History UsefulNotes / NativeAmericans

6th May '17 4:27:52 AM Occidensill
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[[http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/23/us/native-americans-struggle-with-high-rate-of-rape.html?pagewanted=all this article by the New York Times which details it further.]] They are routinely beaten and murdered by whites, including police.[[note]]The "arrested and then discovered dead in jail cell" scenario is bitterly familiar to Native people.[[/note]] This causes some to be suicidal. Others rehabilitate and have successful lives. Note that the AHF has been cut massively in 2010. The media barely illustrates the current pain and suffering, often showing Native Americans pre-WW2. In shows where modern Native Americans are portrayed, for example as tour guides, their suffering is never delved into. Modern times are horrible. Sadly, this is partly due to a quirk of federal law that has yet to be fixed-tribal police legally have no authority over non-native people who come onto the reservation. So natives are fair game for crimes (most native women have been raped by non-native men) since tribal police cannot even arrest them. They can only report this to local authorities who often cannot or will not go after the suspects.

to:

[[http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/23/us/native-americans-struggle-with-high-rate-of-rape.html?pagewanted=all this article by the New York Times which details it further.]] They are routinely beaten and murdered by whites, including police.[[note]]The "arrested and then discovered dead in jail cell" scenario is bitterly familiar to Native people.[[/note]] This causes some to be suicidal. Others rehabilitate and have successful lives. Note that the AHF has been cut massively in 2010. The media barely illustrates the current pain and suffering, often showing Native Americans pre-WW2. In shows where modern Native Americans are portrayed, for example as tour guides, their suffering is never delved into. Modern times are horrible. Sadly, this is partly due to a quirk of federal law that has yet to be fixed-tribal police legally have no authority over non-native people who come onto the reservation. So natives are fair game for crimes (most (many native women have been raped by non-native men) since tribal police cannot even arrest them. They can only report this to local authorities who often cannot or will not go after the suspects.
3rd Apr '17 4:56:21 PM Fireblood
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* Similar in culture to the North Eastern group, often speaking similar languages to the North Eastern peoples and with some tribes seeing some North Eastern ones distant kin, they also grew the "three sisters." However, they had much bigger emphasis on the sun and fire gods. The tribes of the southeast built many mounds and other structures to worship and honor the sun and other gods, some of which are still honored today. Many of the South Eastern tribes, most notoriously the so-called "Five Civilized Tribes" (Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, and some of the Seminole tribes), were relocated to modern-day Oklahoma in the 1830s as part of the Trail of Tears. The tribes that didn't (primarily the the Okahumpka and Miccosukee Seminole tribes) remain today as the only tribes to have never surrendered to the United States).

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* Similar in culture to the North Eastern group, often speaking similar languages to the North Eastern peoples and with some tribes seeing some North Eastern ones distant kin, they also grew the "three sisters." However, they had much bigger emphasis on the sun and fire gods. The tribes of the southeast built many mounds and other structures to worship and honor the sun and other gods, some of which are still honored today. Many of the South Eastern tribes, most notoriously the so-called "Five Civilized Tribes" (Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, and some of the Seminole tribes), were relocated to modern-day Oklahoma in the 1830s as part of the Trail of Tears. The tribes that didn't (primarily the the Okahumpka and Miccosukee Seminole tribes) remain today as the only tribes to have never surrendered to the United States).



[[http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/23/us/native-americans-struggle-with-high-rate-of-rape.html?pagewanted=all this article by the New York Times which details it further.]] They are routinely beaten and murdered by whites, including police.[[note]]The "arrested and then discovered dead in jail cell" scenario is bitterly familiar to Native people.[[/note]] This causes some to be suicidal. Others rehabilitate and have successful lives. Note that the AHF has been cut massively in 2010. The media barely illustrates the current pain and suffering, often showing Native Americans pre-WW2. In shows where modern Native Americans are portrayed, for example as tour guides, their suffering is never delved into. Modern times are horrible. Sadly, this is partly due to a quirk of federal law that yet to be fixed-tribal police legally have no authority over non-native people who come onto the reservation. So natives are fair game for crimes (most native women have been raped by non-native men) since tribal police cannot even arrest them. They can only report this to local authorities who often cannot or will not go after the suspects.

to:

[[http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/23/us/native-americans-struggle-with-high-rate-of-rape.html?pagewanted=all this article by the New York Times which details it further.]] They are routinely beaten and murdered by whites, including police.[[note]]The "arrested and then discovered dead in jail cell" scenario is bitterly familiar to Native people.[[/note]] This causes some to be suicidal. Others rehabilitate and have successful lives. Note that the AHF has been cut massively in 2010. The media barely illustrates the current pain and suffering, often showing Native Americans pre-WW2. In shows where modern Native Americans are portrayed, for example as tour guides, their suffering is never delved into. Modern times are horrible. Sadly, this is partly due to a quirk of federal law that has yet to be fixed-tribal police legally have no authority over non-native people who come onto the reservation. So natives are fair game for crimes (most native women have been raped by non-native men) since tribal police cannot even arrest them. They can only report this to local authorities who often cannot or will not go after the suspects.
3rd Apr '17 10:29:09 AM IdentityUnknown
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Needless to say, it is a very sensitive topic for Anglo-Americans to discuss. Although that said, there are efforts to bridge centuries' worth of mistrust between "native" and "white man."[[note]]"Anglo" is sometimes a preferred term since the problem is not the white race but the dominant American culture.[[/note]] In an interesting side-note, many of the efforts done to alleviate their plight since the 1970s were either inspired by or begun by UsefulNotes/RichardNixon, who not only shut down the Termination policy but also had lands returned back to their original owners, resulting in him being generally regarded with respect among Native Americans.[[note]]It's reached the point that the Paiutes people of Pyramid Lake, Nevada, named their capital in his memory.[[/note]]

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Needless to say, it is a very sensitive topic for Anglo-Americans to discuss. Although that said, there are efforts to bridge centuries' worth of mistrust between "native" and "white man."[[note]]"Anglo" is sometimes a preferred term since the problem is not the white race people but the dominant American culture.[[/note]] In an interesting side-note, many of the efforts done to alleviate their plight since the 1970s were either inspired by or begun by UsefulNotes/RichardNixon, who not only shut down the Termination policy but also had lands returned back to their original owners, resulting in him being generally regarded with respect among Native Americans.[[note]]It's reached the point that the Paiutes people of Pyramid Lake, Nevada, named their capital in his memory.[[/note]]
3rd Apr '17 10:24:50 AM IdentityUnknown
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[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_Americans_in_the_United_States The current Native American population]], according to TheOtherWiki, is 2.9 million, with an additional 2.3 million claiming mixed heritage. This is BTW some four times the estimated pre-Columbian population of North America.

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[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_Americans_in_the_United_States The current Native American population]], according to TheOtherWiki, is 2.9 million, with an additional 2.3 million claiming mixed heritage. This is BTW some four times the estimated pre-Columbian population of North America.
heritage.
19th Feb '17 9:56:15 PM Fireblood
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* Most Native Americans have a strong reaction to alcohol--Aboriginal communities and Aboriginals have some of the highest rates of alcoholism in the world. Views on alcohol are mixed; many see it as essential to a good party but others look upon it as literal poison.

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* Most Native Americans have a strong reaction to alcohol--Aboriginal communities and Aboriginals have some of the highest rates of alcoholism in the world. This stems from the lack of genetic resistance due to less crops in the Americas which could be cultivated (and thus ferment). Views on alcohol are mixed; many see it as essential to a good party but others look upon it as literal poison.



* Many Native Americans live on reservations, plots of land set aside for their use under various treaties. This land is held in trust by the federal government, although it legally belongs to the division of the tribe or "band" it's allotted to. Some tribes consider their reserves their own sovereign territories. Although this is controversial, there is some legal precedent. In the United States, "Indian tribes" (as they are formally known on account of the language in the Constitution) are considered quasi-sovereign in a way similar if not quite identical to that of the states; in the US courts, analyses of "tribal sovereignty" often make analogies to analyses of state sovereignty, with a few key differences. Reserves are generally only subject to federal laws, and not state or provincial ones (despite "officially" being within the territory of the state or province), so they often have different laws than the areas surrounding them. This is why they often have different gambling laws and why they are one of the only places in Canada that you are allowed to [[EverybodySmokes smoke in public places]] unless the band has specifically banned this themselves.[[note]]Unfortunately, they also often have different usury laws--very often, they have ''no'' usury laws, allowing lenders that are officially chartered as organs of a tribe to make loans for outrageous rates of interest. A few less scrupulous tribes have gotten in bed with payday lenders to take advantage of this scheme, taking a cut of the profits in exchange for giving these companies access to their lending laws. This has made a lot of states angry, as most states have statutes against charging excessive interest, and since the financial crisis of 2007-08, which brought consumer debt to the forefront of state concern, many states have gone after the lenders (using whatever legal tools they could find to get around tribal sovereignty and immunity) and complained about the tribes. For their part, a large number of Native activists have also protested against these scheme, as they take advantage of people who, like most Native Americans, are poor and struggling to get by.[[/note]]
* Native Americans tend to live communally and practice an extended family model, which means families are very close and tend to pool resources amongst themselves. Even in urban communities Native Americans tend to have an extended network of family and neighbors to draw from. Boundaries tend to be very fluid in most families and in some cases are a completely foreign concept. The Extended family model means that even that instead of your standard nuclear family Native Americans treat most of their family tree as immediate family. Since most Native tribes have a long history of adoption we also tend to have a few people who are not actually related but are considered family for one reason or another. Basically if you're Native American there's no such thing as too much family.

to:

* Many Native Americans live on reservations, plots of land set aside for their use under various treaties. This land is held in trust by the federal government, although it legally belongs to the division of the tribe or "band" it's allotted to. Some tribes consider their reserves their own sovereign territories. Although this is controversial, there is some legal precedent. In the United States, "Indian tribes" (as they are formally known on account of the language in the Constitution) are considered quasi-sovereign in a way similar if not quite identical to that of the states; in the US courts, analyses of "tribal sovereignty" often make analogies to analyses of state sovereignty, with a few key differences. Reserves are generally only subject to federal laws, and not state or provincial ones (despite "officially" being within the territory of the state or province), so they often have different laws than the areas surrounding them. This is why they often have different gambling laws and why they are one of the only places in Canada that you are allowed to [[EverybodySmokes smoke in public places]] unless the band has specifically banned this themselves.[[note]]Unfortunately, they also often have different usury laws--very often, they have ''no'' usury laws, allowing lenders that are officially chartered as organs of a tribe to make loans for outrageous rates of interest. A few less scrupulous tribes have gotten in bed with payday lenders to take advantage of this scheme, taking a cut of the profits in exchange for giving these companies access to their lending laws. This has made a lot of states angry, as most states have statutes against charging excessive interest, and since the financial crisis of 2007-08, which brought consumer debt to the forefront of state concern, many states have gone after the lenders (using whatever legal tools they could find to get around tribal sovereignty and immunity) and complained about the tribes. For their part, a large number of Native activists have also protested against these scheme, schemes, as they take advantage of people who, like most Native Americans, are poor and struggling to get by.[[/note]]
* Native Americans tend to live communally and practice an extended family model, which means families are very close and tend to pool resources amongst among themselves. Even in urban communities Native Americans tend to have an extended network of family and neighbors to draw from. Boundaries tend to be very fluid in most families and in some cases are a completely foreign concept. The Extended extended family model means that even that instead of your standard nuclear family Native Americans treat most of their family tree as immediate family. Since most Native tribes have a long history of adoption we adoption, they also tend to have a few people who are not actually related but are considered family for one reason or another. Basically if you're Native American there's no such thing as too much family.
19th Feb '17 9:47:45 PM Fireblood
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[[http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/23/us/native-americans-struggle-with-high-rate-of-rape.html?pagewanted=all this article by the New York Times which details it further.]] They are routinely beaten and murdered by whites, including police.[[note]]The "arrested and then discovered dead in jail cell" scenario is bitterly familiar to Native people.[[/note]] This causes some to be suicidal. Others rehabilitate and have successful lives. Note that the AHF has been cut massively in 2010. The media barely illustrates the current pain and suffering, often showing Native Americans pre-WW2. In shows where modern Native Americans are portrayed, for example as tour guides, their suffering is never delved into. Modern times are horrible.

Needless to say, it is a very sensitive topic for Anglo-Americans to discuss. Although that said, there are efforts to bridge centuries' worth of mistrust between "native" and "white man."[[note]]"Anglo" is sometimes a preferred term since the problem is not the white race but the dominant American culture.[[/note]] In an interesting side-note, many of the efforts done to alleviate their plight since the 1970s were either inspired by or begun by UsefulNotes/RichardNixon, who not only shut down the Termination policy but also had lands returned back to their original owners, resulting in him being generally regarded with respect among Native Americans[[note]]It's reached the point that the Paiutes people of Pyramid Lake, Nevada, named their capital in his memory[[/note]].

to:

[[http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/23/us/native-americans-struggle-with-high-rate-of-rape.html?pagewanted=all this article by the New York Times which details it further.]] They are routinely beaten and murdered by whites, including police.[[note]]The "arrested and then discovered dead in jail cell" scenario is bitterly familiar to Native people.[[/note]] This causes some to be suicidal. Others rehabilitate and have successful lives. Note that the AHF has been cut massively in 2010. The media barely illustrates the current pain and suffering, often showing Native Americans pre-WW2. In shows where modern Native Americans are portrayed, for example as tour guides, their suffering is never delved into. Modern times are horrible.

horrible. Sadly, this is partly due to a quirk of federal law that yet to be fixed-tribal police legally have no authority over non-native people who come onto the reservation. So natives are fair game for crimes (most native women have been raped by non-native men) since tribal police cannot even arrest them. They can only report this to local authorities who often cannot or will not go after the suspects.

Needless to say, it is a very sensitive topic for Anglo-Americans to discuss. Although that said, there are efforts to bridge centuries' worth of mistrust between "native" and "white man."[[note]]"Anglo" is sometimes a preferred term since the problem is not the white race but the dominant American culture.[[/note]] In an interesting side-note, many of the efforts done to alleviate their plight since the 1970s were either inspired by or begun by UsefulNotes/RichardNixon, who not only shut down the Termination policy but also had lands returned back to their original owners, resulting in him being generally regarded with respect among Native Americans[[note]]It's Americans.[[note]]It's reached the point that the Paiutes people of Pyramid Lake, Nevada, named their capital in his memory[[/note]].
memory.[[/note]]
19th Feb '17 9:42:20 PM Fireblood
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Native people's cultures can also be romanticized to the point of {{noble savage}} territory. This was true even during colonization, though not to the same extant as plain "savage". It's inaccurate too, of course, and basically goes in the opposite direction. This has become popular in the wake of revisionism regarding colonialism and native history since 1960 as noted above. Even in positive portrayals, however, it can still be not simply inaccurate but also problematic in its own ways. Witness ''Film/DancesWithWolves'', for instance, where although the Dakota Sioux are clearly portrayed as the heroes fighting to keep their land, they are led by a white American. Also, the Pawnee are demonized at the same time. History is more complicated, of course: the Pawnee sided with the US mostly because the Dakota were taking ''their'' land (they had originally moved into the area from the northwest), and they certainly had no whites helping them when fighting the army.



** An alternate theory espoused by some Native scholars is that native people were ''always'' there, originating from somewhere in the Americas. This theory was prompted by concerns that the Bering Land-Bridge theory was yet another attempt by whites to undermine Native claims to their ancestral lands (as in: "Hey, you guys immigrated from Siberia just like we immigrated from Europe, so this isn't really ''your'' land"). This idea is not given very much credence, as it conflicts with the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recent_African_origin_of_modern_humans Recent African Origin]] hypothesis, which is thus far supported by virtually all the credible biological evidence (particularly mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA).

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** An alternate theory espoused by some Native scholars is that native people were ''always'' there, originating from somewhere in the Americas. This theory was prompted by concerns that the Bering Land-Bridge theory was yet another attempt by whites to undermine Native claims to their ancestral lands (as in: "Hey, you guys immigrated from Siberia just like we immigrated from Europe, so this isn't really ''your'' land"). This idea is not given very much credence, as it conflicts with the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recent_African_origin_of_modern_humans Recent African Origin]] hypothesis, which is thus far supported by virtually all the credible biological evidence (particularly mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA). Its also popular due to aligning with native creation myths, to the point that some have said basically "{{science is wrong}}".



* Related to this: The European contact was a disaster for the Native Americans in a manner completely unintended by them. Old World diseases hit the New shortly after contact, and within the span of a century had spread across North and South America. In North America, at least, this plague killed some ''90 percent'' of the population--which is why the continent was relatively easy for Britain and France to colonize and the US and Canada to conquer. Had it not been for a temporary decline in the various civilizations of North America (chief among them the aforementioned Mississippian one) combining with the lethality of the plague, the history of the continent would have been quite different (more English-speaking mestizos, for one thing...).
** One remarkable blind spot that persisted for centuries in the minds of European settlers was how well-suited North America was for colonization. They attributed this to divine providence and/or their own industry. Only very recently have less biased historians done their best to point out that North America made for great colonies because the land had already been cultivated for centuries by the suddenly plague-stricken Native Americans.

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* Related to this: The the European contact was a disaster for the Native Americans in a manner completely unintended by them. Old World diseases hit the New shortly after contact, and within the span of a century had spread across North and South America. In North America, at least, this plague killed some ''90 percent'' of the population--which is why the continent was relatively easy for Britain and France to colonize and the US and Canada to conquer. Had it not been for a temporary decline in the various civilizations of North America (chief among them the aforementioned Mississippian one) combining with the lethality of the plague, the history of the continent would have been quite different (more English-speaking mestizos, for one thing...).
** One remarkable blind spot that persisted for centuries in the minds of European settlers was how well-suited North America was for colonization. They attributed this to divine providence and/or their own industry. Only very recently have less biased historians done their best to point out that North America made for great colonies because the land had already been cultivated for centuries by the suddenly plague-stricken Native Americans. In some cases, the Europeans had been able to simply move into existing villages whose inhabitants were wiped out by disease they unwittingly spread among them. Indeed, native cultivation of the land was so widespread many features which we think of as being simply the landscape were created by wilderness growing back in ''after'' populations were wiped out (such as large parts of the Amazon rainforest and forests in North America).



* Plains Wars (roughly 1850 to 1890) - The most famous era in the minds of most non-Indian Americans. If a Native American is portrayed in any media, chances are they'll be based off of some Plains culture. As more and more people poured into the land west of the Mississippi River, the federal government began pressuring and (often) forcing tribes to give up their lands and move onto reservations, especially if the tribes lived on lands with lots of gold or oil or any other resource. Since this was during the era of photography, telegraphs and telephones, and better record keeping, there is a lot more information about the tribes and wars of this time than during all of the aforementioned eras. Also, because this was the last era of Indian Wars, this one has stuck the most in America's cultural conscience. [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Little_Bighorn The Battle of Little Bighorn]], where Sioux warriors pretty much whooped the ass of George Armstrong Custer and his forces, is especially legendary. There are [[LoadsAndLoadsOfCharacters too many famous figures]] to name, but some of the most noteworthy include Manuelito, Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, Chief Joseph, and Geronimo.
* 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre: In the late 1800s, the Plains tribes were getting [[DespairEventHorizon increasingly demoralized]] by the near-extinction of the buffalo, the subsequent starvation of their people, the grim quality of life on reservations, and the continued loss of their land to the US. Out of this atmosphere of desperation sprang the Ghost Dance: a messianic religious movement that espoused a return to traditional values and promised that soon the buffalo would return, the people's ancestors would [[BackFromTheDead rise from the dead]], and the whites would disappear from the land. White settlers grew increasingly nervous about the pan-tribal nature of the Ghost Dance and misinterpreted the "whites disappearing" part to mean "we're going to kill you all," and US officials tried arresting some of the chiefs associated with the movement. This tension finally boiled over in the winter of 1890, when 350 Lakota, mostly women and children, many sick and starving, gathered under a flag of truce at Wounded Knee. Their camp was surrounded by the 7th Cavalry, numbering 500, who ordered the Lakota to surrender their weapons. A [[PoorCommunicationKills miscommunication]] led both sides to start firing, and by the end, 150 Lakota and 25 US soldiers were dead (though it's believed that many of the latter deaths were from friendly fire).
* 1887 Dawes Act: aka the General Allotment Act. Most native cultures traditionally owned land in a communal fashion; the Dawes Act divided up native land-holdings into small chunks which were allotted to individual members of each tribe[[note]] 160-40 acres per person[[/note]]. The goals behind this act were: a) to undermine tribal leadership and break up native communal ties in a divide-and-conquer fashion and b) to assimilate native people into a more Western style of land ownership and encourage them to become Western-style yeomen farmers and ranchers. The fine print of the Dawes Act meant that these allotments could be sold off to non-Indians incredibly easily, usually helped along by trickery, fraud, or marrying out[[note]] If a native woman married a white man, he'd end up owning her allotment[[/note]]. Consequently, the remaining native land-holdings plummeted by 75% roughly a 90-million-acre loss.

to:

* Plains Wars (roughly 1850 to 1890) - The most famous era in the minds of most non-Indian non-Native Americans. If a Native American is portrayed in any media, chances are they'll be based off of some Plains culture. As more and more people poured into the land west of the Mississippi River, the federal government began pressuring and (often) forcing tribes to give up their lands and move onto reservations, especially if the tribes lived on lands with lots of gold or oil or any other resource. Since this was during the era of photography, telegraphs and telephones, and better record keeping, there is a lot more information about the tribes and wars of this time than during all of the aforementioned eras. Also, because this was the last era of Indian Wars, this one has stuck the most in America's cultural conscience. [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Little_Bighorn The Battle of Little Bighorn]], where Sioux warriors pretty much whooped the ass of George Armstrong Custer and his forces, is especially legendary. There are [[LoadsAndLoadsOfCharacters too many famous figures]] to name, but some of the most noteworthy include Manuelito, Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, Chief Joseph, and Geronimo.
* 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre: In the late 1800s, the Plains tribes were getting [[DespairEventHorizon increasingly demoralized]] by the near-extinction of the buffalo, the subsequent starvation of their people, the grim quality of life on reservations, and the continued loss of their land to the US. Out of this atmosphere of desperation sprang the Ghost Dance: a messianic religious movement that espoused a return to traditional values and promised that soon the buffalo would return, the people's ancestors would [[BackFromTheDead rise from the dead]], and the whites would disappear from the land. White settlers grew increasingly nervous about the pan-tribal nature of the Ghost Dance and misinterpreted the "whites disappearing" part to mean "we're going to kill you all," and US officials tried arresting some of the chiefs associated with the movement. This tension finally boiled over in the winter of 1890, when 350 Lakota, mostly women and children, many sick and starving, gathered under a flag of truce at Wounded Knee. Their camp was surrounded by the 7th Cavalry, numbering 500, who ordered the Lakota to surrender their weapons. A [[PoorCommunicationKills miscommunication]] led both sides to start firing, and by the end, 150 Lakota and 25 US soldiers were dead (though it's believed that many of the latter deaths were from friendly fire).
* 1887 Dawes Act: aka the General Allotment Act. Most native cultures traditionally owned land in a communal fashion; the Dawes Act divided up native land-holdings into small chunks which were allotted to individual members of each tribe[[note]] 160-40 tribe.[[note]]160-40 acres per person[[/note]]. person.[[/note]] The goals behind this act were: a) to undermine tribal leadership and break up native communal ties in a divide-and-conquer fashion and b) to assimilate native people into a more Western style of land ownership and encourage them to become Western-style yeomen farmers and ranchers. The fine print of the Dawes Act meant that these allotments could be sold off to non-Indians incredibly easily, usually helped along by trickery, fraud, or marrying out[[note]] If out.[[note]]If a native Native woman married a white man, he'd end up owning her allotment[[/note]]. allotment[[/note]] Consequently, the remaining native land-holdings plummeted by 75% roughly a 90-million-acre loss.



*** We should note that both Canada and Australia thought this system was a wonderful idea and applied it to the First Nations and the Indigenous Australians, respectively.
* 1924 This year, all Native Americans living in US borders were given citizenship status. Several tribes had already been granted citizenship, but the remaining tribes had not until this date. Surprisingly to modern ears, many of those non-citizen tribes actually ''opposed'' this policy, arguing it was an attempt to force them to join United States culture.

to:

*** We should note that both Canada and Australia thought this system was a wonderful idea and applied it to the First Nations and the Indigenous Aboriginal Australians, respectively.
* 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre: In the late 1800s, the Plains tribes were getting [[DespairEventHorizon increasingly demoralized]] by the near-extinction of the buffalo, the subsequent starvation of their people, the grim quality of life on reservations, and the continued loss of their land to the US. Out of this atmosphere of desperation sprang the Ghost Dance: a messianic religious movement that espoused a return to traditional values and promised that soon the buffalo would return, the people's ancestors would [[BackFromTheDead rise from the dead]], and the whites would disappear from the land. White settlers grew increasingly nervous about the pan-tribal nature of the Ghost Dance and misinterpreted the "whites disappearing" part to mean "we're going to kill you all," and US officials tried arresting some of the chiefs associated with the movement, leading to the killing of Crazy Horse. This tension finally boiled over in the winter of 1890, when 350 Lakota, mostly women and children, many sick and starving, gathered under a flag of truce at Wounded Knee. Their camp was surrounded by the 7th Cavalry, numbering 500, who ordered the Lakota to surrender their weapons. A [[PoorCommunicationKills miscommunication]] led both sides to start firing, and by the end, 150 Lakota and 25 US soldiers were dead (though it's believed that many of the latter deaths were from friendly fire).
* 1924 This year, all Native Americans living in US borders were given citizenship status. Several tribes had already been granted citizenship, but the remaining tribes had not until this date. Surprisingly to modern ears, many of those non-citizen tribes actually ''opposed'' this policy, arguing it was an attempt to force them to join United States US culture.



** To aid the termination process, the gov't also tried to encourage those living on reservations to move to the cities, usually offering jobs or education to entice them. This urban migration met with mixed reviews: some people liked it while others felt alienated by it, and as a termination policy, it was largely unsuccessful since most of the people participating would just move back home to the reservation once their job or schooling was finished. However the urban migration did have one unforseen positive effect: the formation of a collective "Native American" identity. Previously most native people identified solely with their specific tribe, but when members of many different tribes were thrown together in the cities, they found more in common with each other than with their non-native city neighbors and started to think of themselves as belonging to a larger pan-tribal group. This paved the way for the rise of pan-tribal civil rights activism in later decades.
* 1973 Wounded Knee II: Amongst the many civil rights groups that sprang up in the [[TheSixties sixties]] and [[TheSeventies seventies]] was AIM, the American Indian Movement. Founded in 1968, AIM led and participated in numerous acts of protest, the most famous of which was Wounded Knee II. On February 27, 1973, a group of AIM members and Oglala Lakota supporters (led by, among others, Russell Means whom you might know as the voice of [[{{Disney/Pocahontas}} Pocahontas's]] dad) seized control of the town of Wounded Knee (chosen for its obvious historical and symbolic value) and held it for 71 days. This was done to protest the failed impeachment of corrupt Oglala tribal president [[CorruptPolitician Dick Wilson]] and more generally the US government's long history of broken treaties. After numerous shoot-outs between the protesters and the FBI/US Marshals/law enforcement, the affair ended with AIM relinquishing control of the town to the US gov't. However, the protest drew considerable media attention, spotlighted the plight of modern-day Native Americans, inspired many native people and non-native allies across the country to travel to Wounded Knee and join the protest, and overall marked the start of a period of slight improvement for Native American people.

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** To aid the termination process, the gov't also tried to encourage those living on reservations to move to the cities, usually offering jobs or education to entice them. This urban migration met with mixed reviews: some people liked it while others felt alienated by it, and as a termination policy, policy it was largely unsuccessful since most of the people participating would just move back home to the reservation once their job or schooling was finished. However the urban migration did have one unforseen unforeseen positive effect: the formation of a collective "Native American" identity. Previously most native people identified solely with their specific tribe, but when members of many different tribes were thrown together in the cities, they found more in common with each other than with their non-native city neighbors and started to think of themselves as belonging to a larger pan-tribal group. This paved the way for the rise of pan-tribal civil rights activism in later decades.
* 1973 Wounded Knee II: Amongst Among the many civil rights groups that sprang up in the [[TheSixties sixties]] and [[TheSeventies seventies]] was AIM, the American Indian Movement. Founded in 1968, AIM led and participated in numerous acts of protest, the most famous of which was Wounded Knee II. On February 27, 1973, a group of AIM members and Oglala Lakota supporters (led by, among others, Russell Means Creator/RussellMeans whom you might know as the voice of [[{{Disney/Pocahontas}} Pocahontas's]] dad) dad and Chingachgook in ''Film/TheLastOfTheMohicans'') seized control of the town of Wounded Knee (chosen for its obvious historical and symbolic value) and held it for 71 days. This was done to protest the failed impeachment of corrupt Oglala tribal president [[CorruptPolitician Dick Wilson]] and more generally the US government's long history of broken treaties. After numerous shoot-outs between the protesters and the FBI/US Marshals/law enforcement, the affair ended with AIM relinquishing control of the town to the US gov't. However, the protest drew considerable media attention, spotlighted the plight of modern-day Native Americans, inspired many native people and non-native allies across the country to travel to Wounded Knee and join the protest, and overall marked the start of a period of slight improvement for Native American people.
12th Nov '16 4:09:23 PM nombretomado
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* Many within the Aboriginal community feel that there is a cultural component necessary to be considered truly Aboriginal, begging again the question of what Native American culture truly is. Not to mention the fact a cultural definition tends to lend itself to people who adopt Native American spirituality and attempt to [[GoingNative Go Native]] which most Native Americans find dubious at best. Reactions to JohnnyDepp (part Cherokee, recently adopted by the Comanche) exemplify the many varying attitudes towards this issue: to many, he fits a decent definition of a cultural Native American. To others, he's a fraud cashing in on the image of the MagicalNativeAmerican. Some extremely conservative Plains traditionals refer to full-blooded Indians who share sacred traditions with non-Indians as "fraud", "twinkie" and "apple". Most Native Americans have their own definition and most don't agree.

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* Many within the Aboriginal community feel that there is a cultural component necessary to be considered truly Aboriginal, begging again the question of what Native American culture truly is. Not to mention the fact a cultural definition tends to lend itself to people who adopt Native American spirituality and attempt to [[GoingNative Go Native]] which most Native Americans find dubious at best. Reactions to JohnnyDepp Creator/JohnnyDepp (part Cherokee, recently adopted by the Comanche) exemplify the many varying attitudes towards this issue: to many, he fits a decent definition of a cultural Native American. To others, he's a fraud cashing in on the image of the MagicalNativeAmerican. Some extremely conservative Plains traditionals refer to full-blooded Indians who share sacred traditions with non-Indians as "fraud", "twinkie" and "apple". Most Native Americans have their own definition and most don't agree.
24th Oct '16 11:38:16 AM roxana
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[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_Americans_in_the_United_States The current Native American population]], according to TheOtherWiki, is 2.9 million, with an additional 2.3 million claiming mixed heritage.

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[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_Americans_in_the_United_States The current Native American population]], according to TheOtherWiki, is 2.9 million, with an additional 2.3 million claiming mixed heritage.
heritage. This is BTW some four times the estimated pre-Columbian population of North America.
5th Jul '16 5:05:52 PM nombretomado
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* Revolution-1820s Many Native American tribes west of the Appalachians fought on the side of the British during the UsefulNotes/AmericanRevolution and the UsefulNotes/WarOf1812, believing that the British would try to protect their ancestral lands. They were led by Joseph Brant during the Revolutionary War and Tecumseh during the War of 1812. While good leaders in their own right, they never really stood a chance of actually stopping the flow of settlers coming from the coast. There were other notable conflicts, with Little Turtle's War (1785-1795) in Ohio being the most famous. Two future Presidents, AndrewJackson and WilliamHenryHarrison, became national figures thanks to their battles with frontier tribes.

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* Revolution-1820s Many Native American tribes west of the Appalachians fought on the side of the British during the UsefulNotes/AmericanRevolution and the UsefulNotes/WarOf1812, believing that the British would try to protect their ancestral lands. They were led by Joseph Brant during the Revolutionary War and Tecumseh during the War of 1812. While good leaders in their own right, they never really stood a chance of actually stopping the flow of settlers coming from the coast. There were other notable conflicts, with Little Turtle's War (1785-1795) in Ohio being the most famous. Two future Presidents, AndrewJackson UsefulNotes/AndrewJackson and WilliamHenryHarrison, UsefulNotes/WilliamHenryHarrison, became national figures thanks to their battles with frontier tribes.



* 1830 Indian Removal Act: The discovery of [[GoldFever gold]] in Georgia in 1820 caused more white settlers to pour into the state, putting increased pressure on the US government to somehow get rid of the Native Americans living on the gold-rich land. President AndrewJackson (who got elected in part because he supported Indian Removal) signed the Indian Removal Act--over the Supreme Court's objection (Jackson is said to have said, "John Marshall has issued his decision; now let him enforce it!"). The Act forced the entire Cherokee nation to relocate to Oklahoma, which US citizens of the time basically viewed as [[ReassignedToAntarctica no-man's-land]]. Since the Cherokees were forced to move there in winter, and most of them [[WalkingTheEarth on foot]], about 25% of them died along the way, leading their ordeal to become known as the Trail of Tears. Additionally, this era saw the last of the major Indian Wars east of the Mississippi River; the Black Hawk War (1832) in Illinois (fun fact, [[UsefulNotes/AbrahamLincoln two]] [[UsefulNotes/JeffersonDavis participants]] in this war would be the future leaders of the two sides of UsefulNotes/TheAmericanCivilWar) and the Second Seminole War (1835-1842) in Florida.

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* 1830 Indian Removal Act: The discovery of [[GoldFever gold]] in Georgia in 1820 caused more white settlers to pour into the state, putting increased pressure on the US government to somehow get rid of the Native Americans living on the gold-rich land. President AndrewJackson UsefulNotes/AndrewJackson (who got elected in part because he supported Indian Removal) signed the Indian Removal Act--over the Supreme Court's objection (Jackson is said to have said, "John Marshall has issued his decision; now let him enforce it!"). The Act forced the entire Cherokee nation to relocate to Oklahoma, which US citizens of the time basically viewed as [[ReassignedToAntarctica no-man's-land]]. Since the Cherokees were forced to move there in winter, and most of them [[WalkingTheEarth on foot]], about 25% of them died along the way, leading their ordeal to become known as the Trail of Tears. Additionally, this era saw the last of the major Indian Wars east of the Mississippi River; the Black Hawk War (1832) in Illinois (fun fact, [[UsefulNotes/AbrahamLincoln two]] [[UsefulNotes/JeffersonDavis participants]] in this war would be the future leaders of the two sides of UsefulNotes/TheAmericanCivilWar) and the Second Seminole War (1835-1842) in Florida.
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http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=UsefulNotes.NativeAmericans