History UsefulNotes / PoliticalIdeologies

9th Mar '17 4:50:14 AM MAI742
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* Guided Democracy: 'Foreign' elites are oppressing us, but [[TheGoodChancellor we can trust]] [[TheGoodKing 'our' elites to defend us]] from the foreigners and rule in our best interests!
* Genuine Democracy: Elites are oppressing us, and [[FullCircleRevolution replacing them with different elites]] [[InherentInTheSystem won't change anything]]. The solution is full democracy!

to:

* Guided Democracy: Guided/Demagogic: 'Foreign' elites are oppressing us, but [[TheGoodChancellor we can trust]] [[TheGoodKing 'our' elites to defend us]] from the foreigners and rule in our best interests!
interests!
* Genuine Democracy: Genuine/Democratic: Elites are oppressing us, and [[FullCircleRevolution replacing them with different elites]] [[InherentInTheSystem won't can't change anything]]. The solution is full We need more democracy!
9th Mar '17 4:38:53 AM MAI742
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[[folder:Socialism — For Equality!]]

to:

[[folder:Socialism — For Equality!]]
The Equality Of The Rich And Poor!]]


Added DiffLines:

Sub-types:
* Guided Democracy: 'Foreign' elites are oppressing us, but [[TheGoodChancellor we can trust]] [[TheGoodKing 'our' elites to defend us]] from the foreigners and rule in our best interests!
* Genuine Democracy: Elites are oppressing us, and [[FullCircleRevolution replacing them with different elites]] [[InherentInTheSystem won't change anything]]. The solution is full democracy!
8th Mar '17 4:38:27 PM uoftroper
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The idea of the nation was originally a radical and bold one. It was fashioned during UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution. The Revolutionaries were set on building a Republic that could govern a large area of land, and be representative of the same, nullifying and usurping the claims of TheKingdom and TheChurch in the minds of the people. Nations insisted that people are citizens, equally important in creating the whole state by means of certain commonalities, which they claimed had existed but had been invisible, hidden and suppressed in the past. Nationalism sought to make this visible by means of symbols and institutions and thus was born during the French Revolution, both by deliberate design and spontaneous improvisation, such things as National Flags, National Anthems, National Museums, National Schools, National Banks and a bunch of official propaganda saluting patriots and heroes of the Nation. This idea persisted even when they converted into an Empire, when Emperor Bonaparte introduced further ideas namely the award for the highest citizen, the Legion d'Honneur (subsequently copied by other nations, such as the US Presidential Medal of Freedom) which he awarded to both military and civilian professionals.

to:

The idea of the nation was originally a radical and bold one. It was fashioned during UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution. The Revolutionaries were set on building a Republic that could govern a large area of land, and be representative of the same, nullifying and usurping the claims of TheKingdom and TheChurch in the minds of the people. To make it clear, while a country used to depend on the personal territory of a King, nationalism implied that a country was unified by its people. In the context of Empires, Nationalism means that a submitted people wants a government that comes from itself, not from a foreign people, democratically or not, and as such rises of Nationalism often meant the death of Empires. Nations insisted that people are citizens, equally important in creating the whole state by means of certain commonalities, which they claimed had existed but had been invisible, hidden and suppressed in the past. Nationalism sought to make this visible by means of symbols and institutions and thus was born during the French Revolution, both by deliberate design and spontaneous improvisation, such things as National Flags, National Anthems, National Museums, National Schools, National Banks and a bunch of official propaganda saluting patriots and heroes of the Nation. This idea persisted even when they converted into an Empire, when Emperor Bonaparte introduced further ideas namely the award for the highest citizen, the Legion d'Honneur (subsequently copied by other nations, such as the US Presidential Medal of Freedom) which he awarded to both military and civilian professionals.
17th Feb '17 12:33:30 PM TalonsofIceandFire
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[[folder:Socialism — For The People!]]

to:

[[folder:Socialism — For The People!]]
Equality!]]



* ''Radical feminism'': Probably the most militant form of feminism and the source of many of the [[StrawFeminist negative stereotypes]] — mostly from conflating it with feminism as a whole. It sees all the problems women face as resulting from social power favoring men over women (i.e. patriarchy) and sees all other struggles as subordinate to it. Most radical feminists oppose pornography, which they see as inherently oppressive towards women, and other forms of sex work such as prostitution, with most radical feminists today supporting the 'Scandinavian model' of criminalizing the buyer of sex but not the seller. While once very popular, [[SexIsEvil it has gotten a lot of flak in recent years for being 'anti-sex']], seemingly ignoring issues of racial, gender, and sexual stereotypes, and some radical feminists having expressed opinions regarded transphobic (anti-{{Transgender}}) even misandric (anti-male).

to:

* ''Radical feminism'': Probably the most militant form of feminism and the source of many of the [[StrawFeminist negative stereotypes]] — mostly from conflating it with feminism as a whole. It sees all the problems women face as resulting from social power favoring men over women (i.e. patriarchy) and sees all other struggles as subordinate to it. Most radical feminists oppose pornography, which they see as inherently oppressive towards women, and other forms of sex work such as prostitution, with most radical feminists today supporting the 'Scandinavian model' of criminalizing the buyer of sex but not the seller. While once very popular, [[SexIsEvil it has gotten a lot of flak in recent years for being 'anti-sex']], seemingly ignoring issues of racial, gender, and sexual stereotypes, and some radical feminists having expressed opinions regarded as transphobic (anti-{{Transgender}}) even misandric (anti-male).



[[folder: Populism -- For the People]]

to:

[[folder: Populism -- For the People]]
People!]]
21st Jan '17 5:06:37 PM JulianLapostat
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Nationalism is often distinguished from ''patriotism'', a [[http://www.differencebetween.net/language/difference-between-nationalism-and-patriotism/ personal affinity or loyalty to one's country]] without a specific feeling that it is better than others. Creator/GeorgeOrwell preferred to define Patriotism as a love for one's homeland that has no intention of imposing upon others but for others love for one's country involves dreams of superiority, and if one is particularly taken with fidelity, it excludes love for other nations and peoples, and at times licenses hatred for the latter to justify and reinforce the former. Nationalism and Patriotism can be in line with liberalism, and left-wing socialism [[https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1913/jun/30.htm and even internationalist communism]]. But [[PatrioticFervor more jingoistic fervor]], when combined with anti-liberal politics, social darwinism (where only the fittest nations can survive and dominate) race-based ideas, and militarism, the result tends to become ''Fascism'' or ''National Socialism''.

to:

Nationalism is often distinguished from ''patriotism'', a [[http://www.differencebetween.net/language/difference-between-nationalism-and-patriotism/ personal affinity or loyalty to one's country]] without a specific feeling that it is better than others. Creator/GeorgeOrwell preferred to define Patriotism as a love for one's homeland that has no intention of imposing upon others but for others love for one's country involves dreams of superiority, and if one is particularly taken with fidelity, it excludes love for others. Creator/SamuelJohnson on the other nations hand saw patriotism as "the last resort of scoundrels" while Creator/AmbroseBierce differed from Dr. Johnson [[DistinctionWithoutADifference by insisting that it's the first]]. Regardless, nationalism and peoples, and at times licenses hatred for the latter to justify and reinforce the former. Nationalism and Patriotism patriotism can be in line with liberalism, and left-wing socialism [[https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1913/jun/30.htm and even internationalist communism]]. But [[PatrioticFervor more jingoistic fervor]], when combined with anti-liberal politics, social darwinism (where only the fittest nations can survive and dominate) race-based ideas, and militarism, the result tends to become ''Fascism'' or ''National Socialism''.
13th Jan '17 9:55:26 PM MAI742
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-->-- UsefulNotes/Jesus, [[Literature/TheBible The Gospel of Mark,]] [[https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Mark+12&version=KJV 12:29-31]]

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-->-- UsefulNotes/Jesus, '''UsefulNotes/{{Jesus}}''', [[Literature/TheBible The Gospel of Mark,]] [[https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Mark+12&version=KJV 12:29-31]]
13th Jan '17 9:51:40 PM JulianLapostat
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The Nation is and always been has an abstract concept. And so, nationalism is more or less governed by ideas, images and symbols, rather than empirical and rationally consistent ideas. The ideas, images and symbols which are chosen (either from above or from below, and often by both) are intend ''to represent'' the nation to its citizens and also ''be representative'' of the citizens themselves. Before nationalism, citizens were product of their environments, their families, their religions and social classes. After nationalism, citizens are products of all that ''and'' the nation which is inculcated to them by education, by professional service and by the given PopculturalOsmosis of the national entity. In the life-cycle of nation states, first the citizens form the nation (either by revolution or general consent) but then the Nation starts forming its citizens, starts defining, categorizing and labeling them and by the second or third generation, what was originally abstract, improvised and theoretical comes to seem [[NewerThanTheyThink authentic, traditional and material]].

to:

The Nation is and always has been has an abstract concept. And so, nationalism is more or less governed by ideas, images and symbols, rather than empirical and rationally consistent ideas. The ideas, images and symbols which are chosen (either from above or from below, and often by both) are intend ''to represent'' the nation to its citizens and also ''be representative'' of the citizens themselves. Before nationalism, citizens were product of their environments, their families, their religions and social classes. After nationalism, citizens are products of all that ''and'' the nation which is inculcated to them by education, by professional service and by the given PopculturalOsmosis of the national entity. In the life-cycle of nation states, first the citizens form the nation (either by revolution or general consent) but then the Nation starts forming its citizens, starts defining, categorizing and labeling them and by the second or third generation, what was originally abstract, improvised and theoretical comes to seem [[NewerThanTheyThink authentic, traditional and material]].
13th Jan '17 9:48:28 PM JulianLapostat
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The idea of the nation was originally a radical and bold one. It was fashioned during UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution. The Revolutionaries were set on building a Republic that could govern a large area of land, and one which represented the whole nation. To do this, to claim this ambition, they were more or less writing off a justification for TheKingdom and TheChurch, i.e. they were the only institutions and organizations that can effectively rule and govern a large diverse region where subjects in one region had nothing in common with other. Nations insisted that people are citizens, equally important in creating the whole state by means of certain commonalities. In order to represent this ideology, Nationalism had to be made visible by means of symbols and institutions and thus was born during the French Revolution, both by deliberate design and spontaneous improvisation, such things as National Flags, National Anthems, National Museums, National Schools, National Banks and a bunch of official propaganda saluting patriots and heroes of the Nation. This idea persisted even when they converted into an Empire, when Emperor Bonaparte introduced further ideas namely the award for the highest citizen, the Legion d'Honneur (subsequently copied by other nations, such as the US Presidential Medal of Freedom) which he awarded to both military and civilian professionals.

to:

The idea of the nation was originally a radical and bold one. It was fashioned during UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution. The Revolutionaries were set on building a Republic that could govern a large area of land, and one which represented be representative of the whole nation. To do this, to claim this ambition, they were more or less writing off a justification for same, nullifying and usurping the claims of TheKingdom and TheChurch, i.e. they were TheChurch in the only institutions and organizations that can effectively rule and govern a large diverse region where subjects in one region had nothing in common with other. minds of the people. Nations insisted that people are citizens, equally important in creating the whole state by means of certain commonalities. In order to represent this ideology, commonalities, which they claimed had existed but had been invisible, hidden and suppressed in the past. Nationalism had sought to be made make this visible by means of symbols and institutions and thus was born during the French Revolution, both by deliberate design and spontaneous improvisation, such things as National Flags, National Anthems, National Museums, National Schools, National Banks and a bunch of official propaganda saluting patriots and heroes of the Nation. This idea persisted even when they converted into an Empire, when Emperor Bonaparte introduced further ideas namely the award for the highest citizen, the Legion d'Honneur (subsequently copied by other nations, such as the US Presidential Medal of Freedom) which he awarded to both military and civilian professionals.
13th Jan '17 9:43:36 PM JulianLapostat
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When the Counter-Enlightenment rolled around in the wake of UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution, things changed. On the British side, Empiricism had been pushed so far that many began to embrace Skepticism (in the philosophical sense — the belief we cannot reach knowledge). Arguably, they were following on in the wake of David Hume (although also arguably they were going much further than he did). On the Continental side, Rationalism had been pushed to extremes that argued reason has a nature which shapes its user. This is arguably derivative from Kant, but many additions were made by Kant's intellectual successors (known as the German Idealists). For instance, Fichte argued that one's nationality shapes one's consciousness. Hegel took this even further, arguably diminishing the role of human beings as free agents in favor of making them voices of larger forces.

to:

When the Counter-Enlightenment rolled around in the wake of UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution, things changed. On the British side, Empiricism had been pushed so far that many began to embrace Skepticism (in the philosophical sense — the belief we cannot reach knowledge). Arguably, they were following on in the wake of David Hume (although also arguably (arguably, they were going much further than he did). On the Continental side, Rationalism had been pushed to extremes that argued reason has a nature which shapes its user. This is arguably derivative from Kant, but many additions were made by Kant's intellectual successors (known as the German Idealists). For instance, Fichte argued that one's nationality shapes one's consciousness. Hegel took this even further, arguably diminishing the role of human beings as free agents in favor of making them voices of larger forces.



Nationalism is so unquestioned and all-pervasive today that it is more a belief than an ideology. As it has nothing to say about individual people and their well-being, it has no set opinion on the political economy and its social structures. Hence its paradox of being both particular and to a degree universal. Nationalism has two basic tenets: First, everyone on earth belongs to a 'nation', an imagined community which exists [[ClapYourHandsIfYouBelieve because people who identify with it believe it does]]. The second tenet of nationalism is that every 'nation' on earth should have a state that governs an amount of territory, and that all the people of that 'nation' should live within that territory.

You can see how these beliefs [[MisplacedNationalism are trouble]] especially when taken to their extreme conclusions. By valuing nations above people, virtually any sacrifice of a nation's people (short of sacrificing absolutely everyone of that nation) in the name of that nation is acceptable … let alone the sacrifice of people of a different nation. A true, pure nationalist, free from the influence of all other political ideologies, would regard the genocide of absolutely everybody on earth save 10,000 people of one’s own nation[[note]]That's the minimum number required to perpetuate humanity with enough genetic variation to stave off inbreeding.[[/note]] as the only acceptable solution to the problem of the existence of other nations.

As we said at the outset, though, nationalism doesn’t exist in a vacuum. Most nation-states save [[UsefulNotes/NorthKorea the Democratic People's Republic of Korea]] would be severely criticized for making such a trade-off as the one just outlined. While most nationalists value their own nation and members of it more than they do foreign nations and foreign people, they probably wouldn't believe that their nation is such an important cause that all those people should die in its name. In many respects this attitude is a return to the nineteenth century, back when the word 'nation' was redefined from a vague word denoting 'group of peoples who spoke the same language'[[note]]Much has been written of how the myriad forms of the word and concept of 'nation' far predate the modern nation-state and nationalism as it's known today, of course.[[/note]] to a unified 'racial'[[note]]With the exception of Russian Nationalism, which was avowedly non-hereditary but was defined exclusively by acceptance of the Orthodox Christian Faith.[[/note]] group that should have its own state [[SocialDarwinism and must dominate the earth or surely go extinct, for only one nation can ultimately survive]]. While nationalism in this sense remains a strong force in the world today, there can be no doubt that it is far weaker than it was in the 20th century due to the events of the World Wars as well as the power of liberalism, which opposes nationalism on the grounds that real individual people are not worth sacrificing for any kind of 'imagined' community, no matter how strongly people may feel about it. On the other hand, the myriad forms of nationalism and resurging influence in more recent times mean that [[RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgement the devil really is in the details]].

Nationalism is often distinguished from ''patriotism'', a [[http://www.differencebetween.net/language/difference-between-nationalism-and-patriotism/ personal affinity or loyalty to one's country]] without a specific feeling that it is better than others. Or, to paraphrase Creator/GeorgeOrwell, Patriotism is a love for one's homeland that has no intention of imposing upon others. But though patriotism is more in line with liberalism, [[PatrioticFervor more jingoistic fervor]] nonetheless overlaps with nationalism in a classical sense. When combined with anti-liberal and -socialist politics as well as militarism, the result tends to become ''Fascism''.

to:

The idea of the nation was originally a radical and bold one. It was fashioned during UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution. The Revolutionaries were set on building a Republic that could govern a large area of land, and one which represented the whole nation. To do this, to claim this ambition, they were more or less writing off a justification for TheKingdom and TheChurch, i.e. they were the only institutions and organizations that can effectively rule and govern a large diverse region where subjects in one region had nothing in common with other. Nations insisted that people are citizens, equally important in creating the whole state by means of certain commonalities. In order to represent this ideology, Nationalism had to be made visible by means of symbols and institutions and thus was born during the French Revolution, both by deliberate design and spontaneous improvisation, such things as National Flags, National Anthems, National Museums, National Schools, National Banks and a bunch of official propaganda saluting patriots and heroes of the Nation. This idea persisted even when they converted into an Empire, when Emperor Bonaparte introduced further ideas namely the award for the highest citizen, the Legion d'Honneur (subsequently copied by other nations, such as the US Presidential Medal of Freedom) which he awarded to both military and civilian professionals.

The Nation is and always been has an abstract concept. And so, nationalism is more or less governed by ideas, images and symbols, rather than empirical and rationally consistent ideas. The ideas, images and symbols which are chosen (either from above or from below, and often by both) are intend ''to represent'' the nation to its citizens and also ''be representative'' of the citizens themselves. Before nationalism, citizens were product of their environments, their families, their religions and social classes. After nationalism, citizens are products of all that ''and'' the nation which is inculcated to them by education, by professional service and by the given PopculturalOsmosis of the national entity. In the life-cycle of nation states, first the citizens form the nation (either by revolution or general consent) but then the Nation starts forming its citizens, starts defining, categorizing and labeling them and by the second or third generation, what was originally abstract, improvised and theoretical comes to seem [[NewerThanTheyThink authentic, traditional and material]].

Nationalism is so unquestioned and all-pervasive today that it is more a belief than an ideology.ideology and that proves its success as an ideology in replacing its older stuctures. As it has nothing to say about individual people and their well-being, it has no set opinion on the political economy and its social structures. Hence its paradox of being both particular and to a degree universal. Nationalism has two basic tenets: First, everyone on earth belongs to a 'nation', an imagined community which exists [[ClapYourHandsIfYouBelieve because people who identify with it believe it does]]. The second tenet of nationalism is that every 'nation' on earth should have a state that governs an amount of territory, and that all the people of that 'nation' should live within that territory.

territory. Given the power of this abstract concept and its vital importance, it became quite important to people of different interests to be, ''selective'' of what represents the nation and what is considered to be representative of its citizens. It could be common language and common religion, common culture, but languages can be learnt and what if people share the same religion and different language, and vice versa and what about outsiders (who share neither language nor religion, or one of both) who develop a ForeignCultureFetish? Obviously, people needed to be more specific and eventually other filters had to be added, and eventually race and ethnicity was decided in the course of the 19th and early 20th Century. Thus was born ethno-nationalism a strain of nationalism that is remarkable for its global reach, spreading from Central and Eastern Europe to the Middle East to the Indian Subcontinent, to Africa and beyond. Other strains include nativism, a concept which insists that particular citizens, [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herrenvolk_democracy a herrenvolk]], have aristocratic claims and entitlements to the nation, its rights and its services, over other groups of citizens, even if the latter are officially citizens, residents and speakers of the same language as the former, and over time via [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnic_succession_theory ethnic succession]], the concept of natives can change, the herrenvolk expands to former marginal groups so as to better combat more newcomers.

You can see how these beliefs [[MisplacedNationalism are trouble]] especially when taken to their extreme conclusions. By valuing nations above people, virtually any sacrifice of a nation's people (short of sacrificing absolutely everyone of that nation) in the name of that nation is acceptable … acceptable...let alone the sacrifice of people of a different nation. A true, pure nationalist, free from the influence of all other political ideologies, would regard the genocide of absolutely everybody on earth save 10,000 people of one’s own nation[[note]]That's the minimum number required to perpetuate humanity with enough genetic variation to stave off inbreeding.[[/note]] as the only acceptable solution to the problem of the existence of other nations.

nations. As we said at the outset, though, nationalism doesn’t exist in a vacuum. Most nation-states save [[UsefulNotes/NorthKorea the Democratic People's Republic of Korea]] would be severely criticized for making such a trade-off as the one just outlined. While most nationalists value their own nation and members of it more than they do foreign nations and foreign people, they probably wouldn't believe that their nation is such an important cause that all those people should die in its name.

In many respects this attitude is a return to the nineteenth century, back when the word 'nation' was redefined from a vague word denoting 'group of peoples who spoke the same language'[[note]]Much has been written of how the myriad forms of the word and concept of 'nation' far predate the modern nation-state and nationalism as it's known today, of course.[[/note]] to a unified 'racial'[[note]]With the exception of Russian Nationalism, which was avowedly non-hereditary but was defined exclusively by acceptance of the Orthodox Christian Faith.[[/note]] group that should have its own state [[SocialDarwinism and must dominate the earth or surely go extinct, for only one nation can ultimately survive]]. While nationalism in this sense remains a strong force in the world today, there can be no doubt that it is far weaker than it was in the 20th century due to the events of the World Wars as well as the power of liberalism, which opposes nationalism on the grounds that real individual people are not worth sacrificing for any kind of 'imagined' community, no matter how strongly people may feel about it. On the other hand, the myriad forms of nationalism and resurging influence in more recent times mean that [[RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgement the devil really is in the details]].

Nationalism is often distinguished from ''patriotism'', a [[http://www.differencebetween.net/language/difference-between-nationalism-and-patriotism/ personal affinity or loyalty to one's country]] without a specific feeling that it is better than others. Or, Creator/GeorgeOrwell preferred to paraphrase Creator/GeorgeOrwell, define Patriotism is as a love for one's homeland that has no intention of imposing upon others. But though patriotism others but for others love for one's country involves dreams of superiority, and if one is more particularly taken with fidelity, it excludes love for other nations and peoples, and at times licenses hatred for the latter to justify and reinforce the former. Nationalism and Patriotism can be in line with liberalism, and left-wing socialism [[https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1913/jun/30.htm and even internationalist communism]]. But [[PatrioticFervor more jingoistic fervor]] nonetheless overlaps with nationalism in a classical sense. When fervor]], when combined with anti-liberal politics, social darwinism (where only the fittest nations can survive and -socialist politics as well as dominate) race-based ideas, and militarism, the result tends to become ''Fascism''.''Fascism'' or ''National Socialism''.
13th Jan '17 12:14:04 AM MAI742
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Subtypes:
* Primordialism: nations have always existed as semi-mystical, semi-spiritual entities with eternal moral/mental essences.
* Modernism: nations are modern constructions created to inspire pride in modern states. Nationality is not a meaningful form of identity.
* Ethnosymbolism: nations have a long pedigree, but mass-belief in nations is a modern invention. Nationality is as meaningful to us we feel it is.

Nationalism is so unquestioned and all-pervasive today that it is more a belief than an ideology. As it has nothing to say about individual people and their well-being, it has no set opinion on the political economy and its social structures. Hence its paradox of being both particular and to a degree universal.

Over the years, [[http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Nationalism#Schools_of_thought several theories and schools have emerged]], such as Primordialism,[[note]]An early strain of nationalism as a coherent academic thought. Its followers argued that nations are timeless, biological phenomena. Largely discredited in the 20th century.[[/note]] Modernism,[[note]]A rebuttal to Primordialism, arguing that nationalism is an entirely modern construct of relatively recent vintage. The idea of nations as 'imagined communities' also largely stems from here.[[/note]] and Ethnosymbolism.[[note]]A more recent response to Modernism, stressing culture, values and traditions. In this view, nations are both ancient and modern, invented even as they’re rooted in history.[[/note]] The argument below makes use of the Modernist view.

Nationalism in this light provides two basic tenets: First, everyone on earth belongs to a 'nation', an imagined community which exists [[ClapYourHandsIfYouBelieve because people who identify with it believe it does]]. The second tenet of nationalism is that every 'nation' on earth should have a state that governs an amount of territory, and that all the people of that 'nation' should live within that territory.

to:

Subtypes:
[[http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Nationalism#Schools_of_thought Subtypes:]]
* Primordialism: nations have always existed as semi-mystical, semi-spiritual entities with eternal moral/mental essences. \n[[note]]An early strain of nationalism as a coherent academic thought. Its followers argued that nations are timeless, biological phenomena. Largely discredited in the 20th century[[/note]]
* Modernism: nations are modern constructions created to inspire pride in modern states. Nationality is not a meaningful form of identity.
identity.[[note]]A rebuttal to Primordialism, arguing that nationalism is an entirely modern construct of relatively recent vintage. The idea of nations as 'imagined communities' also largely stems from here[[/note]]
* Ethnosymbolism: nations have a long pedigree, but mass-belief in nations is a modern invention. Nationality is as meaningful to us we feel it is. \n\n[[note]]A more recent response to Modernism, stressing culture, values and traditions. In this view, nations are both ancient and modern, invented even as they’re rooted in history.[[/note]]

Nationalism is so unquestioned and all-pervasive today that it is more a belief than an ideology. As it has nothing to say about individual people and their well-being, it has no set opinion on the political economy and its social structures. Hence its paradox of being both particular and to a degree universal.

Over the years, [[http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Nationalism#Schools_of_thought several theories and schools have emerged]], such as Primordialism,[[note]]An early strain of nationalism as a coherent academic thought. Its followers argued that nations are timeless, biological phenomena. Largely discredited in the 20th century.[[/note]] Modernism,[[note]]A rebuttal to Primordialism, arguing that nationalism is an entirely modern construct of relatively recent vintage. The idea of nations as 'imagined communities' also largely stems from here.[[/note]] and Ethnosymbolism.[[note]]A more recent response to Modernism, stressing culture, values and traditions. In this view, nations are both ancient and modern, invented even as they’re rooted in history.[[/note]] The argument below makes use of the Modernist view.

universal. Nationalism in this light provides has two basic tenets: First, everyone on earth belongs to a 'nation', an imagined community which exists [[ClapYourHandsIfYouBelieve because people who identify with it believe it does]]. The second tenet of nationalism is that every 'nation' on earth should have a state that governs an amount of territory, and that all the people of that 'nation' should live within that territory.
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