History UsefulNotes / NationalReorganizationProcess

16th Aug '16 5:37:50 AM GrigorII
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It is important to make point of the infamous "Theory of the two demons" rethoric. It is widely accepted that the great majority of the political prisioners and Argentinians murdered and "dissapeared" were not part of the guerrilla. It was even reported by the Junta itself in 1977, many years and a war before it stepped down to allow for demoracy again, that the war "had been won" against the "subversive". After all, the guerrilla groups had been pretty much been terminated during the tumultous previous democratic years, by the Triple A (Alianza Anticomunista Argentina), a right wing military group supported by the high government that was a precursor of the dissapearence, torture, and exterminion that became commonplace and generalizated a year later. Still, it has been wholly maintained by the military personnel put into trial after the dictatorship as their main defence, and by a very vocal right-wing minority (and by some twisted and dark democratic presidents, like current Mauricio Macri), that it was a fair war between two armed groups, instead of a burocratic and sistematic illegal represive state versus the remaining of a pretty much decimated armed group. In reality, the PRN was more about the killing of left wing ideas (that's why most of the "dissapeared" are 18-30 working class people) and the reinstallement of liberal economy beneficiary to extern interest (seen in the rise of international debt as never had and has been seen in the country's history) by the way of Minister of Economy Martínez de Hoz. There is way more information on the wikipedia's respective articles about the "Theory of the two demons" [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_the_two_demons]] and the Minister's [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/José_Alfredo_Martínez_de_Hoz]].

to:

It is important to make point of the infamous "Theory of the two demons" rethoric. It is widely accepted that the great majority of the political prisioners and Argentinians murdered and "dissapeared" were not part of the guerrilla. It was even reported by the Junta itself in 1977, many years and a war before it stepped down to allow for demoracy again, that the war "had been won" against the "subversive". After all, the guerrilla groups had been pretty much been terminated during the tumultous previous democratic years, by the Triple A (Alianza Anticomunista Argentina), a right wing military group supported by the high government that was a precursor of the dissapearence, torture, and exterminion that became commonplace and generalizated a year later. Still, it has been wholly maintained by the military personnel put into trial after the dictatorship as their main defence, and by a very vocal right-wing minority (and by some twisted and dark democratic presidents, like current Mauricio Macri), minority, that it was a fair war between two armed groups, instead of a burocratic and sistematic illegal represive state versus the remaining of a pretty much decimated armed group. In reality, the PRN was more about the killing of left wing ideas (that's why most of the "dissapeared" are 18-30 working class people) and the reinstallement of liberal economy beneficiary to extern interest (seen in the rise of international debt as never had and has been seen in the country's history) by the way of Minister of Economy Martínez de Hoz. There is way more information on the wikipedia's respective articles about the "Theory of the two demons" [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_the_two_demons]] and the Minister's [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/José_Alfredo_Martínez_de_Hoz]].
15th Aug '16 12:25:22 PM baseballfuries08
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It is important to make point of the infamous "Theory of the two demons" rethoric. It is widely accepted that the great majority of the political prisioners and Argentinians murdered and "dissapeared" were not part of the guerrilla. It was even reported by the Junta itself in 1977, many years and a war before it stepped down to allow for demoracy again, that the war "had been won" against the "subversive". After all, the guerrilla groups had been pretty much been terminated during the tumultous previous democratic years, by the Triple A (Alianza Anticomunista Argentina), a right wing military group supported by the high government that was a precursor of the dissapearence, torture, and exterminion that became commonplace and generalizated a year later. Still, it has been wholly maintained by the military personnel put into trial after the dictatorship as their main defence, and by a very vocal right-wing minority (and by some twisted and dark democratic presidents, like current Mauricio Macri), that it was a fair war between two armed groups, instead of a burocratic and sistematic illegal represive state versus the remaining of a pretty much decimated armed group. In reality, the PRN was more about the killing of left wing ideas (that's why most of the "dissapeared" are 18-30 working class people) and the reinstallement of liberal economy beneficiary to extern interest (seen in the rise of international debt as never had and has been seen in the country's history).


Added DiffLines:

It is important to make point of the infamous "Theory of the two demons" rethoric. It is widely accepted that the great majority of the political prisioners and Argentinians murdered and "dissapeared" were not part of the guerrilla. It was even reported by the Junta itself in 1977, many years and a war before it stepped down to allow for demoracy again, that the war "had been won" against the "subversive". After all, the guerrilla groups had been pretty much been terminated during the tumultous previous democratic years, by the Triple A (Alianza Anticomunista Argentina), a right wing military group supported by the high government that was a precursor of the dissapearence, torture, and exterminion that became commonplace and generalizated a year later. Still, it has been wholly maintained by the military personnel put into trial after the dictatorship as their main defence, and by a very vocal right-wing minority (and by some twisted and dark democratic presidents, like current Mauricio Macri), that it was a fair war between two armed groups, instead of a burocratic and sistematic illegal represive state versus the remaining of a pretty much decimated armed group. In reality, the PRN was more about the killing of left wing ideas (that's why most of the "dissapeared" are 18-30 working class people) and the reinstallement of liberal economy beneficiary to extern interest (seen in the rise of international debt as never had and has been seen in the country's history) by the way of Minister of Economy Martínez de Hoz. There is way more information on the wikipedia's respective articles about the "Theory of the two demons" [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_the_two_demons]] and the Minister's [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/José_Alfredo_Martínez_de_Hoz]].
15th Aug '16 12:19:03 PM baseballfuries08
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Added DiffLines:

It is important to make point of the infamous "Theory of the two demons" rethoric. It is widely accepted that the great majority of the political prisioners and Argentinians murdered and "dissapeared" were not part of the guerrilla. It was even reported by the Junta itself in 1977, many years and a war before it stepped down to allow for demoracy again, that the war "had been won" against the "subversive". After all, the guerrilla groups had been pretty much been terminated during the tumultous previous democratic years, by the Triple A (Alianza Anticomunista Argentina), a right wing military group supported by the high government that was a precursor of the dissapearence, torture, and exterminion that became commonplace and generalizated a year later. Still, it has been wholly maintained by the military personnel put into trial after the dictatorship as their main defence, and by a very vocal right-wing minority (and by some twisted and dark democratic presidents, like current Mauricio Macri), that it was a fair war between two armed groups, instead of a burocratic and sistematic illegal represive state versus the remaining of a pretty much decimated armed group. In reality, the PRN was more about the killing of left wing ideas (that's why most of the "dissapeared" are 18-30 working class people) and the reinstallement of liberal economy beneficiary to extern interest (seen in the rise of international debt as never had and has been seen in the country's history).
13th Apr '16 4:31:34 AM compro01
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Videla had once said that “As many people as necessary must die in Argentina so that the country will again be secure.” From 1976 to 1983, somewhere between 9000 and 30 000 Argentines were arrested without trial, confined in secret prisons, gruesomely tortured, raped, and eventually, executed and buried in unmarked graves. Others were hurled, drugged and insensate, into the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans from low flying airplanes and helicopters, their bodies never to be discovered. Still thousands more were subjected to lengthy prison terms and/or torture, before being released into the world, broken by the experience. To add a macabre twist, the juntas also kidnapped the children of leftists and sold them to rich Argentine families, enriching themselves in the process[[/note]] wich was only one of the ways of making profit. Tipically, a raided household would be stripped of everything of value (the house itself included)[[note]]. Unwilling to limit their actions to their own country, the juntas made their intelligence service an integral part of the Pan-South American ''Operation: Condor'', collaborating with UsefulNotes/AugustoPinochet’s Chile, Alfredo Stroessner’s Paraguay, and the military juntas of Bolivia, Peru, Uruguay, and Brazil to terrorize, repress, and assassinate leftists across the continent. The eventual death toll reached somewhere around 60 000 making ''Operation: Condor'' the worst politicide in the history of modern South America.

to:

Videla had once said that “As many people as necessary must die in Argentina so that the country will again be secure.” From 1976 to 1983, somewhere between 9000 and 30 000 Argentines were arrested without trial, confined in secret prisons, gruesomely tortured, raped, and eventually, executed and buried in unmarked graves. Others were hurled, drugged and insensate, into the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans from low flying airplanes and helicopters, their bodies never to be discovered. Still thousands more were subjected to lengthy prison terms and/or torture, before being released into the world, broken by the experience. To add a macabre twist, the juntas also kidnapped the children of leftists and sold them to rich Argentine families, enriching themselves in the process[[/note]] process[[note]] wich was only one of the ways of making profit. Tipically, a raided household would be stripped of everything of value (the house itself included)[[note]].included)[[/note]]. Unwilling to limit their actions to their own country, the juntas made their intelligence service an integral part of the Pan-South American ''Operation: Condor'', collaborating with UsefulNotes/AugustoPinochet’s Chile, Alfredo Stroessner’s Paraguay, and the military juntas of Bolivia, Peru, Uruguay, and Brazil to terrorize, repress, and assassinate leftists across the continent. The eventual death toll reached somewhere around 60 000 making ''Operation: Condor'' the worst politicide in the history of modern South America.
6th Apr '16 7:00:58 AM janosrock
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The National Reorganisation Process, known in Spanish as ''Proceso de Reorganización Nacional'' or ''El Proceso'' (The Process), was the name given to a series of military juntas who controlled Argentina from March 24, 1976 until December 10, 1983. Generally regarded as one of the darkest eras—if not the darkest era—in Argentine history, The Process saw the suppression of civil rights, the integration of the military into every facet of Argentine life, and the "disappearance" of thousands of Argentines as the military tried to cleanse of the country of leftist political dissenters [[/note]]and by "dissenters" means anyone vaguely smelling of potential opposition, up to and including school age children[[note]].

to:

The National Reorganisation Process, known in Spanish as ''Proceso de Reorganización Nacional'' or ''El Proceso'' (The Process), was the name given to a series of military juntas who controlled Argentina from March 24, 1976 until December 10, 1983. Generally regarded as one of the darkest eras—if not the darkest era—in Argentine history, The Process saw the suppression of civil rights, the integration of the military into every facet of Argentine life, and the "disappearance" of thousands of Argentines as the military tried to cleanse of the country of leftist political dissenters [[/note]]and [[note]]and by "dissenters" means anyone vaguely smelling of potential opposition, up to and including school age children[[note]].
children[[/note]].
6th Apr '16 7:00:06 AM janosrock
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The National Reorganisation Process, known in Spanish as ''Proceso de Reorganización Nacional'' or ''El Proceso'' (The Process), was the name given to a series of military juntas who controlled Argentina from March 24, 1976 until December 10, 1983. Generally regarded as one of the darkest eras—if not the darkest era—in Argentine history, The Process saw the suppression of civil rights, the integration of the military into every facet of Argentine life, and the "disappearance" of thousands of Argentines as the military tried to cleanse of the country of leftist political dissenters[[/note]]and by "dissenters" means anyone vaguely smelling of potential opposition, up to and including school age children[[note]].

to:

The National Reorganisation Process, known in Spanish as ''Proceso de Reorganización Nacional'' or ''El Proceso'' (The Process), was the name given to a series of military juntas who controlled Argentina from March 24, 1976 until December 10, 1983. Generally regarded as one of the darkest eras—if not the darkest era—in Argentine history, The Process saw the suppression of civil rights, the integration of the military into every facet of Argentine life, and the "disappearance" of thousands of Argentines as the military tried to cleanse of the country of leftist political dissenters[[/note]]and dissenters [[/note]]and by "dissenters" means anyone vaguely smelling of potential opposition, up to and including school age children[[note]].
6th Apr '16 6:59:10 AM janosrock
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The National Reorganisation Process, known in Spanish as ''Proceso de Reorganización Nacional'' or ''El Proceso'' (The Process), was the name given to a series of military juntas who controlled Argentina from March 24, 1976 until December 10, 1983. Generally regarded as one of the darkest eras—if not the darkest era—in Argentine history, The Process saw the suppression of civil rights, the integration of the military into every facet of Argentine life, and the "disappearance" of thousands of Argentines as the military tried to cleanse of the country of leftist political dissenters.

to:

The National Reorganisation Process, known in Spanish as ''Proceso de Reorganización Nacional'' or ''El Proceso'' (The Process), was the name given to a series of military juntas who controlled Argentina from March 24, 1976 until December 10, 1983. Generally regarded as one of the darkest eras—if not the darkest era—in Argentine history, The Process saw the suppression of civil rights, the integration of the military into every facet of Argentine life, and the "disappearance" of thousands of Argentines as the military tried to cleanse of the country of leftist political dissenters.
dissenters[[/note]]and by "dissenters" means anyone vaguely smelling of potential opposition, up to and including school age children[[note]].



Videla had once said that “As many people as necessary must die in Argentina so that the country will again be secure.” From 1976 to 1983, somewhere between 9000 and 30 000 Argentines were arrested without trial, confined in secret prisons, gruesomely tortured, and eventually, executed and buried in unmarked graves. Others were hurled, drugged and insensate, into the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans from low flying airplanes and helicopters, their bodies never to be discovered. Still thousands more were subjected to lengthy prison terms and/or torture, before being released into the world, broken by the experience. To add a macabre twist, the juntas also kidnapped the children of leftists and sold them to rich Argentine families, enriching themselves in the process. Unwilling to limit their actions to their own country, the juntas made their intelligence service an integral part of the Pan-South American ''Operation: Condor'', collaborating with UsefulNotes/AugustoPinochet’s Chile, Alfredo Stroessner’s Paraguay, and the military juntas of Bolivia, Peru, Uruguay, and Brazil to terrorize, repress, and assassinate leftists across the continent. The eventual death toll reached somewhere around 60 000 making ''Operation: Condor'' the worst politicide in the history of modern South America.

Despite all of this, The Process might well have remained in power, had the third junta not declared war on Britain. Having lost [[UsefulNotes/TheFalklandsWar The Falklands Islands War]], The Process collapsed. The new government under Raoul Alfonsin (a human rights attorney) prosecuted the leaders of the first three juntas under military tribunals, and turned numerous other perpetrators over to civilian courts, before the threat of another revolt forced him to back down. The 1990s saw all of those involved pardoned by President Carlos Menem, and an attempt was made to forget the entire affair, only for [[TheAtoner Captain Adolfo Scilingo]]’s public admission of guilt for his part in the death flights to start a whole new round of confessions, exhumations, arrests, and trials, as perpetrators and victims alike began speaking out in the 2000s. The Supreme Court struck down Menem's pardon as unconstitutional, and many of those involved were rearrested; Videla and Massera would both spend the rest of their lives in custody. The resulting media frenzy effectively re-traumatized Argentine society, and ensured that the legacy of The Process will never fully go away.

to:

Videla had once said that “As many people as necessary must die in Argentina so that the country will again be secure.” From 1976 to 1983, somewhere between 9000 and 30 000 Argentines were arrested without trial, confined in secret prisons, gruesomely tortured, raped, and eventually, executed and buried in unmarked graves. Others were hurled, drugged and insensate, into the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans from low flying airplanes and helicopters, their bodies never to be discovered. Still thousands more were subjected to lengthy prison terms and/or torture, before being released into the world, broken by the experience. To add a macabre twist, the juntas also kidnapped the children of leftists and sold them to rich Argentine families, enriching themselves in the process.process[[/note]] wich was only one of the ways of making profit. Tipically, a raided household would be stripped of everything of value (the house itself included)[[note]]. Unwilling to limit their actions to their own country, the juntas made their intelligence service an integral part of the Pan-South American ''Operation: Condor'', collaborating with UsefulNotes/AugustoPinochet’s Chile, Alfredo Stroessner’s Paraguay, and the military juntas of Bolivia, Peru, Uruguay, and Brazil to terrorize, repress, and assassinate leftists across the continent. The eventual death toll reached somewhere around 60 000 making ''Operation: Condor'' the worst politicide in the history of modern South America.

Despite all of this, and even with a considerable drop in popularity during the later years, The Process might well have remained in power, had the third junta not declared war on Britain. Having lost [[UsefulNotes/TheFalklandsWar The Falklands Islands War]], The Process collapsed. The new government under Raoul Alfonsin (a human rights attorney) prosecuted the leaders of the first three juntas under military tribunals, and turned numerous other perpetrators over to civilian courts, before the threat of another revolt forced him to back down. The 1990s saw all of those involved pardoned by President Carlos Menem, and an attempt was made to forget the entire affair, only for [[TheAtoner Captain Adolfo Scilingo]]’s public admission of guilt for his part in the death flights to start a whole new round of confessions, exhumations, arrests, and trials, as perpetrators and victims alike began speaking out in the 2000s. The Supreme Court struck down Menem's pardon as unconstitutional, and many of those involved were rearrested; Videla and Massera would both spend the rest of their lives in custody. The resulting media frenzy effectively re-traumatized Argentine society, and ensured that the legacy of The Process will never fully go away.



* The film ''Night of the Pencils'' follows the famous story of how seven left-leaning students were suddenly abducted, blindfolded and tortured by the dictatorship. Only one of the seven survived to tell the tale.

to:

* The film ''Night ''La Noche de los Lapices'' (Night of the Pencils'' Pencils) follows the famous story of how seven left-leaning students were suddenly abducted, blindfolded blindfolded, tortured, raped, and tortured ultimately, executed by the dictatorship. Only one of the seven survived to tell the tale.



* ''Olympic Garage'' is the story of a dissident journalist captured and tortured at the titular location, one of the juntas most well-known torture chambers.

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* ''Olympic Garage'' ''Garage Olimpo'' is the story of a dissident journalist captured and tortured at the titular location, one of the juntas most well-known torture chambers.
28th Mar '16 10:58:24 AM AmbarSonofDeshar
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[[caption-width-right:300:The First Junta: [[InsaneAdmiral Admiral Emilio Massera]], [[GeneralRipper Lieutenant-General Jorge Videla]], [[TheQuietOne Brigadier-General Orlando Agosti]]]]

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[[caption-width-right:300:The First Junta: [[InsaneAdmiral Admiral Emilio Massera]], [[GeneralRipper Lieutenant-General Jorge Videla]], [[TheQuietOne [[DeathFromAbove Brigadier-General Orlando Agosti]]]]



Argentina had a long history of military coups d'état prior to The Process. Upon the death of Juan Peron in 1974, and the failure of his wife, vice-president, and designated successor, Isabel Peron to maintain domestic stability, the [[MilitaryCoup military stepped in]], as it had done many times before. The country was wracked at the time with left-wing terrorism, mostly perpetrated by a guerrilla movement known as the [[DirtyCommunists Montoneros]], who sought to turn the country into a Communist state. The Montoneros had made a name for themselves blowing up businessmen, government officials, and military officers; now, the military had decided, it was time to put an end to this. With backing from the United States of America, and conservative Argentines, the first junta, made up of Army Commander-in-Chief, Lieutenant-General [[GeneralRipper Jorge Rafael Videla]], Navy Chief Admiral [[InsaneAdmiral Emilio Massera]], and Air Force Chief Brigadier-General [[TheQuietOne Orlando Agosti]], removed Isabel Peron from power, and installed themselves as Argentina’s new rulers. Over the next seven years, three more juntas would dance in Videla, Massera, and Agosti’s shoes. All would play a role in ensuring that The Process would go down as perhaps the worst perpetrator of state terror in South American history.

to:

Argentina had a long history of military coups d'état prior to The Process. Upon the death of Juan Peron in 1974, and the failure of his wife, vice-president, and designated successor, Isabel Peron to maintain domestic stability, the [[MilitaryCoup military stepped in]], as it had done many times before. The country was wracked at the time with left-wing terrorism, mostly perpetrated by a guerrilla movement known as the [[DirtyCommunists Montoneros]], who sought to turn the country into a Communist state. The Montoneros had made a name for themselves blowing up businessmen, government officials, and military officers; now, the military had decided, it was time to put an end to this. With backing from the United States of America, and conservative Argentines, the first junta, made up of Army Commander-in-Chief, Lieutenant-General [[GeneralRipper Jorge Rafael Videla]], Navy Chief Admiral [[InsaneAdmiral Emilio Massera]], and Air Force Chief Brigadier-General [[TheQuietOne [[DeathFromAbove Orlando Agosti]], removed Isabel Peron from power, and installed themselves as Argentina’s new rulers. Over the next seven years, three more juntas would dance in Videla, Massera, and Agosti’s shoes. All would play a role in ensuring that The Process would go down as perhaps the worst perpetrator of state terror in South American history.
5th Mar '16 7:49:51 PM AmbarSonofDeshar
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Videla had once said that “As many people as necessary must die in Argentina so that the country will again be secure.” From 1976 to 1983, somewhere between 9000 and 30 000 Argentines were arrested without trial, confined in secret prisons, gruesomely tortured, and eventually, executed and buried in unmarked graves. Others were hurled, drugged and insensitive, into the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans from low flying airplanes and helicopters, their bodies never to be discovered. Still thousands more were subjected to lengthy prison terms and/or torture, before being released into the world, broken by the experience. To add a macabre twist, the juntas also kidnapped the children of leftists and sold them to rich Argentine families, enriching themselves in the process. Unwilling to limit their actions to their own country, the juntas made their intelligence service an integral part of the Pan-South American ''Operation: Condor'', collaborating with UsefulNotes/AugustoPinochet’s Chile, Alfredo Stroessner’s Paraguay, and the military juntas of Bolivia, Peru, Uruguay, and Brazil to terrorize, repress, and assassinate leftists across the continent. The eventual death toll reached somewhere around 60 000 making ''Operation: Condor'' the worst politicide in the history of modern South America.

to:

Videla had once said that “As many people as necessary must die in Argentina so that the country will again be secure.” From 1976 to 1983, somewhere between 9000 and 30 000 Argentines were arrested without trial, confined in secret prisons, gruesomely tortured, and eventually, executed and buried in unmarked graves. Others were hurled, drugged and insensitive, insensate, into the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans from low flying airplanes and helicopters, their bodies never to be discovered. Still thousands more were subjected to lengthy prison terms and/or torture, before being released into the world, broken by the experience. To add a macabre twist, the juntas also kidnapped the children of leftists and sold them to rich Argentine families, enriching themselves in the process. Unwilling to limit their actions to their own country, the juntas made their intelligence service an integral part of the Pan-South American ''Operation: Condor'', collaborating with UsefulNotes/AugustoPinochet’s Chile, Alfredo Stroessner’s Paraguay, and the military juntas of Bolivia, Peru, Uruguay, and Brazil to terrorize, repress, and assassinate leftists across the continent. The eventual death toll reached somewhere around 60 000 making ''Operation: Condor'' the worst politicide in the history of modern South America.
28th Dec '15 8:18:07 AM TheWildWestPyro
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* The film ''Night of the Pencils'' follows the stories of seven students who are abducted by the dictatorship. Only one of the seven survives to tell the tale.

to:

* The film ''Night of the Pencils'' follows the stories famous story of how seven left-leaning students who are abducted were suddenly abducted, blindfolded and tortured by the dictatorship. Only one of the seven survives survived to tell the tale.
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