History UsefulNotes / NativeAmericans

25th Apr '16 9:22:35 AM CaptEquinox
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* 1973 Wounded Knee II: Amongst the many civil rights groups that sprang up in the [[TheSixties sixties]] and [[TheSeventies seventies]] was AIM, the American Indian Movement. Founded in 1968, AIM led and participated in numerous acts of protest, the most famous of which was Wounded Knee II. On February 27, 1973, a group of AIM members and Oglala Lakota supporters (led by, among others, Russell Means whom you might know as the voice of [[{{Disney/Pocahontas}} Pocahontas's]] dad) seized control of the town of Wounded Knee (chosen for its obvious historical and symbolic value) and held it for 71 days. This was done to protest the failed impeachment of corrupt Oglala tribal president [[CorruptPolitician Dick Wilson]] and more generally the US government's long history of broken treaties. After numerous shoot-outs between the protesters and the FBI/US Marshals/law enforcement, the affair ended with AIM relinquishing control of the town to the US gov't. However, the protest drew considerable media attention, spotlighted the plight of modern-day Native Americans, inspired many native people across the country to travel to Wounded Knee and join the protest, and overall marked the start of a period of slight improvement for Native American people.

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* 1973 Wounded Knee II: Amongst the many civil rights groups that sprang up in the [[TheSixties sixties]] and [[TheSeventies seventies]] was AIM, the American Indian Movement. Founded in 1968, AIM led and participated in numerous acts of protest, the most famous of which was Wounded Knee II. On February 27, 1973, a group of AIM members and Oglala Lakota supporters (led by, among others, Russell Means whom you might know as the voice of [[{{Disney/Pocahontas}} Pocahontas's]] dad) seized control of the town of Wounded Knee (chosen for its obvious historical and symbolic value) and held it for 71 days. This was done to protest the failed impeachment of corrupt Oglala tribal president [[CorruptPolitician Dick Wilson]] and more generally the US government's long history of broken treaties. After numerous shoot-outs between the protesters and the FBI/US Marshals/law enforcement, the affair ended with AIM relinquishing control of the town to the US gov't. However, the protest drew considerable media attention, spotlighted the plight of modern-day Native Americans, inspired many native people and non-native allies across the country to travel to Wounded Knee and join the protest, and overall marked the start of a period of slight improvement for Native American people.
5th Mar '16 4:01:11 PM Thranx
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** This ugly chapter is particularly little known in US schools and media, even today. Most fiction set in this period still focuses mainly on conflicts between the ex-Mexican residents and the new US settlers. Meanwhile, both sides were busy killing and driving off the Natives in droves.



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30th Jan '16 8:51:37 PM Eagal
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** One remarkable blind spot that persisted for centuries in the minds of European settlers was how well-suited North America was for colonization. They attributed this to divine providence and/or their own industry. Only very recently have less-biased historians done their best to point out that North America made for great colonies because the land had already been cultivated for centuries by the suddenly plague-stricken Native Americans.

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** One remarkable blind spot that persisted for centuries in the minds of European settlers was how well-suited North America was for colonization. They attributed this to divine providence and/or their own industry. Only very recently have less-biased less biased historians done their best to point out that North America made for great colonies because the land had already been cultivated for centuries by the suddenly plague-stricken Native Americans.
27th Dec '15 2:31:48 AM CaptEquinox
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[[http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/23/us/native-americans-struggle-with-high-rate-of-rape.html?pagewanted=all this article by the New York Times which details it further.]] This causes some to be suicidal. Others rehabilitate and have successful lives. Note that the AHF has been cut massively in 2010. The media barely illustrates the current pain and suffering, often showing Native Americans pre-WW2. In shows where modern Native Americans are portrayed, for example as tour guides, their suffering is never delved into. Modern times are horrible.

Needless to say, it is a very sensitive topic for Americans to discuss. Although that said, there are efforts to bridge centuries' worth of mistrust between "native" and "white man." In an interesting side-note, many of the efforts done to alleviate their plight since the 1970s were either inspired by or begun by UsefulNotes/RichardNixon, who not only shut down the Termination policy but also had lands returned back to their original owners, resulting in him being generally regarded with respect among Native Americans[[note]]It's reached the point that the Paiutes people of Pyramid Lake, Nevada, named their capital in his memory[[/note]].

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[[http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/23/us/native-americans-struggle-with-high-rate-of-rape.html?pagewanted=all this article by the New York Times which details it further.]] They are routinely beaten and murdered by whites, including police.[[note]]The "arrested and then discovered dead in jail cell" scenario is bitterly familiar to Native people.[[/note]] This causes some to be suicidal. Others rehabilitate and have successful lives. Note that the AHF has been cut massively in 2010. The media barely illustrates the current pain and suffering, often showing Native Americans pre-WW2. In shows where modern Native Americans are portrayed, for example as tour guides, their suffering is never delved into. Modern times are horrible.

Needless to say, it is a very sensitive topic for Americans Anglo-Americans to discuss. Although that said, there are efforts to bridge centuries' worth of mistrust between "native" and "white man." "[[note]]"Anglo" is sometimes a preferred term since the problem is not the white race but the dominant American culture.[[/note]] In an interesting side-note, many of the efforts done to alleviate their plight since the 1970s were either inspired by or begun by UsefulNotes/RichardNixon, who not only shut down the Termination policy but also had lands returned back to their original owners, resulting in him being generally regarded with respect among Native Americans[[note]]It's reached the point that the Paiutes people of Pyramid Lake, Nevada, named their capital in his memory[[/note]].
9th Nov '15 6:28:04 PM nombretomado
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Needless to say, it is a very sensitive topic for Americans to discuss. Although that said, there are efforts to bridge centuries' worth of mistrust between "native" and "white man." In an interesting side-note, many of the efforts done to alleviate their plight since the 1970s were either inspired by or begun by RichardNixon, who not only shut down the Termination policy but also had lands returned back to their original owners, resulting in him being generally regarded with respect among Native Americans[[note]]It's reached the point that the Paiutes people of Pyramid Lake, Nevada, named their capital in his memory[[/note]].

to:

Needless to say, it is a very sensitive topic for Americans to discuss. Although that said, there are efforts to bridge centuries' worth of mistrust between "native" and "white man." In an interesting side-note, many of the efforts done to alleviate their plight since the 1970s were either inspired by or begun by RichardNixon, UsefulNotes/RichardNixon, who not only shut down the Termination policy but also had lands returned back to their original owners, resulting in him being generally regarded with respect among Native Americans[[note]]It's reached the point that the Paiutes people of Pyramid Lake, Nevada, named their capital in his memory[[/note]].
18th Oct '15 8:33:44 AM MAI742
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There are two issues to take into consideration when looking at Native history. The first is European/Western Bias: since most history is written by white men, they tend to bring their preconceptions into their work and interpret things wrongly because of them. The second is a tendency to paint Natives as simple or even backward. Often this was an attempt to justify the European takeover, rather than the greed and cultural posturing it actually is (this one isn't limited to just American Natives: Ireland, India, and most of Africa have similar issues).

This is far less true of works made after the 1960s due to massive cultural shifts that caused many White Americans to re-examine their own role in history. In addition, the number of Native scholars who were accepted in their fields increased. That's not to say that any work done prior to 1960 is without value; just that you might want to keep these things in mind. Also while the prejudice may have lessened in recent years, that doesn't mean it has disappeared altogether. Likewise, keep in mind as well that it works also in the other direction: just as Native Americans weren't/aren't simple-minded "noble savages," neither were/are White Men (or most Western-descended citizens for that matter) evil. More often than not it's a case of misunderstanding and ignorance, although it does slide into WellIntentionedExtremist territory at points. Not that this excuses the horrific results of white policies and expansion, and there were quite a number of cases of white people clearly just being unforgivably cruel.

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There are two issues to take into consideration when looking at Native history. The first is European/Western Bias: since most history is written by white men, they tend to bring their preconceptions into their work and interpret things wrongly because of them. The second is a tendency to paint Natives as simple or even backward. Often this This was an attempt used to justify the European takeover, rather than the annexations, ethnic cleansing, forcible resettlement, population control measures, etc. Though some such accounts are genuine, many come off as attempts to layer a thin veneer of civilization atop deep greed and cultural posturing it actually is (this one isn't limited to just American Natives: Ireland, contempt. As 'settler societies' Australia, Argentina, South Africa, some regions of India, and most of Africa a few other places are known to have similar issues).this problem with regards to accounts of 'the natives'.

This is far less true of works made after the 1960s due to massive cultural shifts that which caused many White Americans Europeans (and Americans) to re-examine their own role in history. In addition, the number of Native scholars who were accepted in their fields increased. That's not to say that any work done prior to 1960 is without value; just that you might want to keep these things in mind. Also while the prejudice may have lessened in recent years, that doesn't mean it has disappeared altogether. Likewise, keep in mind as well that it works also in the other direction: just as Native Americans weren't/aren't simple-minded "noble savages," neither were/are White Men Europeans (or most Western-descended citizens for that matter) their modern-day progeny) evil. More often than not it's a case of misunderstanding and ignorance, although it does slide into WellIntentionedExtremist territory at points. Not that this excuses the horrific results of white government policies and expansion, and there were quite a number of cases of white enacted, or people clearly just being unforgivably cruel.who really did act with unspeakable brutality or cruelty.
17th Jul '15 8:57:54 AM narm00
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** An alternate theory espoused by some Native scholars is that native people were ''always'' there, originating from somewhere in the Americas. This theory was prompted by concerns that the Bering Land-Bridge theory was yet another attempt by whites to undermine Native claims to their ancestral lands (as in: "Hey, you guys immigrated from Siberia just like we immigrated from Europe, so this isn't really ''your'' land"). This idea is not given very much credence, as it conflicts with with the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recent_African_origin_of_modern_humans Recent African Origin]] hypothesis, which is thus far supported by virtually all the credible biological evidence (particularly mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA).

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** An alternate theory espoused by some Native scholars is that native people were ''always'' there, originating from somewhere in the Americas. This theory was prompted by concerns that the Bering Land-Bridge theory was yet another attempt by whites to undermine Native claims to their ancestral lands (as in: "Hey, you guys immigrated from Siberia just like we immigrated from Europe, so this isn't really ''your'' land"). This idea is not given very much credence, as it conflicts with with the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recent_African_origin_of_modern_humans Recent African Origin]] hypothesis, which is thus far supported by virtually all the credible biological evidence (particularly mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA).
11th Jul '15 1:48:15 PM Troper9
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* The "Mound Builders", aka the Mississippian Civilization, were probably the ancestors of most of the Southeastern tribes. The mounds themselves were the beginnings of a sophisticated urban civilization, which by the 13th century CE had already produced at least one major urban center (Cahokia, in what is now southern Illinois, about 7.5 miles northeast of downtown UsefulNotes/StLouis), with other "mounds" showing definite patterns of concentration of power in the hands of central spiritual and political elites, with definite hinterlands outside the cities paying tribute. This probably would have developed quite nicely had it not been for a big plague; for which, see "History" below.

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* The "Mound Builders", aka the Mississippian Civilization, were probably the ancestors of most of the Southeastern tribes. The mounds themselves were the beginnings of a sophisticated urban civilization, which by the 13th century CE had already produced at least one major urban center (Cahokia, in what is now southern Illinois, about 7.5 miles northeast of downtown UsefulNotes/StLouis), with other "mounds" showing definite patterns of concentration of power in the hands of central spiritual and political elites, with definite hinterlands outside the cities paying tribute. This probably would have developed quite nicely had it not been for a big plague; for which, see "History" below.
27th Apr '15 12:13:23 PM karstovich2
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* The "Mound Builders", aka the Mississippian Civilization, were probably the ancestors of most of the Southeastern tribes. The mounds themselves were the beginnings of a sophisticated urban civilization, which by the 13th century CE had already produced at least one major urban center (Cahokia in what is now southern Illinois), with other "mounds" showing definite patterns of concentration of power in the hands of central spiritual and political elites, with definite hinterlands outside the cities paying tribute. This probably would have developed quite nicely had it not been for a big plague; for which, see "History" below.

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* The "Mound Builders", aka the Mississippian Civilization, were probably the ancestors of most of the Southeastern tribes. The mounds themselves were the beginnings of a sophisticated urban civilization, which by the 13th century CE had already produced at least one major urban center (Cahokia (Cahokia, in what is now southern Illinois), Illinois, about 7.5 miles northeast of downtown UsefulNotes/StLouis), with other "mounds" showing definite patterns of concentration of power in the hands of central spiritual and political elites, with definite hinterlands outside the cities paying tribute. This probably would have developed quite nicely had it not been for a big plague; for which, see "History" below.



* The largest society to exist north of the Aztecs was the Mississippian Culture, who had a complex society with several specialized careers and classes. Centered around Cahokia, they had a large chiefdom and many smaller tributary chiefdoms spread across what is now the southern US. Cahokia in 1250 was actually larger than some major European cities (including London and Paris) with a population numbering in the tens of thousands. These large chiefdoms would've probably developed into full-blown kingdoms and maybe even empires over time (if there's one thing that's fairly consistent across history and cultures, it's the ever-expanding territory and power of states as agriculture takes hold and society gets more complex) had they not been hit by a series of catastrophes, particularly the Columbian epidemics.

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* The largest society to exist north of the Aztecs was the Mississippian Culture, who had a complex society with several specialized careers and classes. Centered around Cahokia, Cahokia (a little east of modern UsefulNotes/StLouis, just proving that some locations are just naturally well suited for settlement), they had a large chiefdom and many smaller tributary chiefdoms spread across what is now the southern US. Cahokia in 1250 was actually larger than some major European cities (including London and Paris) with a population numbering in the tens of thousands. These large chiefdoms would've probably developed into full-blown kingdoms and maybe even empires over time (if there's one thing that's fairly consistent across history and cultures, it's the ever-expanding territory and power of states as agriculture takes hold and society gets more complex) had they not been hit by a series of catastrophes, particularly the Columbian epidemics.
25th Apr '15 10:25:22 AM karstovich2
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* Similar in culture to the North Eastern group, they also grew the "three sisters." However, they had much bigger emphasis on the sun and fire gods. The tribes of the southeast built many mounds and other structures to worship and honor the sun and other gods, some of which are still honored today. Many of the South Eastern tribes, most notoriously the so-called "Five Civilized Tribes" (Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, and some of the Seminole tribes), were relocated to modern-day Oklahoma in the 1830s as part of the Trail of Tears. The tribes that didn't (primarily the the Okahumpka and Miccosukee Seminole tribes) remain today as the only tribes to have never surrendered to the United States).

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* Similar in culture to the North Eastern group, often speaking similar languages to the North Eastern peoples and with some tribes seeing some North Eastern ones distant kin, they also grew the "three sisters." However, they had much bigger emphasis on the sun and fire gods. The tribes of the southeast built many mounds and other structures to worship and honor the sun and other gods, some of which are still honored today. Many of the South Eastern tribes, most notoriously the so-called "Five Civilized Tribes" (Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, and some of the Seminole tribes), were relocated to modern-day Oklahoma in the 1830s as part of the Trail of Tears. The tribes that didn't (primarily the the Okahumpka and Miccosukee Seminole tribes) remain today as the only tribes to have never surrendered to the United States).
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