million years after the time period in which the Peruvian population of ''melvillei'' occurred. However, as we only have one tooth to go on, it's mostly speculation.

to:

* A recent discovery (2008) made in Peru, ''Livyatan melvillei'' possesses what may be the largest functional teeth of any animal (that is, not counting tusks). The size of the partially preserved skull indicates that ''Livyatan'' reached a length between 44-57 feet, possessing a head three meters long. It was quite similar to the modern sperm whale, only it had teeth in both of its jaws. And these teeth were ''massive'', at their largest growing to a little over a foot in length. It is theorized believed to be one of the area's apex predators, along with the giant shark ''C. megalodon'', who lived in the same area at the same time. It's also theorized that they may have had a similar taste in preferred prey too: baleen whales, though it is theorized that whales. That said, they likely had a wide and varied appetite.appetite, as sperm whales do today. A tooth discovered Beaumaris Bay, Australia in 2016 seems to indicate that ''melvillei''--or a closely related species--may have had a wider habitat range than previously indicated, and existed in the area for another two million years after the time period in which the Peruvian population of ''melvillei'' is known to have occurred. However, as we only have one tooth to go on, at the time of writing it's mostly speculation. It also happens to be one of those prehistoric animals whose name is a reference, too. "Livyatan" is the Hebrew name for the legendary Biblical sea monster Leviathan (note that the translation of the word "whale" in modern Hebrew is just "livyatan"), and "melvillei" is coined after Herman Melville, the author of ''[[Literature/MobyDick Moby-Dick]]''. A tooth discovered Beaumaris Bay, Australia in 2016 seems to indicate that ''melvillei''--or a closely related species--may have had a wider habitat range than previously indicated, and existed in the area for another two million years after the time period in which the Peruvian population of ''melvillei'' occurred. However, as we only have one tooth to go on, it's mostly speculation.
10th Sep '16 10:39:28 AM Wooboo
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* A recent discovery (2008) made in Peru, ''Livyatan melvillei'' possesses what may be the largest functional teeth of any animal (that is, not counting tusks). The size of the partially preserved skull indicates that ''Livyatan'' reached a length between 44-57 feet, possessing a head three meters long. It was quite similar to the modern sperm whale, only it had teeth in both of its jaws. And these teeth were ''massive'', at their largest growing to a little over a foot in length. It is theorized to be one of the area's apex predators, along with the giant shark ''C. megalodon'', who lived in the same area at the same time. It's also theorized that they may have had a similar taste in preferred prey too: baleen whales. It's also one of those prehistoric animals who's name is a reference, too. "Livyatan" is the Hebrew name for the legendary Biblical sea monster Leviathan (note that the translation of the word "whale" in modern Hebrew is just "livyatan"), and "melvillei" is named after Herman Melville, the author of ''[[Literature/MobyDick Moby-Dick]]''.

to:

* A recent discovery (2008) made in Peru, ''Livyatan melvillei'' possesses what may be the largest functional teeth of any animal (that is, not counting tusks). The size of the partially preserved skull indicates that ''Livyatan'' reached a length between 44-57 feet, possessing a head three meters long. It was quite similar to the modern sperm whale, only it had teeth in both of its jaws. And these teeth were ''massive'', at their largest growing to a little over a foot in length. It is theorized to be one of the area's apex predators, along with the giant shark ''C. megalodon'', who lived in the same area at the same time. It's also theorized that they may have had a similar taste in preferred prey too: baleen whales. It's whales, though it is theorized that they had a wide and varied appetite. It also happens to be one of those prehistoric animals who's whose name is a reference, too. "Livyatan" is the Hebrew name for the legendary Biblical sea monster Leviathan (note that the translation of the word "whale" in modern Hebrew is just "livyatan"), and "melvillei" is named coined after Herman Melville, the author of ''[[Literature/MobyDick Moby-Dick]]''.Moby-Dick]]''. A tooth discovered Beaumaris Bay, Australia in 2016 seems to indicate that ''melvillei''--or a closely related species--may have had a wider habitat range than previously indicated, and existed in the area for another two million years after the time period in which the Peruvian population of ''melvillei'' occurred. However, as we only have one tooth to go on, it's mostly speculation.
23rd Jul '16 12:09:25 PM MrMediaGuy2
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* South America was isolated from other continents for most of the Mammal Age, and thus its fauna developed in its own direction. There were not only elephant-size sloths and tank-like glyptodonts: there were also less-armoured but still odd-looking "ungulates", not related with any modern animal today, but similar in shape/size to camels, horses, hippos, buffalos, elephants, rhinos, hyraxes, and even chalicotheres (a great example of convergent evolution). The two most represented are ''Macrauchenia'' and ''Toxodon''. ''Macrauchenia'' was a bit camel-like; often depicted with a floppy, elephantine nose because of the shape of its skull, but we don't know if it really had this thing. ''Toxodon'' was more like a stock-built, no-horned buffalo, but it has also been compared with a rhino or a hippo. These two guys lived during the Ice Ages in South American pampas, and were among the last members of their groups; but other relatives lived much earlier, always in South America.

to:

* South America was isolated from other continents for most of the Mammal Age, and thus its fauna developed in its own direction. There were not only elephant-size sloths and tank-like glyptodonts: there were also less-armoured but still odd-looking "ungulates", not related with any modern animal today, but similar in shape/size to camels, horses, hippos, buffalos, elephants, rhinos, hyraxes, and even chalicotheres (a great example of convergent evolution). The two most represented are ''Macrauchenia'' ''[[StockDinosaurs Macrauchenia]]'' and ''Toxodon''. ''Macrauchenia'' was a bit camel-like; often depicted with a floppy, elephantine nose because of the shape of its skull, but we don't know if it really had this thing. ''Toxodon'' was more like a stock-built, no-horned buffalo, but it has also been compared with a rhino or a hippo. These two guys lived during the Ice Ages in South American pampas, and were among the last members of their groups; but other relatives lived much earlier, always in South America.
10th Jul '16 7:06:31 PM MrMediaGuy2
Is there an issue? Send a Message

Added DiffLines:

Malagasy pseudo-apes: ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Megaladapis Megaladapis]]'' and ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeoindris Archaeoindris]]''

* The largest lemur alive in Madagascar today is the gibbon-sized and endangered indri. However, long ago, there were truly impressive forms. The most well known is the orangutan-sized ''Megaladapis'', also known as the koala lemur, notable for the shape of its skull, which most likely housed a bizarre trunk-like upper lip. There's also ''Archaeoindris'', which came from a long extinct group known as the sloth lemurs. Most sloth lemurs resembled modern tree sloths, but ''Archaeoindris'' was more similar to an extinct ground sloth. Larger than a gorilla, this is thought to be one of the largest primates, second only to ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursNonDinosaurs Gigantopithecus]]''! Sadly, these and other similar creatures went extinct a mere 500 years ago when the first Malagasy settlers arrived in Madagascar.
10th Jul '16 6:48:53 PM MrMediaGuy2
Is there an issue? Send a Message


It's always been bad news with bears? [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short-faced_bear Short-faced Bear]]

* Bears are a very recent group. They have roamed our planet for only 5 to 10 million years. Many prehistoric bears were rather different than our grizzlies: for example, the North American short-faced bear (''Arctodus'') had long limbs and a [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin bulldog-like snout]] and was probably an agile runner and specialized hunter.
7th Jul '16 1:50:49 PM schoi30
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Forks, shovels, and spears: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deinotherium Deinotherium]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platybelodon Platybelodon]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gomphotherium Gomphotherium]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anancus Anancus]]'', and ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stegodon Stegodon]]''

* There were A LOT of other extinct elephant relatives in prehistory: not so in {{Prehistoria}}. Don't expect to see any proboscideans in TV outside docus unless it's a woolly mammoth or an [[StockDinosaurs American mastodon]], even though many of them were far cooler-looking than the latter two. If you don't believe us, take a look at the following examples. ''Gomphotherium'' resembled a cross between an elephant and a hippo, with its shovel-like lower jaws; ''Platybelodon'' was similar but took this to an extreme, with an huge mouth-opening. Smaller than modern elephants, they were once classified within the "mastodons", but the latter has revealed to be an artificial assemblage of archaic proboscideans, only united by one thing: they had a pair of tusks ''both'' in their upper jaw ''and'' in the lower one. In ''Gomphotherium'', ''Platybelodon'', and other "gomphotheres", the upper ones were small and normal-looking; the lower tusks were placed on the tip of the jaw, were flat and very untusk-like, maybe used to "gather" ground-level vegetation like a literal shovel. One gomphotere, ''Amebelodon'', had expecially long "shovels" on a relatively short mandible; others, like ''Stegotetrabelodon'' had more pointy lower tusks. Gomphotheres are often shown with bizarre ''flat'' trunks, but this is actually unproven--trunks have not bones within, so they didn't fossilize. Interestingly, the aforementioned Mûmakil were shown in TheFilmOfTheBook with a pair of gomphothere-like lower tusks. Other "mastodons" were more similar to elephants, but even they would appear cool-looking by our standards: see ''Anancus'' the "European mastodon", with its straight, spear-like upper-tusks (while the lower ones were almost missing). Even closer to the proper elephants (makingthe sister clade outside the elephant-mammoth group) were the Stegodonts. Among them, ''Stegodon ganesa'' had huge parallel tusks so close to each other that illustrations show the animal as it's obligated to keep its trunk ''aside'' the two tusks! A more primitive proboscidean lineage includes the huge ''Deinotherium'' ("terrible beast"). Unlike the former, it had only two tusks like modern pachyderms... only, they ''grew out of the lower jaw''. Curved downwards, the function of these tuskes is still uncertain (maybe to leave the bark out from trees). Some deinotheres were as big as the aforementioned giant mammoths, but others were not bigger than a modern Asian elephant. Deinotheres lived in most Cenozoic era, and some managed to survive enough to meet our first human ancestors in Africa.
30th Jun '16 9:55:37 AM schoi30
Is there an issue? Send a Message


A run toward the future: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horse_evolution Horse Ancestors]]

* Horses. The eternal symbol of Evolution. Almost the same level the Dodo is the icon of extinction. And yet, horse ancestors weren't so cool-looking compared to most other extinct [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ungulate hoofed mammals]], really. The most famous of these is, obviously, the [[RuleOfCool least horse-like]] of them all: ''Eohippus'' --> ''Hyracotherium'' --> ''Eohippus'' --> ''Protorohippus''. An almost-unbelievable ScienceMarchesOn affair has encircled horse's evolution, despite its iconic role in popular science. Anyway, all this doesn't involve us so much. Expect to see this (whatever name is to be used) small, basal ungulate called ''horse'' anyway, despite it, actually, having nothing more in common with horses than with tapirs or rhinos: the "Hyracotheohippus stew" includes several different early ungulates, some of theme ''were'' horse ancestors and some weren't. Systematics of primitive ungulates (called "condylarths") is a total mess. Among sure horse ancestors, they make a sort of {{pun}} if read together: ''Mesohippus'', ''Merychippus'', ''Pliohippus'' and dozens other ''hippus''... all North American. Also worth of note is ''Hipparion'' which, sadly, breaks the pun having ''hippus'' as prefix: it also breaks the geographic rule, being an Old World critter, an offshot of the horse tree which didn't leave any descendants. Remember that ''all'' modern equines did descend from North American ancestors. And oh: the latter were not only horse's ancestors: also donkeys and zebras, never forget this. Modern equids are so closely related to each other, they could well be considered variations of a single kind of animal; indeed, they are all put in a single genus, ''Equus''.

Saber-toothed rhino: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uintatherium Uintatherium]]''

* As we'll say later, not all rhinoceros-looking fossil mammals were real rhinos, although they'll probably get identified as such in popular media. Among the most well-known is ''Uintatherium'', found in huge numbers in several fossil deposits in the western USA and in China. The uintathere is perhaps [[TheWoobie the most mistreated]] extinct mammal of them all: expect somebody describing its appearance as "[[PrehistoricMonster monstrous/scary]]". Right, it had six giraffe-like horns and two upper protruding tusks, but, honestly, if ''Uintatherium'' was alive today, it would probably appear no more scary than an elephant, rhino, hippo or giraffe. Also expect a crack about its "tiny" brain (just what happens to its [[TheWoobie Woobiesaurian]] equivalent, ''[[StockDinosaurs Stegosaurus]]''), and just like the stegosaur, expect the writer to say [[TooDumbToLive its dumbness being the real reason of its extinction]]. In RealLife, uintatheres were among the very first mammals to reach large sizes (about as large as a modern-day rhino), and their body-plan was ''very'' successful at the time, as they roamed the northern hemisphere in huge numbers for millions of years in the early Cenozoic[[note]]In [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eocene the Eocene epoch]], to be precise[[/note]], before being outcompeted by the even larger brontotheres (see below) and the first true rhinos.




Brontomammal has many names: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paraceratherium Paracera-Indrico-Baluchi-therium]]''

* Here is Our Majesty, the biggest land mammal ever lived - though some [[ScienceMarchesOn recent research]] seems to indicate that some mammoths were heavier, but certainly not as tall. Despite its really gigantic size - it was as tall as an ''Apatosaurus'' up to the shoulders, and weighed as ''three'' elephants or, better, as three ''T. rex''es - it still had a quite slender, elegant frame: a sort of muscular giraffe with long neck, small hornless head, and long, slender limbs. Its behavior itself was probably more giraffe-like than rhinoceros-like, browsing the tree tops. In short, it was the new mammalian brachiosaur. Lived at the middle of the Cenozoic (the Age of Mammals), and was only the biggest member of a whole group of extinct "rhinos" (better, rhino-relatives): the hyracodontids, most of them were horse-sized and more similar to horses than to rhinoceros -- for example the prototype of the group, ''Hyracodon''. Our record-holder is also a prime example of IHaveManyNames among prehistoric critters: now called ''Paraceratherium'', its traditional names are ''Indricotherium'' and ''Baluchitherium''.
29th Jun '16 9:32:47 PM schoi30
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Up to eleven trophy: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Megaloceros Megaloceros]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eucladoceros Eucladoceros]]'', and ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cervalces Cervalces]]''

* Now we enter the world of the most successful ungulates today, Artiodactyls (even-toed ungulates), and how could make this without starting with the most spectacular extinct deer (and one of the most astonishing mammals ever)? But wait: even though it is commonly referred as the Irish elk, ''Megaloceros'' (more precisely ''Megaloceros giganteus'', also called "Megaceros" in older sources) was more related with the European fallow deer. Maybe it was not the largest deer ever (being moose-sized), but its antlers were another stuff: they could make the modern moose's ones appear insignificant in comparison. Each one was ''as long as the entire animal's body'', and each one weighed more than 100 kg. Obviously, only males had such a thing above, as most modern deer. Some scientists said that ''just this headgear'' was the cause of its extinction, having grown too much, and making the animal too clumsy... but this is unlikely; if they actually were too big, evolution would have made it smaller at one point, simply. ''Megaloceros'' lived in Europe in the Ice Ages alongside woolly mammoths and other large mammals, and was possibly prey for ancient humans; its nickname "Irish elk" is due to its remains are very common in {{Oireland}}. ''Eucladoceros'' ("well-ramified horn") and ''Cervalces'' ("moose-deer") were other spectacularly big-antlered extinct cervids, but other prehistoric deer had normally-sized prominence on their head.
29th Jun '16 9:27:59 PM schoi30
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Thunder beasts: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Megacerops Megacerops]]'', and '' [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embolotherium Embolotherium]]''

* ''Megacerops'' (formerly called ''Brontotherium''... these ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursTrueDinosaurs Bronto]]''s just can't keep their names) the prototype and the most well-known member of its group of mammals, the [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin brontotheres]]. [[note]]However, one brontothere, the primitive ''Brontops'', preserved its bronto- prefix... until it was reclassified as a synonym for ''Megacerops''[[/note]] While ''Uintatherium'' was not related with any modern hoofed mammals, brontotheres were distant relatives of [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perissodactyla horses, tapirs and rhinos]]. The biggest brontotheres were almost Triceratops-sized or elephant-sized, and their cool-name indeed means "thunder beasts". They had a more rhino-like look than uintatheres, having one single "horn" on their nose: ''Megacerops'' 's prominence was forked and slingshot-like, while that of ''Embolotherium'' (the brontothere portrayed in [[WalkingWithDinosaurs Walking With Beasts]]) was shovel-like and not forked. Like uintatheres, brontotheres too roamed plains of the northern continents in huge numbers in the Early Cenozoic: then they eventually gone extinct, perhaps because they weren't capable to adapt to the diffusion of the very first grasslands which replaced their former food (made of scrub and non-grass herbs).

to:

Thunder beasts: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Megacerops Megacerops]]'', and '' [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embolotherium Embolotherium]]''

* ''Megacerops'' (formerly called ''Brontotherium''... these ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursTrueDinosaurs Bronto]]''s just can't keep their names) the prototype and the most well-known member of its group of mammals, the [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin brontotheres]]. [[note]]However, one brontothere, the primitive ''Brontops'', preserved its bronto- prefix... until it was reclassified as a synonym for ''Megacerops''[[/note]] While ''Uintatherium'' was not related with any modern hoofed mammals, brontotheres were distant relatives of [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perissodactyla horses, tapirs and rhinos]]. The biggest brontotheres were almost Triceratops-sized or elephant-sized, and their cool-name indeed means "thunder beasts". They had a more rhino-like look than uintatheres, having one single "horn" on their nose: ''Megacerops'' 's prominence was forked and slingshot-like, while that of ''Embolotherium'' (the brontothere portrayed in [[WalkingWithDinosaurs Walking With Beasts]]) was shovel-like and not forked. Like uintatheres, brontotheres too roamed plains of the northern continents in huge numbers in the Early Cenozoic: then they eventually gone extinct, perhaps because they weren't capable to adapt to the diffusion of the very first grasslands which replaced their former food (made of scrub and non-grass herbs).
26th Apr '16 11:26:12 PM MrMediaGuy2
Is there an issue? Send a Message


It's always been bad news with bears? [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cave_bear Cave Bear]] and [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short-faced_bear Short-faced Bear]]

* Bears are a very recent group. They have roamed our planet for only 5 to 10 million years. Many prehistoric bears were rather different than our grizzlies: for example, the North American short-faced bear (''Arctodus'') had long limbs and a [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin bulldog-like snout]] and was probably an agile runner and specialized hunter. The most famous extinct bear is, however, the cave bear (''Ursus spelaeus''), whose remains are extremely abundant in European caves. Quite similar to a modern kodiak in shape and size, but with a bigger hump on its shoulder and a more prominent skull, the cave bear is often portrayed as [[BearsAreBadNews the archenemy of Neanderthals]], because both lived in the same places (Pleistocene Europe) and were forced to share the same caves to repair themselves from the rigid Ice Age winters. But it's more probable that Neanderthals (and humans) were actually the worst enemies of cave bears, and some think they could even have contributed to cave bears' extinction.

Big Badass Wolfhyenas: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dire_wolf Dire Wolf]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cave_hyena Cave Hyena]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pachycrocuta Giant Hyena]], and ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borophagus Borophagus]]''

* Prehistoric wolves and hyenas were not so different-looking than ours, but sometimes were larger. The dire wolf (''Canis dirus'') was a sort of wolf bigger than ours, possibly a hunter of giant bison in competition with lions. It has been often found in the same tar pits in which ''Smilodon'' remains have been discovered, along with several other American mammals (elephant relatives, ground sloths, but modern-living mammals as well); the most famous is ''Rancho la Brea'', in Los Angeles. Of course, not all extinct dogs were large, don't forget there were fox ancestors as well. Among extinct hyenas (which by the way, are more closely related to cats than dogs) we can mention the cave hyena, similar to modern spotted hyenas but living in northern territories during the Ice Ages. Other hyena species were very different: some were as large as bears, others resembled more cheetah or even weasels! On the other hand, some extinct canines were deceptively hyena-like: ''Borophagus'' from the Middle Cenozoic is one example, while the archaic ''Hesperocyon'' was more weasel-like. As a side-note: all modern domestic dogs from Chihuahuas to Great Danes descend from the grey wolf, no matter how big they are or how they look; an amazingly rapid evolution, really, lasted only few thousands years.

to:

It's always been bad news with bears? [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cave_bear Cave Bear]] and [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short-faced_bear Short-faced Bear]]

* Bears are a very recent group. They have roamed our planet for only 5 to 10 million years. Many prehistoric bears were rather different than our grizzlies: for example, the North American short-faced bear (''Arctodus'') had long limbs and a [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin bulldog-like snout]] and was probably an agile runner and specialized hunter. The most famous extinct bear is, however, the cave bear (''Ursus spelaeus''), whose remains are extremely abundant in European caves. Quite similar to a modern kodiak in shape and size, but with a bigger hump on its shoulder and a more prominent skull, the cave bear is often portrayed as [[BearsAreBadNews the archenemy of Neanderthals]], because both lived in the same places (Pleistocene Europe) and were forced to share the same caves to repair themselves from the rigid Ice Age winters. But it's more probable that Neanderthals (and humans) were actually the worst enemies of cave bears, and some think they could even have contributed to cave bears' extinction.

hunter.

Big Badass Wolfhyenas: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dire_wolf Dire Wolf]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cave_hyena Cave Hyena]], [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pachycrocuta Giant Hyena]], and ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borophagus Borophagus]]''

* Prehistoric wolves and hyenas were not so different-looking than ours, but sometimes were larger. The [[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursNonDinosaurs dire wolf wolf]] (''Canis dirus'') was a sort of wolf bigger than ours, possibly a hunter of giant bison in competition with lions. It has been often found in the same tar pits in which ''Smilodon'' remains have been discovered, along with several other American mammals (elephant relatives, ground sloths, but modern-living mammals as well); the most famous is ''Rancho la Brea'', in Los Angeles.ours. Of course, not all extinct dogs were large, don't forget there were fox ancestors as well. Among extinct hyenas (which by the way, are more closely related to cats than dogs) we can mention the cave hyena, similar to modern spotted hyenas but living in northern territories during the Ice Ages. Other hyena species were very different: some were as large as bears, others resembled more cheetah or even weasels! On the other hand, some extinct canines were deceptively hyena-like: ''Borophagus'' from the Middle Cenozoic is one example, while the archaic ''Hesperocyon'' was more weasel-like. As a side-note: all modern domestic dogs from Chihuahuas to Great Danes descend from the grey wolf, no matter how big they are or how they look; an amazingly rapid evolution, really, lasted only few thousands years.



Woolly unicorns and their relatives: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woolly_rhinoceros Woolly Rhino]], ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elasmotherium Elasmotherium]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teleoceras Teleoceras]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menoceras Menoceras]]'',

to:

Woolly unicorns and their relatives: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woolly_rhinoceros Woolly Rhino]], True rhinos: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elasmotherium Elasmotherium]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teleoceras Teleoceras]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menoceras Menoceras]]'',



* Modern rhinos are often referred as "prehistoric-looking" in media (and the genus now housing the White Rhino (''Ceratotherium'') dates back 7 million years). Many classic prehistoric mammals were indeed rhino-looking though with different horn-shapes (the aforementioned six-horned ''Uintatherium'' and the fork-horned ''Megacerops'' are the most well-known examples), but only some of the extinct "rhinoceroses" were ''really'' such. Among them, the most spectacular were the Woolly Rhino, the Unicorn Rhino, and above all, the Indricothere (ironically, this one wasn't so rhino-looking). The Unicorn (''Elasmotherium sibiricum'') is often confused with the Woolly (''Coelodonta antiquitatis'') because of their similar appearance: however, the latter was no larger than modern white rhinos and had ''two'' horns as well; ''Elasmotherium'' was much larger (5 tons, like a modern bush elephant) and with one single horn... perhaps as long as a grown man, and put on the front rather than upon the nose: hence [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin unicorn rhinoceros]]. Both lived in the Ice Age in cold climates, alongside mammoths in northern Asia, but the elasmothere had a more southerly range than the woolly rhino, and while both lived east of the Urals, only the woolly rhino was found in Europe[[note]]Possibly. There's [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elasmotherium#Western_Eurasia one cave painting]] that might stretch ''Elasmotherium'''s range as far as France[[/note]]; the latter lived alongside the other, more popular woolly, ([[RhetoricalQuestionBlunder guess what]]). Interestingly, both woollies have left soft parts of their bodies other than bones, hair included. The "unicorn rhinoceros" is often said to have been the inspiration of the {{Unicorn}} myths found all over Eurasia in one form or another when still alive, but this is probably a legend. Possibly. There's a chance the unicorn rhino might have lived into historic times, but the anecdotes and depictions of these creatures might just as well refer to one-horned bulls or animals frozen in the permafrost like mammoths are known to have been. Once again, it appears humans did these things in just as things were getting better. Other more primitive rhinos include the short-limbed hippo-shaped ''Teleoceras'' (whose remains are extremely abundant in Middle Cenozoic North America), the forked-horned ''Menoceras'' (similarly to the distantly-related brontotheres), and the no-horned ''Aceratherium''. (acera = with no horns). Other prehistoric true rhinos has unusual features such as prominent tusk-like lower incisors, still others were very small for rhino standards, not bigger than a sheep (and they were not insular forms), and potential preys even for small carnivores -- contrasting with the almost-invulnerable modern animals. A group of close relatives of rhinos, the amynodontids (among these ''Metamynodon'') were no-horned, hippo-looking and probably similar to hippopotamuses in habits. About indricotheres (or paraceratheres, depending on who you ask), they deserve their own entry below.

to:

* Modern rhinos are often referred as "prehistoric-looking" in media (and the genus now housing the White Rhino (''Ceratotherium'') dates back 7 million years). Many classic prehistoric mammals were indeed rhino-looking though with different horn-shapes (the aforementioned six-horned ''Uintatherium'' and the fork-horned ''Megacerops'' are the most well-known examples), but only some of the extinct "rhinoceroses" were ''really'' such. Among them, the most spectacular were the [[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursNonDinosaurs Woolly Rhino, the Unicorn Rhino, Rhino]], and above all, the Indricothere (ironically, this one wasn't so rhino-looking). The Unicorn (''Elasmotherium sibiricum'') is often confused with the Woolly (''Coelodonta antiquitatis'') because of their similar appearance: however, the latter was no larger than modern white rhinos and had ''two'' horns as well; ''Elasmotherium'' was much larger (5 tons, like a modern bush elephant) and with one single horn... perhaps as long as a grown man, and put on the front rather than upon the nose: hence [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin unicorn rhinoceros]]. Both lived in the Ice Age in cold climates, alongside mammoths in northern Asia, but the elasmothere had a more southerly range than the woolly rhino, and while both lived east of the Urals, only the woolly rhino was found in Europe[[note]]Possibly. There's [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elasmotherium#Western_Eurasia one cave painting]] that might stretch ''Elasmotherium'''s range as far as France[[/note]]; the latter lived alongside the other, more popular woolly, ([[RhetoricalQuestionBlunder guess what]]). Interestingly, both woollies have left soft parts of their bodies other than bones, hair included. The "unicorn rhinoceros" is often said to have been the inspiration of the {{Unicorn}} myths found all over Eurasia in one form or another when still alive, but this is probably a legend. Possibly. There's a chance the unicorn rhino might have lived into historic times, but the anecdotes and depictions of these creatures might just as well refer to one-horned bulls or animals frozen in the permafrost like mammoths are known to have been. Once again, it appears humans did these things in just as things were getting better.rhino-looking). Other more primitive rhinos include the short-limbed hippo-shaped ''Teleoceras'' (whose remains are extremely abundant in Middle Cenozoic North America), the forked-horned ''Menoceras'' (similarly to the distantly-related brontotheres), and the no-horned ''Aceratherium''. (acera = with no horns). Other prehistoric true rhinos has unusual features such as prominent tusk-like lower incisors, still others were very small for rhino standards, not bigger than a sheep (and they were not insular forms), and potential preys even for small carnivores -- contrasting with the almost-invulnerable modern animals. A group of close relatives of rhinos, the amynodontids (among these ''Metamynodon'') were no-horned, hippo-looking and probably similar to hippopotamuses in habits. About indricotheres (or paraceratheres, depending on who you ask), they deserve their own entry below.



Between a Bigfoot and a Silverback: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gigantopithecus Gigantopithecus]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proconsul_(primate) Proconsul]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oreopithecus Oreopithecus]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dryopithecus Dryopithecus]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sivapithecus Sivapithecus]]'', and ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orrorin Orrorin]]''

* Due to jungles not being good places for fossilization, not many species of extinct apes are known. The most notable one is ''Gigantopithecus'', a relative of the orangutan (that also exhibited gorilla-like characters). Its name means "giant ape", and with reason. It measured up to 10 feet when standing upright, ''two times'' bigger than a modern silverback gorilla: a sort of middle-way between a RealLife gorilla and Film/KingKong. Not only that, it was discovered near the Himalayas: could it be the mythical [[BigfootSasquatchAndYeti Yeti]]? If so, this would mean it could be ''still alive'' (don't be too excited: experts say it's ''highly improbable'' that such a large animal has remained unobserved for such a long amount of time...). Sadly, the only certain thing we know about it is just a lower fossil jaw; the shape of the teeth show us it was a plant-eater, possibly specialized to a bamboo-based diet, to the point that some experts think competition with ''the giant panda'' actually drove it to extinction. This ape might end up on its way to stock territory, since in ''Film/TheJungleBook2016'', King Louie was [[AdaptationSpeciesChange changed from an orangutan to a Gigantopithecus]] due to [[MisplacedWildlife orangutans not living in India]]... not only that, but he was much more intimidating than his 1967 counterpart due to his large size. Other extinct apes were once considered true human ancestors, or at least the common ancestors of apes and humans, but now are believed only distant relatives which shared some apparently human-like traits. ''Proconsul'', ''Dryopithecus'', "Ramapithecus" (now ''Sivapithecus''), and still others, are often mentioned in old textbooks for this, but now their relevance is drastically fallen down. However, two apes here are of crucial importance for our purposes: ''Oreopithecus'' and ''Orrorin''. Why? Because these two apes show fossils that hint at the very beginning of the human gait, with somewhat human-like pelvises and femurs. Today scientists, thanks to the study of the Molecular Clock, believe that ''Oreopithecus'' is just an evolutionary dead end of specialized hominid, while the ''Orrorin'' belongs to the clade that would ultimately lead to humans.

to:

Between a Bigfoot and a Silverback: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gigantopithecus Gigantopithecus]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proconsul_(primate) Proconsul]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oreopithecus Oreopithecus]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dryopithecus Dryopithecus]]'', ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sivapithecus Sivapithecus]]'', and ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orrorin Orrorin]]''

* Due to jungles not being good places for fossilization, not many species of extinct apes are known. The most notable one is ''Gigantopithecus'', ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursNonDinosaurs Gigantopithecus]]'', a relative of the orangutan (that also exhibited gorilla-like characters). Its name means "giant ape", and with reason. It measured up to 10 feet when standing upright, ''two times'' bigger than a modern silverback gorilla: a sort of middle-way between a RealLife gorilla and Film/KingKong. Not only that, it was discovered near the Himalayas: could it be the mythical [[BigfootSasquatchAndYeti Yeti]]? If so, this would mean it could be ''still alive'' (don't be too excited: experts say it's ''highly improbable'' that such a large animal has remained unobserved for such a long amount of time...). Sadly, the only certain thing we know about it is just a lower fossil jaw; the shape of the teeth show us it was a plant-eater, possibly specialized to a bamboo-based diet, to the point that some experts think competition with ''the giant panda'' actually drove it to extinction. This ape might end up on its way to stock territory, since in ''Film/TheJungleBook2016'', King Louie was [[AdaptationSpeciesChange changed from an orangutan to a Gigantopithecus]] due to [[MisplacedWildlife orangutans not living in India]]... not only that, but he was much more intimidating than his 1967 counterpart due to his large size.characters). Other extinct apes were once considered true human ancestors, or at least the common ancestors of apes and humans, but now are believed only distant relatives which shared some apparently human-like traits. ''Proconsul'', ''Dryopithecus'', "Ramapithecus" (now ''Sivapithecus''), and still others, are often mentioned in old textbooks for this, but now their relevance is drastically fallen down. However, two apes here are of crucial importance for our purposes: ''Oreopithecus'' and ''Orrorin''. Why? Because these two apes show fossils that hint at the very beginning of the human gait, with somewhat human-like pelvises and femurs. Today scientists, thanks to the study of the Molecular Clock, believe that ''Oreopithecus'' is just an evolutionary dead end of specialized hominid, while the ''Orrorin'' belongs to the clade that would ultimately lead to humans.
This list shows the last 10 events of 140. Show all.
http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=UsefulNotes.PrehistoricLIfeMammals