History UsefulNotes / Iran

31st Jul '16 9:28:27 AM Forenperser
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* Iran's major export, and best known, [[ArabOilSheikh is oil]]. It also exports goods to the landlocked countries of Central Asia, such as foodstuffs. It has also started exporting cars to other countries; some are license-built European items, but others are homegrown. Iran also has its hand in electronic consumerism, but just enough for the domestic use.

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* Iran's major export, and best known, [[ArabOilSheikh is oil]].oil. It also exports goods to the landlocked countries of Central Asia, such as foodstuffs. It has also started exporting cars to other countries; some are license-built European items, but others are homegrown. Iran also has its hand in electronic consumerism, but just enough for the domestic use.
23rd Jun '16 5:34:18 AM Albert111
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* Most of Iran's allies are similarly geopolitical pariahs. It is one of the few countries that supports the Syrian government in its ongoing civil war. It also gets along okay with Russia and North Korea.

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* Most of Iran's allies are similarly geopolitical pariahs. It is one of the few countries that supports the Syrian government in its ongoing civil war. It also gets along okay well with Russia Russia, India and North Korea.
21st Jun '16 10:05:56 PM Dimas28
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* Before Cyrus the Great came around, however, Iran wasn't a unified nation as much as being a trio of individual Iranian nations, consisting of Media (the northwest), Parthia (the northeast), and finally, Persia (the south). These regions were ''not'' friendly to each other; they frequently took turn into conquering the others. Cyrus of Persia was the first person to be able to shut all three up and make them work together, creating the Achaemenid Empire, the first unified Iranian nation-state.



* At one point or another throughout its history, Iran has had Egypt, Babylon, Mesopotamia, Transoxiana, the Armenian plateau, the lower Caucasus, Punjab, and northern Greece under its rule, all of which has been lost to various other empires, such as the Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Mongols, Russians and the British.
* Iran uses a solar calendar, invented by the famous ''Omar Khayyam''. Each year starts at the first day of spring, celebrated by a traditional holiday named ''Nowrouz'' (meaning ''The Renewed Day'').

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* At one point or another throughout its history, Iran has had Egypt, Babylon, Mesopotamia, Transoxiana, the Armenian plateau, the lower Caucasus, Punjab, and northern Greece under its rule, all of which has been lost to various other empires, such as the Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Mongols, Russians and the British.
British. As recently as the 19th century, for example, Iran controlled the entire South Caucasus area (present-day UsefulNotes/{{Armenia}}, UsefulNotes/{{Azerbaijan}}, and UsefulNotes/{{Georgia}}), which it lost after the wars with the Russian Empire. Humiliatingly, Iran also had to let go a half of the Azerbaijan region, which it had always held since ancient times despite its Turkification since the 11th century, though they had the luck of keeping its cultural capital, Tabriz, intact.
* Iran uses a solar calendar, invented by the famous ''Omar Khayyam''.Omar Khayyam. Each year starts at the first day of spring, celebrated by a traditional holiday named ''Nowrouz'' (meaning ''The Renewed Day''). In the present day, Nowrouz has become one of the few secular holidays to be approved by the current Islamic government (there was briefly a campaign to stop it, but public backlash prevented it from happening), and it is widely celebrated indeed, even by the most ardent Muslim clerics.



* Iran is a very diverse country. In addition to ethnic Persians, there are Azeris, Kurds, Armenians, Arabs, Jews, and other groups living in the country.

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** Persian has influenced many languages throughout its long life. Its oldest ancestor, Old Persian, was propagated through the Achaemenids' expansion in the Middle East, although Aramaic still topped it as the region's ''lingua franca''; in particular, the language provided gigantic amount of loanwords to Armenian it was formerly thought the latter was a part of the Iranian language family. Later, Persian became one of the few escapees of the Arabs' language colonialism by managing to be its equal; it was through Persian that Islam was spread through such areas as the Caucasus and Central, South, and Southeast Asia, hence why Persian terminology is more favored there than Arabic itself (e.g. ''namaz'', the Persian word for Islamic prayers, is more common in those areas than the original Arabic word, ''salat''). The literary language of the Ottoman Empire is also a weird mixture of Turkish and Persian, with the former serving as its syntax and the latter providing the vocabulary. Languages influenced throughout this period include Hindustani, Bengali, Malay, Pashto, Azeri, Turkish, Punjabi...
** Other than Persian, Iran is home to most languages from the Western Iranian language family (which Persian is a part of) that laypeople usually don't know much, such as Kurdish, Balochi, Lankaran, Talysh, Mazanderani, Lurish, Gilaki, and several more. The language with the second-most speakers, though, came from the Turkic family: Azeri, spoken in the northwestern region of Azerbaijan. Other notable languages include Turkmen (spoken mainly in the northeast) and Arabic (in the southwest).
** Another significant language in Iran's history is Avestan, formerly spoken in the Parthian region, which has a history rivalling that of Persian itself. It was the sacred language of Zoroastrianism, and is ''very'' similar to Sanskrit, a coincidence since the latter is also the sacred language of a contemporary religion, Hinduism. However, unlike Persian, it never made it big and was already dead by the time of the Achaemenids' expansion, although Zoroastrian communities still use it for liturgical reasons.
* Iran is a very diverse country. In addition to ethnic Persians, there are Azeris, Kurds, Armenians, Arabs, Jews, and other groups living in the country. In fact, the country is home to the largest community of Azeris, even surpassing the titular country of Azerbaijan itself.




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** The entire country is covered from head to toe by mountains it really is ridiculous should one depict the country as anything but that. Look at [[http://www.antiquity.ac.uk/projgall/roustaei325/images/figure1big.jpg this map]]. See how brown the country is compared to its surroundings? Persia was famous in the ancient world due to how painfully hard it is to conquer by outside powers, as the people there were mountaineers, very much a reversal of their ArchEnemy, the Greeks, who were primarily seafarers. Depicting it as mere desert is akin to showing that the Switzerland is a confederation of swampy bogs and marshes.



** Iran's neutrality in the Nagorno-Karabakh War with Armenia was what really irked Azerbaijan. And [[PatrioticFervor Azeri nationalism being what it is]], some of the more extreme nationalists believe northern Iran rightfully belongs to Azerbaijan. When Azerbaijan first became independent in 1918 it took its name from the northern Iranian province (when for most of its history it had been known as Caucasian Albania, and its people Caucasian Tatars); Iran suspected this naming as a ploy for the country to eventually annex the province at some point in the future. In response to this tension Israel has been grooming Azerbaijan as a possible ally, selling them weapons.

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** Iran's neutrality in the Nagorno-Karabakh War with Armenia was what really irked Azerbaijan. And [[PatrioticFervor Azeri nationalism being what it is]], some of the more extreme nationalists believe northern Iran rightfully belongs to Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan (if anything, it's the other way around; see the General section above). When Azerbaijan first became independent in 1918 it took its name from the northern Iranian province (when for most of its history it had been (it was known as Caucasian Albania, and its people Caucasian Tatars); Albania in antiquity; Azerbaijan was the name of the satrapy installed by the Sassanids, which ''did'' encompass both sides of the border. However, the Azerbaijan of the past was Iranian, not Turk. It's complicated); Iran suspected this naming as a ploy for the country to eventually annex the province at some point in the future. In response to this tension Israel has been grooming Azerbaijan as a possible ally, selling them weapons.



* Despite the image most people associate with Iran, in fact, the country is in fact ''very'' mountainous, and there is in fact enough snow on some of these mountains to host ski resorts.
21st Jun '16 9:33:00 AM Dimas28
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** Regarding Aryan, yes, that's the same word that eugenics (e.g. [[ThoseWackyNazis the Nazis]]) used in the early 20th century to denote what they thought were "pure Nordics" or "Atlanteans". The word has a very long history as can be seen in Wiki/{{Wikipedia}}, but the basic gist is that it was traditionally used by the Indo-Iranians to denote their people and their land. This word also occurs in [[UsefulNotes/IndianLanguages Sanskrit]], though the word has morphed to exclusively refer to the Brahmin/noble caste, instead of the entire nation as Iran does. The word was eventually interpreted by European ethnologists to refer to the entire Indo-European nation (as they thought that Sanskrit is the oldest in the family), eventually maligning to refer only to the "oldest" tribe, which eugenics ([[CriticalResearchFailure mistakenly]]) believed was the Nordics. "Aryan" itself means "noble" in the Proto-Indo-Iranian language.
** After reading the history of the word above, if you wonder what the Nazis thought about the Iranian nation, who gave birth to the term in the first place...they actually did regard them as part of the "Aryan" race too, as can be seen in [[https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/Meyers_b11_s0476a.jpg the eugenics-driven racial map here]]. At the same time, however, they only considered the Indians "half-Aryan" (colored green in the map) despite them having equal claim to the term, as the eugenics decided that [[NoTrueScotsman the Indians were already "corrupted" by the Dravidians.]]



** Iranian Shiism is a surprisingly recent development: the conversion process only began around 1500, with the rise of the Safavid dynasty, and only took hold after a few centuries of concerted effort by the Safavids to get the Iranians to change their religion. Before that, Iran was noted as a bastion of Hanafi Sunnism.
** Due to the overarching influence of the Safavids as mentioned above, all major Muslim ethnic groups in Iran more or less submit to Shia Islam, even those that one wouldn't expect to be one, like the Arab minority. Outside of Iran, the Safavid influence also reaches some other countries in the region, most notably Iraq (Iraqi Arabs are famously Shi'ites, although [[CriticalResearchFailure this gets glossed often in the media]]), Bahrain (same as Iraq), Afghanistan (the Hazaras submitted to the Safavids, though the others didn't), and Azerbaijan (majority Azeris).



** Iranian Shiism is a surprisingly recent development: the conversion process only began around 1500, with the rise of the Safavid dynasty, and only took hold after a few centuries of concerted effort by the Safavids to get the Iranians to change their religion. Before that, Iran was noted as a bastion of Hanafi Sunnism.


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* Iran has a one-day weekend, one of the only two to adopt it in the entire world, alongside UsefulNotes/{{Djibouti}}. Friday is the sole day off of the week as mandated by the law. This is not just a mere rule; Friday is the equivalent of Sabbath in Islam, and, considering that Islam shapes up the society of modern Iran, the rule is strictly upheld. Setting up Friday as a holiday is actually quite common in countries that observe Islamic governance, but they also adopt a different day as a complementary weekend, while Iran, for some reason, doesn't.[[note]] Recently, anyway. Afghanistan used to have the same Friday-only rule as well thanks to the Taliban, though it is no longer the case. Pre-1979 Revolution Iran also had the usual Saturday-Sunday weekend.[[/note]]
7th Apr '16 10:30:32 PM Dimas28
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** Regarding Cyrus the Great, his ludicrously-massive accomplishments almost border on the stuff of legend. He created Iran's first multi-national empire: the Achaemenid Empire, which [[http://orig13.deviantart.net/ebbc/f/2013/027/c/d/achaemenid_empire_engorged_by_daeres-d5sxia8.png stretched all the way from northwestern Indian subcontinent to Greece, then down to Egypt]]. It was the largest empire in the ancient world had known by that point, even surpassing the Roman Empire, which only reached such extent about five centuries later. Such accomplishment obviously netted him many titles, including the King of Kings, Great Leader (this time, that pretentious title ''is'' justified), and believe it or not, ''[[MessianicArchetype Messiah]]''. The last part was even written in the freaking ''[[UsefulNotes/{{TheBible}} Bible]]''; Cyrus' annexation of Babylonia happened when the Jews were in the midst of their exile. Being known for his leniency against minorities, he allowed the Jews their safe return to the Holy Land and even approved the building of the Second Temple, two things that the Jews will never forget him for. For this reason, he is the only Gentile (i.e. non-Jew) to explicitly be called by their prophetic title: Messiah.
23rd Feb '16 6:37:31 PM TalonsofIceandFire
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* At one point or another throughout its history, Iran has had Egypt, Babylon, Mesopotamia, Transoxiana, the Armenian plateau, the lower Caucasus, Punjab, and northern Greece under its rule, all of which has been lost to various other empires, such as the Arabs, Mongols, Russians and the British.

to:

* At one point or another throughout its history, Iran has had Egypt, Babylon, Mesopotamia, Transoxiana, the Armenian plateau, the lower Caucasus, Punjab, and northern Greece under its rule, all of which has been lost to various other empires, such as the Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Mongols, Russians and the British.
10th Jan '16 2:22:25 PM somerandomdude
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Added DiffLines:

** In 2015, the government of Iran and a coalition of several other governments, including the US, the UK, and Germany, came to an historic agreement that would involve lifting most of the sanctions in exchange for Iran discontinuing any plans for a nuclear weapon and submitting to random inspections to ensure they were not building one. Though lauded in some circles (notably, of course, Iran itself), conservatives in many coalition governments were mercilessly critical of the agreement; Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel called it a "stunning historic mistake," and American conservatives unfavorably compared it to Neville Chamberlain's infamous appeasement of Hitler.
2nd Jan '16 6:49:44 PM TalonsofIceandFire
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** Persian is not related to Arabic, despite the large number of loanwords. Persian is an Indo-European language, which makes it related to Hindi and most languages spoken in Europe, including English. Old Persian was rather similar to Sanskrit, though it evolved and picked up a fair amount of vocabulary from Arabic.
*** A good analogy for Farsi's linguistic situation is actually English: just as English is a Germanic language with substantial Romance (specifically French) vocabulary, Farsi is an Indo-European language (which Germanic and Romance languages are as well, by the way, albeit in separate sub-families both to Farsi and each other) with substantial Semitic (specifically Arabic) vocabulary. Just as French-derived words in English are more "high-class" or "technical" than the Germanic ones, the Arabic imports in Farsi generally deal with more sophisticated topics (for the reason why, see [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratum_(linguistics) this]]). For instance, in the same way that English ''government'' comes from Old French and is clearly related to the Modern French ''gouvernement'' (same thing), the Farsi word for "government" is the Arabic-derived ''hokumet'' (the Arabic is ''hukumah'', but can be pronounced as ''hukumat'' in certain situations which we won't go into here). On the other hand, day-to-day words (or at least words whose meanings are very ancient) are almost inevitably Indo-European, just as 88% of the day-to-day vocabulary of English is Germanic. ''Star'' in English is clearly more closely related to the Dutch ''ster'' and German ''Stern'' than the French ''étoile'' or Italian ''stella'', and the Farsi ''setāre'' is very obviously Indo-European (the Arabic word is ''najm'').

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** Persian is not related to Arabic, despite the large number of loanwords. Persian is an Indo-European language, which makes it related to Hindi and most languages spoken in Europe, Europe and the Indian sub-continent, including English. Old Persian was rather similar to Sanskrit, though it evolved and picked up a fair amount of vocabulary from Arabic.
*** A good analogy for Farsi's linguistic situation is actually English: just as English is a Germanic language with substantial Romance (specifically French) vocabulary, Farsi is an Indo-European language (which Germanic and Romance languages are as well, by the way, albeit in separate sub-families both to Farsi and each other) with substantial Semitic Afro-Asiatic (specifically Arabic) vocabulary. Just as French-derived words in English are more "high-class" or "technical" than the Germanic ones, the Arabic imports in Farsi generally deal with more sophisticated topics (for the reason why, see [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratum_(linguistics) this]]). For instance, in the same way that English ''government'' comes from Old French and is clearly related to the Modern French ''gouvernement'' (same thing), the Farsi word for "government" is the Arabic-derived ''hokumet'' (the Arabic is ''hukumah'', but can be pronounced as ''hukumat'' in certain situations which we won't go into here). On the other hand, day-to-day words (or at least words whose meanings are very ancient) are almost inevitably Indo-European, just as 88% of the day-to-day vocabulary of English is Germanic. ''Star'' in English is clearly more closely related to the Dutch ''ster'' and German ''Stern'' than the French ''étoile'' or Italian ''stella'', and the Farsi ''setāre'' is very obviously Indo-European (the Arabic word is ''najm'').
9th Dec '15 9:34:29 PM karstovich2
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* Iran's major export, and best known, [[ArabOilSheikh is oil]]. It also exports goods to the landlocked countries of Central Asia, such as foodstuffs. Iran also has its hand in electronic consumerism, but just enough for the domestic use.
** The Iranian economy is very interesting to economists, as it has robust GDP growth, but both inflation and unemployment are high--and having all three together is supposed to be impossible. As it turns out, when you factor out oil, Iran's economic growth rate is rather small--in other words, Iran is facing stagflation. Although sanctions haven't exactly helped Iran's economic circumstances, it does mean that Iran's current economic policy--which is highly inflationary (to the point of [[RidiculousExchangeRates near-hyperinflation]] in late 2012)--is exactly the opposite of what it should be doing from a purely economic standpoint. (Mainstream economics holds that when faced with stagflation, the first priority should be contractionary monetary policy to fight inflation, taking the hit to growth and employment while prices stabilize; for political reasons, Iran can't do this, as a hit to growth or employment might cause political instability.)

to:

* Iran's major export, and best known, [[ArabOilSheikh is oil]]. It also exports goods to the landlocked countries of Central Asia, such as foodstuffs. It has also started exporting cars to other countries; some are license-built European items, but others are homegrown. Iran also has its hand in electronic consumerism, but just enough for the domestic use.
** The Iranian economy is very interesting to economists, as it has robust GDP growth, but both inflation and unemployment are high--and having all three together is supposed to be impossible. As it turns out, when you factor out oil, Iran's economic growth rate is rather small--in other words, Iran is facing stagflation. Although sanctions haven't exactly helped Iran's economic circumstances, it does mean that Iran's current economic policy--which is highly inflationary (to the point of [[RidiculousExchangeRates near-hyperinflation]] in late 2012)--is exactly the opposite of what it should be doing from a purely economic standpoint. (Mainstream economics holds that when faced with stagflation, the first priority should be contractionary monetary policy to fight inflation, taking the hit to growth and employment while prices stabilize; for political reasons, Iran can't do this, as a hit to growth or employment might cause political instability.)instability, resulting in the whole complicated political system outlined above crashing down.) As of 2015, the prospective lifting of sanctions as a result of the nuclear deal with the United States, China, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany (but mostly just the United States) has some prospects for changing things, but everything remains untested.
28th Nov '15 11:17:30 AM nombretomado
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* '''After the Rain''': A TV series set in olden days, centering around a JerkAss land owner who has a dickhead brother in law. There's some [[{{Scrubs}} Guy-love]] between the two, enough that after the feudal "Arbab" remarries another woman, the in-law kills him and burns his house.

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* '''After the Rain''': A TV series set in olden days, centering around a JerkAss land owner who has a dickhead brother in law. There's some [[{{Scrubs}} [[Series/{{Scrubs}} Guy-love]] between the two, enough that after the feudal "Arbab" remarries another woman, the in-law kills him and burns his house.
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