History UsefulNotes / Iran

27th Dec '17 9:04:40 PM djPROUDGEEK
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** Just about the only country more reviled than even America is UsefulNotes/SaudiArabia. Iran and Saud are so diametrically opposed to one another that it's a miracle war has not broken out. For starters, the Saudis [[CaptainObvious are in the Arabian Peninsula]], the homeland of both the Arab pan-ethnicity and the entire religion of Islam; Iran is mostly Persian, and has been conquered by Islamic Caliphates at various points in time. Saud is a leading member of the Sunni version of Islam, whereas Iran became the largest Shia-leaning Muslim nation (the schism between Shia and Sunni Muslims [[http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/UsefulNotes/Islam is better-explained here]]). Modern Iran was founded on populism (it's not called Revolution for nothing), Saudi Arabia was founded through tribal dynasties playing power politics while Western empires destroyed the last Caliphate. Iran is something of a theocratic authoritarian oligarchy that often settles internal oligarchical differences by polling, while Saudi Arabia is an {{Egopolis}} absolute theocratic monarchy that has a solid division of power between the royal family and theocratic Sunni instructors who run domestic policy. Both are major producers and developers of oil, so they tend to butt heads over the right to regional hegemony. To that end, Saudi Arabia sabotages the countries that are allied with Iran, such as [[WeAreStrugglingTogether parts of Lebanon]] and Syria, and rallies fellow totalitarian monarchies to gang up on Iran. Meanwhile, Iran funds predominantly-Shi'ite resistance groups and terrorist cadres to antagonize the Saudis' allies, such as the Houthis in Yemen and the protesters in Bahrain. Syria is the highest this conflict has ever reached, where many would consider it to be less of a CivilWar and more of a proxy war between the Shias and Sunnis (among other such foreign parties that have a stake in Assad's potential fall).
* Currently Iran is under sanctions by the West, with at least a hundred people dying every year because of outdated airplanes, tears dropped because of low-speed Internet connections, and millions wasted from the lack of support of [=PayPal=]/Visa. Or so the Iranian government unhesitatingly says, and while more than a bit might have kernals of truth in it people are advised to take this with [[UnreliableNarrator the usual grains of salt.]]\\

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** Just about the only country more reviled than even America is UsefulNotes/SaudiArabia. Iran and Saud are so diametrically opposed to one another that it's a miracle war has not broken out. For starters, the Saudis [[CaptainObvious are in the Arabian Peninsula]], the homeland of both the Arab pan-ethnicity and the entire religion of Islam; Iran is mostly Persian, and has been conquered by Islamic Caliphates at various points in time. Saud is a leading member of the Sunni version of Islam, whereas Iran became the largest Shia-leaning Muslim nation (the schism between Shia and Sunni Muslims [[http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/UsefulNotes/Islam is better-explained here]]). Modern Iran was founded on populism (it's not called Revolution for nothing), Saudi Arabia was founded through tribal dynasties playing power politics while Western empires destroyed the last Caliphate. Iran is something of a theocratic authoritarian oligarchy that often settles internal oligarchical differences by polling, while Saudi Arabia is an {{Egopolis}} absolute theocratic monarchy that has a solid division of power between the royal family and theocratic Sunni instructors who run domestic policy. Both are major producers and developers of oil, so they tend to butt heads over the right to regional hegemony. To that end, Saudi Arabia sabotages the countries that are allied with Iran, such as [[WeAreStrugglingTogether parts of Lebanon]] and Syria, and rallies fellow totalitarian monarchies to gang up on Iran. Meanwhile, Iran funds supports predominantly-Shi'ite resistance groups and terrorist cadres to antagonize the Saudis' allies, groups such as the Houthis in Yemen and the protesters in Bahrain. Syria is the highest this conflict has ever reached, where many would consider it to be less of a CivilWar and more of a proxy war between the Shias Saudi Arabia (and its allies) and Sunnis (among other such foreign parties that have a stake in Assad's potential fall).
Iran.
* Currently Iran is under sanctions by the West, with at least a hundred people dying every year because of outdated airplanes, tears dropped because of low-speed Internet connections, and millions wasted from the lack of support of [=PayPal=]/Visa. Or so the Iranian government unhesitatingly says, and while more than a bit might have kernals of truth in it people are advised to take this with [[UnreliableNarrator the usual grains of salt.]]\\\\



In 2015, the government of Iran and a coalition of several other governments, including the US, the UK, and Germany, came to an historic agreement that would involve lifting most of the sanctions in exchange for Iran discontinuing any plans for a nuclear weapon and submitting to random inspections to ensure they were not building one. Though lauded in some circles (notably, of course, Iran itself), conservatives in many coalition governments were mercilessly critical of the agreement; Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel called it a "stunning historic mistake," and American conservatives unfavorably compared it to Neville Chamberlain's infamous appeasement of Hitler.

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In *In 2015, the government of Iran and a coalition of several other governments, including the US, the UK, and Germany, came to an historic agreement that would involve lifting most of the sanctions in exchange for Iran discontinuing any plans for a nuclear weapon and submitting to random inspections to ensure they were not building one. Though lauded in some circles (notably, of course, Iran itself), conservatives in many coalition governments were mercilessly critical of the agreement; Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel called it a "stunning historic mistake," and American conservatives unfavorably compared it to Neville Chamberlain's infamous appeasement of Hitler.
27th Dec '17 8:57:13 PM djPROUDGEEK
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** Iran has long felt that UsefulNotes/{{Israel}} is an illegitimate state built upon unjust occupation of Palestinian inhabitants and a foreign "cancer" in the Middle East. Israel feels that its existence is threatened by Iranian terrorism, sponsorship of its' enemies (including [[TheButcher the Assad family]] and the explicitly genocidal Hezbollah) and the prospect of Iran obtaining nukes (and vehemently maintains that Iran is looking to get nukes). Iran insists that their nuclear program is for peaceful, civilian purposes, pointing to their being a signatory of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (something Israel has not signed due to their "nuclear ambiguity"). Khomeini prosecuted Jews (along with anyone he felt was insufficiently Muslim) by the thousands under his rule, although things have softened up somewhat since Ali Khamenei succeeded him, as Jews now have a member in the Iranian parliament. Nevertheless, Israel and Iran maintain their hostility. This has led to something of a proxy conflict between the two, as Iran funds Hezbollah in Lebanon (whose founders were followers of Khomeini) and Hamas.

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** Iran has long felt that UsefulNotes/{{Israel}} is an illegitimate state built upon unjust occupation of Palestinian inhabitants and a foreign "cancer" in the Middle East. Israel feels that its existence is threatened by Iranian terrorism, sponsorship of its' enemies (including [[TheButcher the Assad family]] and the explicitly genocidal Hezbollah) and the prospect of Iran obtaining nukes (and vehemently maintains that Iran is looking to get nukes). Iran insists that their nuclear program is for peaceful, civilian purposes, pointing to their being a signatory of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (something Israel has not signed due to their "nuclear ambiguity"). Khomeini prosecuted Jews (along with anyone he felt was insufficiently Muslim) by the thousands under his rule, although things have softened up somewhat since Ali Khamenei succeeded him, as Jews now have a member in the Iranian parliament. Nevertheless, Israel and Iran maintain their hostility. This has led to something of a proxy conflict between the two, as Iran funds Hezbollah in Lebanon (whose founders were followers of Khomeini) and Hamas.
21st Dec '17 7:42:02 AM VanHohenheimOfXerxes
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* There is a great diversity in how people look. Most Iranians have a tan or olive complexion, dark hair, and brown eyes, but pale skin, blondes, redheads, and blue eyes are not unheard of. Ditto with East Asian look; ancient Turks were known for this, and while modern Iranian Turks are not that different from Persians, it still exists to a degree, particularly among the Turkmens. Some Iranians even have skin as dark as someone from Africa or southern India.

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* There is a great diversity in how people look. Most Iranians have a tan or olive complexion, complexion with dark hair and eyes, but light skin, hair, and brown eyes, but pale skin, blondes, redheads, and blue eyes are not unheard of. Ditto with East Asian look; ancient Turks were known for this, and while modern Iranian Turks are not that different from Persians, it still exists to a degree, particularly among the Turkmens. Some Iranians even have skin as dark as someone from Africa or southern India.
2nd Dec '17 1:33:44 PM Wariolander
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Iran ('''Persian:''' ایران, also known as the ''Islamic Republic of Iran'', '''Persian:''' جمهوری اسلامی ایران or ''Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān'') is the 18th largest country of the world, currently holding about 80,000,000 people inside its 7,000,000 km perimeter. Iran has a vast variety of flora and fauna, much like a more compact version of the United States. Iran has many ethnicities living within its borders, which causes confusion. There is an Arab minority in the south from Shatt al-Arab all along the coastlines overlooking the Persian Gulf, however, [[BerserkButton the majority of Iranians are not Arabs and they will be very insulted if you call them that]].

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Iran ('''Persian:''' ایران, also known as the ''Islamic Republic of Iran'', '''Persian:''' جمهوری اسلامی ایران or ''Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān'') is a Western Asian country and the 18th largest country of the world, currently holding about 80,000,000 people inside its 7,000,000 km perimeter. Iran has a vast variety of flora and fauna, much like a more compact version of the United States. Iran has many ethnicities living within its borders, which causes confusion. There is an Arab minority in the south from Shatt al-Arab all along the coastlines overlooking the Persian Gulf, however, [[BerserkButton the majority of Iranians are not Arabs and they will be very insulted if you call them that]].
10th Nov '17 6:30:36 PM AntonF
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Iran ('''Persian:''' ایران, also known as the ''Islamic Republic of Iran'', '''Iranian:''' جمهوری اسلامی ایران or ''Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān'') is the 18th largest country of the world, currently holding about 77,000,000 people inside its 7,000,000 km perimeter. Iran has a vast variety of flora and fauna, much like a more compact version of the United States. Iran has many ethnicities living within its borders, which causes confusion. There's a small Arab minority, mainly in the south from Shatt al-Arab all along the coastlines overlooking the Persian Gulf, however, [[BerserkButton Persians are not Arabs and they will be very insulted if you call them that]]. Lord help you if you ever point out that Islam (the religion of Iran) is itself an Arabic construction, too.

[[AC: General]]

* Iran is an old country, dating back to 900 BCE (or 3200 BCE if you count Elam). Iran's history is divided into two parts by historians, ''Ancient Iran'' and ''post-Islamic Iran''.

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Iran ('''Persian:''' ایران, also known as the ''Islamic Republic of Iran'', '''Iranian:''' '''Persian:''' جمهوری اسلامی ایران or ''Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān'') is the 18th largest country of the world, currently holding about 77,000,000 80,000,000 people inside its 7,000,000 km perimeter. Iran has a vast variety of flora and fauna, much like a more compact version of the United States. Iran has many ethnicities living within its borders, which causes confusion. There's a small There is an Arab minority, mainly minority in the south from Shatt al-Arab all along the coastlines overlooking the Persian Gulf, however, [[BerserkButton Persians the majority of Iranians are not Arabs and they will be very insulted if you call them that]]. Lord help you if you ever point out that Islam (the religion of Iran) is itself an Arabic construction, too.

[[AC:
that]].

[[folder:
General]]

* Iran is an old country, dating back to 900 BCE (or 3200 BCE BCE. That counts only civilizations that have continuity with the modern country; if you count Elam). others, there is also Elam, which had been attested since 3200 BCE. However, Elam was a rather different creature than Iran and spoke a language isolate. Nevertheless, it set the foundation for later civilizations of the Iranian Plateau and gave its name to a province in the southwest. Iran's history is divided into two parts by historians, ''Ancient Iran'' and ''post-Islamic Iran''.Iran''.
* "Iranian" can mean two different things depending on context. The popular definition is of course to denote any national of the Islamic Republic of Iran regardless of ethnicity. The scholarly definition, on the other hand, is to refer to [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iranian_languages a large Eurasian language family]] and its speakers. It is in turn a part of the Indo-European language family, having branched alongside the Indo-Aryan family (spoken in the Indo-Gangetic Plain) in the 3rd millennium BCE. Iranian and Indo-Aryan separated from each other not long afterward.[[note]] There is also a third branch, Nuristani, currently spoken in several villages of eastern Afghanistan[[/note]] This has both a wider and narrower inclusion; it excludes certain nationals of Iran (specifically, the Arabic, Azerbaijani, and Turkmen speakers), but includes nationals of other countries including UsefulNotes/{{Afghanistan}}, UsefulNotes/{{Pakistan}}, and UsefulNotes/{{Tajikistan}}.
** Iranian split off to form a Western and Eastern branches sometime in the 2nd millennium BCE. Persian, the official language of Iran, is a member of the Western branch alongside a several other languages such as Kurdish, Lurish, Baloch, and Mazandaran, all mainly concentrated in the Iranian Plateau. The Eastern branch formerly had a range that spanned Afghanistan, Central Asia, and Eastern Europe, but was rendered almost extinct sometime in the 1st millennium AD due to invasion, assimilation, and other reasons. It leaves only a few survivors (though [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pashto one of them]] has speakers of upwards 60 million).
** Indo-European includes some languages of Europe (and by some we mean [[https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/eb/Indo-European_branches_map.svg most of them]]). As a result, Iranians (chiefly Persians) speak languages that's genetically closer to English, French, German, Greek, and Russian (all members of Indo-European) than Arabic, a member of the unrelated Afro-Asiatic family. Persian's similarity to Arabic is restricted to loanwords and script due to the Islamic influence; romanized, the languages have few in common, as [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lQn84dgRC8E this video]] demonstrates.
** The relationship between Persian and Arabic can be likened to English and French. French loanwords in English mostly deal with technical and "high-class" issues, such as ''government'' (from ''gouvernment''), while day-to-day words are of Germanic stock, like ''star'', which is closer to the German ''Stern '' than French ''étoile'', even if all three have the same root. Meanwhile, the Persian word for government is ''hokumet'' (from Arabic ''hukumah''), while star is the obviously Indo-European ''setāre'' (the Arabic word is ''najm'').



** Regarding Aryan, yes, that's the same word that eugenicists (e.g. [[ThoseWackyNazis the Nazis]]) used in the early 20th century to denote what they thought were "pure Nordics" or "Atlanteans". The word has a very long history as can be seen in Wiki/{{Wikipedia}}, but the basic gist is that it was traditionally used by the Indo-Iranians to denote their people and their land. This word also occurs in [[UsefulNotes/IndianLanguages Sanskrit]], though the word has morphed to exclusively refer to the Brahmin/noble caste, instead of the entire nation as Iran does. The word was eventually interpreted by European ethnologists to refer to the entire Indo-European nation (as they thought that Sanskrit is the oldest in the family), eventually maligning to refer only to the "oldest" tribe, which eugenics ([[CriticalResearchFailure mistakenly]]) believed was the Nordics. "Aryan" itself means "noble" in the Proto-Indo-Iranian language.
** After reading the history of the word above, if you wonder what the Nazis thought about the Iranian nation, who gave birth to the term in the first place...they actually did regard them as part of the "Aryan" race too, as can be seen in [[https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/Meyers_b11_s0476a.jpg the eugenics-driven racial map here]]. At the same time, however, they only considered the Indians "half-Aryan" (colored green in the map) despite them having equal claim to the term, as the eugenicists decided that [[NoTrueScotsman the Indians were already "corrupted" by the Dravidians.]]
* Before Cyrus the Great came around, however, Iran wasn't a unified nation as much as being a trio of individual Iranian nations, consisting of Media (the northwest), Parthia (the northeast), and finally, Persia (the south). These regions were ''not'' friendly to each other; they frequently took turn into conquering the others. Cyrus of Persia was the first person to be able to shut all three up and make them work together, creating the Achaemenid Empire, the first unified Iranian nation-state.

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** Regarding Aryan, yes, that's the same word that eugenicists (e.g. [[ThoseWackyNazis the Nazis]]) used in the early 20th century to denote what they thought were "pure Nordics" or "Atlanteans". The word has a very long history as can be seen in Wiki/{{Wikipedia}}, but the basic gist is that it was traditionally used by the Indo-Iranians to denote their people and their land. This word also occurs in [[UsefulNotes/IndianLanguages Sanskrit]], though the word has morphed to exclusively refer to the Brahmin/noble caste, instead of the entire nation as Iran does. The word was eventually interpreted by European ethnologists to refer to the entire Indo-European nation (as they thought that Sanskrit is the oldest in the family), eventually maligning to refer only to the "oldest" tribe, which eugenics ([[CriticalResearchFailure mistakenly]]) believed was the Nordics. "Aryan" itself means "noble" in the Proto-Indo-Iranian language.
** After reading the history of the word above, if you wonder what the Nazis thought about
language. For the Iranian nation, who gave birth to peoples, the term in is used to call themselves and their land; other than the first place...they actually did regard them Islamic Republic, Afghanistan was known during antiquity as "Ariana", while a part of the [[UsefulNotes/{{Russia}} Northern Caucasus]] settled by the Eastern Iranian Ossetians is known as "Alania". In [[UsefulNotes/{{IndianLanguages}} Sanskrit]], it is used as a term of respect for kings, nobles, and enlightened teachers. During the Age of Exploration, the Europeans learned about Sanskrit's relation and supposed seniority to European languages, deciding that "Aryan" race too, as can must be seen in an endonym for the entire Indo-European nation. Then entire turned into oldest, and oldest turned into superior, and well, [[UsefulNotes/NaziGermany you know the rest]].
** Scientific racists did regard Iranians
[[https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/Meyers_b11_s0476a.jpg as part of the eugenics-driven racial map here]]. At the same time, however, they only considered the "Aryan" race]]. They also treated [[UsefulNotes/{{Romani}} Gypsies]] (descendants of Indians "half-Aryan" (colored green in the map) despite them having equal claim to the term, as the eugenicists decided that [[NoTrueScotsman the Indians were already "corrupted" by the Dravidians.]]
* Before Cyrus the Great came around, however, Iran wasn't a unified nation as much as being a trio of individual Iranian nations, consisting of Media (the northwest), Parthia (the northeast),
and finally, Persia (the south). These regions were ''not'' friendly to each other; they frequently took turn into conquering the others. Cyrus of Persia was the first person to be able to shut all three up and make them work together, creating the Achaemenid Empire, the first unified Iranian nation-state.thus Aryans) like trash, so...



* At one point or another throughout its history, Iran has had Egypt, Babylon, Mesopotamia, Transoxiana, the Armenian plateau, the lower Caucasus, Punjab, and northern Greece under its rule, all of which has been lost to various other empires, such as the Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Mongols, Russians and the British. As recently as the 19th century, for example, Iran controlled the entire South Caucasus area (present-day UsefulNotes/{{Armenia}}, UsefulNotes/{{Azerbaijan}}, and UsefulNotes/GeorgiaEurope), which it lost after the wars with the Russian Empire. Humiliatingly, Iran also had to let go a half of the Azerbaijan region, which it had always held since ancient times despite its Turkification since the 11th century, though they had the luck of keeping its cultural capital, Tabriz, intact.

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* At one point or another throughout its history, Iran has had Egypt, Babylon, Mesopotamia, Transoxiana, the Armenian plateau, the lower Caucasus, Punjab, and northern Greece under its rule, all of which has been lost to various other empires, such as the Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Mongols, Russians and the British. As recently as the 19th century, for example, Iran controlled the entire South Caucasus area (present-day UsefulNotes/{{Armenia}}, UsefulNotes/{{Azerbaijan}}, and UsefulNotes/GeorgiaEurope), which it lost after the wars with the Russian Empire.
* During the time of the Sassanids, Persians were settled in the Caucasus to strengthen the empire's defenses against the Byzantine
Empire. Humiliatingly, Iran also had to let go a half of Their descendants, the Azerbaijan region, which it had always held since ancient times despite its Turkification since Tats, still live there to the 11th present. In the 8th century, though they had Persians worked as administrators and traders of the luck Caliphate's conquered lands in Afghanistan and Central Asia, spreading their language to locals, not unlike the medieval ''Ostsiedlung'' of keeping its cultural capital, Tabriz, intact.Germans into Eastern Europe. This is why Persian is spoken as a native and official language in Afghanistan and Tajikistan in large numbers (under the names Dari and Tajik, respectively).



* Iran's official language is ''Persian'' or Farsi, and the official script is the Arabic alphabet with the addition of four letters to make up for sounds which Arabic lacks.
** Persian is not related to Arabic, despite the large number of loanwords. Persian is an Indo-European language, which makes it related to most languages spoken in Europe and the Indian sub-continent, including English. Old Persian was rather similar to Sanskrit, though it evolved and picked up a fair amount of vocabulary from Arabic.
*** A good analogy for Farsi's linguistic situation is actually English: just as English is a Germanic language with substantial Romance (specifically French) vocabulary, Farsi is an Indo-European language (which Germanic and Romance languages are as well, by the way, albeit in separate sub-families both to Farsi and each other) with substantial Afro-Asiatic (specifically Arabic) vocabulary. Just as French-derived words in English are more "high-class" or "technical" than the Germanic ones, the Arabic imports in Farsi generally deal with more sophisticated topics (for the reason why, see [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratum_(linguistics) this]]). For instance, in the same way that English ''government'' comes from Old French and is clearly related to the Modern French ''gouvernement'' (same thing), the Farsi word for "government" is the Arabic-derived ''hokumet'' (the Arabic is ''hukumah'', but can be pronounced as ''hukumat'' in certain situations which we won't go into here). On the other hand, day-to-day words (or at least words whose meanings are very ancient) are almost inevitably Indo-European, just as 88% of the day-to-day vocabulary of English is Germanic. ''Star'' in English is clearly more closely related to the Dutch ''ster'' and German ''Stern'' than the French ''étoile'' or Italian ''stella'', and the Farsi ''setāre'' is very obviously Indo-European (the Arabic word is ''najm'').
** Some Persian words that are cognates of English words include
*** baradar - brother
*** dokhtar - daughter, girl
*** dar - door
*** khoda - god
*** carkh - circle (actually means wheel)
*** abad - abode
*** djavan - young
*** now - new
*** The two languages' common origin means that there are many other examples.
** Persian has influenced many languages throughout its long life. Its oldest ancestor, Old Persian, was propagated through the Achaemenids' expansion in the Middle East, although Aramaic still topped it as the region's ''lingua franca''; in particular, the language provided gigantic amount of loanwords to Armenian it was formerly thought the latter was a part of the Iranian language family. Later, Persian became one of the few escapees of the Arabs' language colonialism by managing to be its equal; it was through Persian that Islam was spread through such areas as the Caucasus and Central, South, and Southeast Asia, hence why Persian terminology is more favored there than Arabic itself (e.g. ''namaz'', the Persian word for Islamic prayers, is more common in those areas than the original Arabic word, ''salat''). The literary language of the Ottoman Empire is also a weird mixture of Turkish and Persian, with the former serving as its syntax and the latter providing the vocabulary. Languages influenced throughout this period include Hindustani, Bengali, Malay, Pashto, Azeri, Turkish, Punjabi...
** Other than Persian, Iran is home to most languages from the Western Iranian language family (which Persian is a part of) that laypeople usually don't know much, such as Kurdish, Balochi, Lankaran, Talysh, Mazanderani, Lurish, Gilaki, and several more. The language with the second-most speakers, though, came from the Turkic family: Azeri, spoken in the northwestern region of Azerbaijan. Other notable languages include Turkmen (spoken mainly in the northeast) and Arabic (in the southwest).
** Another significant language in Iran's history is Avestan, formerly spoken in the Parthian region, which has a history rivalling that of Persian itself. It was the sacred language of Zoroastrianism, and is ''very'' similar to Sanskrit, a coincidence since the latter is also the sacred language of a contemporary religion, Hinduism. However, unlike Persian, it never made it big and was already dead by the time of the Achaemenids' expansion, although Zoroastrian communities still use it for liturgical reasons.
* Iran is a very diverse country. In addition to ethnic Persians, there are Azeris, Kurds, Armenians, Arabs, Jews, and other groups living in the country. In fact, the country is home to the largest community of Azeris, even surpassing the titular country of Azerbaijan itself.
** Also, there is great diversity in how people look. Many Iranians have a tan or olive complexion, but there are also pale blondes and redheads, as well as people with a vaguely South Asian appearance. Some Iranians even have skin as dark as someone from Africa or southern India.
* Iran's official religion is Shi'a UsefulNotes/{{Islam}}. 98% of all Iranians are Muslim. Before Islam, most Iranians were [[UsefulNotes/{{Zoroastrianism}} Zoroastrian]]. A tiny community of Zoroastrians still live in Iran, but most Zoroastrians live elsewhere in modern times (particularly in India).
** Iranian Shiism is a surprisingly recent development: the conversion process only began around 1500, with the rise of the Safavid dynasty, and only took hold after a few centuries of concerted effort by the Safavids to get the Iranians to change their religion. Before that, Iran was noted as a bastion of Hanafi Sunnism.
** Due to the overarching influence of the Safavids as mentioned above, all major Muslim ethnic groups in Iran more or less submit to Shia Islam, even those that one wouldn't expect to be one, like the Arab minority. Outside of Iran, the Safavid influence also reaches some other countries in the region, most notably Iraq (Iraqi Arabs who were concentrated in the villages and towns in the south of Iraq where Savafid influence was strongest became Shi'ites, Iraqi Arabs in the major cities (e.g. Basra) and further north (what is now province of Babil and northwards) didn't convert. The demographic changes in these areas are much more recent, as any look into the demographics in Iraq in the 1920s would tell you), Bahrain (though many of whom are descended of Persian immigrants), Afghanistan (the Hazaras submitted to the Safavids, though the others didn't), and Azerbaijan (majority Azeris).
* Despite this, Iran is not controlled by Shari'a Law. Iran's judicial law is made-up on the spot. Iran's political system is supposed to be a mixture of "what's good and evil according to the subtext."
** This is mostly because ''Shari'a'' is chiefly a Sunni concept, and relies on an interpretation of the way the judiciary ought to work that fell out of fashion in Shi'a circles several centuries ago. Mainstream Shi'a jurisprudence is of the Usuli branch of the Ja'fari school, which grants (among other things) extensive power to judges to interpret and re-interpret Qur'anic law as they see fit in a process known as ''ijtihad''; ''ijtihad'' is seen in most Sunni circles as more or less impossible in modern times, and its revival and application to modern times is a very controversial issue among Sunni legal scholars.

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* Iran's official language is ''Persian'' or Farsi, and the official script is the Arabic alphabet with the addition of four letters to make up for sounds which Arabic lacks.
** Persian is not related to Arabic, despite the large number of loanwords. Persian is an Indo-European language, which makes it related to most languages spoken in Europe and the Indian sub-continent, including English. Old Persian was rather similar to Sanskrit, though it evolved and picked up a fair amount of vocabulary from Arabic.
*** A good analogy for Farsi's linguistic situation is actually English: just as English is a Germanic language with substantial Romance (specifically French) vocabulary, Farsi is an Indo-European language (which Germanic and Romance languages are as well, by the way, albeit in separate sub-families both to Farsi and each other) with substantial Afro-Asiatic (specifically Arabic) vocabulary. Just as French-derived words in English are more "high-class" or "technical" than the Germanic ones, the Arabic imports in Farsi generally deal with more sophisticated topics (for the reason why, see [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratum_(linguistics) this]]). For instance, in the same way that English ''government'' comes from Old French and is clearly related to the Modern French ''gouvernement'' (same thing), the Farsi word for "government" is the Arabic-derived ''hokumet'' (the Arabic is ''hukumah'', but can be pronounced as ''hukumat'' in certain situations which we won't go into here). On the other hand, day-to-day words (or at least words whose meanings are very ancient) are almost inevitably Indo-European, just as 88% of the day-to-day vocabulary of English is Germanic. ''Star'' in English is clearly more closely related to the Dutch ''ster'' and German ''Stern'' than the French ''étoile'' or Italian ''stella'', and the Farsi ''setāre'' is very obviously Indo-European (the Arabic word is ''najm'').
** Some Persian words that are cognates of English words include
*** baradar - brother
*** dokhtar - daughter, girl
*** dar - door
*** khoda - god
*** carkh - circle (actually means wheel)
*** abad - abode
*** djavan - young
*** now - new
*** The two languages' common origin means that there are many other examples.
** Persian has influenced many languages throughout its long life. Its oldest ancestor, Old Persian, was propagated through the Achaemenids' expansion in the Middle East, although Aramaic still topped it as the region's ''lingua franca''; in particular, the language provided gigantic amount of loanwords to Armenian it was formerly thought the latter was a part of the Iranian language family. Later, Persian became one of the few escapees of the Arabs' language colonialism by managing to be its equal; it was through Persian that Islam was spread through such areas as the Caucasus and Central, South, and Southeast Asia, hence why Persian terminology is more favored there than Arabic itself (e.g. ''namaz'', the Persian word for Islamic prayers, is more common in those areas than the original Arabic word, ''salat''). The literary language of the Ottoman Empire is also a weird mixture of Turkish and Persian, with the former serving as its syntax and the latter providing the vocabulary. Languages influenced throughout this period include Hindustani, Bengali, Malay, Pashto, Azeri, Turkish, Punjabi...
** Other than Persian, Iran is home to most languages from the Western Iranian language family (which Persian is a part of) that laypeople usually don't know much, such as Kurdish, Balochi, Lankaran, Talysh, Mazanderani, Lurish, Gilaki, and several more. The language with the second-most speakers, though, came from the Turkic family: Azeri, spoken in the northwestern region of Azerbaijan. Other notable languages include Turkmen (spoken mainly in the northeast) and Arabic (in the southwest).
** Another significant language in Iran's history is Avestan, formerly spoken in the Parthian region, which has a history rivalling that of Persian itself. It was the sacred language of Zoroastrianism, and is ''very'' similar to Sanskrit, a coincidence since the latter is also the sacred language of a contemporary religion, Hinduism. However, unlike Persian, it never made it big and was already dead by the time of the Achaemenids' expansion, although Zoroastrian communities still use it for liturgical reasons.
* Iran is a very diverse country. In addition to ethnic Persians, there are Azeris, Kurds, Armenians, Arabs, Jews, and other groups living in the country. In fact, the country is home to the largest country's Azeri community of Azeris, even surpassing surpasses those in the titular country of Azerbaijan itself.
** Also, there
Azerbaijan.
* There
is a great diversity in how people look. Many Most Iranians have a tan or olive complexion, dark hair, and brown eyes, but there are also pale blondes and skin, blondes, redheads, as well as people and blue eyes are not unheard of. Ditto with a vaguely South East Asian appearance.look; ancient Turks were known for this, and while modern Iranian Turks are not that different from Persians, it still exists to a degree, particularly among the Turkmens. Some Iranians even have skin as dark as someone from Africa or southern India.
* Iran's official religion is Shi'a UsefulNotes/{{Islam}}. 98% of all Iranians are Muslim. Before Islam, most Iranians were [[UsefulNotes/{{Zoroastrianism}} Zoroastrian]]. A tiny community of Zoroastrians still live in Iran, but most Zoroastrians live elsewhere in modern times (particularly in India).
**
India). Iranian Shiism is a surprisingly recent development: the conversion process only began around 1500, with the rise of the Safavid dynasty, and only took hold after a few centuries of concerted effort by the Safavids to get the Iranians to change their religion. Before that, Iran was noted as a bastion of Hanafi Sunnism.
** * Despite this, Iran is not controlled by Shari'a Law. Iran's judicial law is made-up on the spot. Iran's political system is supposed to be a mixture of "what's good and evil according to the subtext." This is mostly because ''Shari'a'' is chiefly a Sunni concept, and relies on an interpretation of the way the judiciary ought to work that fell out of fashion in Shi'a circles several centuries ago. Mainstream Shi'a jurisprudence is of the Usuli branch of the Ja'fari school, which grants (among other things) extensive power to judges to interpret and re-interpret Qur'anic law as they see fit in a process known as ''ijtihad''; ''ijtihad'' is seen in most Sunni circles as more or less impossible in modern times, and its revival and application to modern times is a very controversial issue among Sunni legal scholars.
*
Due to the overarching influence of the Safavids as mentioned above, Safavids, all major Muslim ethnic groups in Iran more or less submit to Shia Islam, even those that one wouldn't expect to be one, like the Arab minority. Outside of Iran, the Safavid influence also reaches some other countries in the region, most notably Iraq (Iraqi Arabs who were concentrated in the villages and towns in the south of Iraq where Savafid influence was strongest became Shi'ites, Iraqi Arabs in the major cities (e.g. Basra) and further north (what is now province of Babil and northwards) didn't convert. The demographic changes in these areas are much more recent, as any look into the demographics in Iraq in the 1920s would tell you), Bahrain (though many of whom are descended of Persian immigrants), Afghanistan (the Hazaras submitted to the Safavids, though the others didn't), and Azerbaijan (majority Azeris).
* Iran has an extremely tremendous impact on the direction the Muslim world is taking, thanks to its strong cultural and national foundation. Despite this, its humiliating defeat at the hands of the Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century AD, Iran is [[HesBack came back from the brink fairly quickly]] and reasserted itself in the politics of the Caliphate, forcing the rigid Umayyads to hand power over to the Abbasids, then when they thought that the latter weren't doing any good, [[StartMyOwn broke away from the Caliphate entirely]]. While Middle Eastern civilizations like the Arameans and Egyptians fell to Arab hegemony, Iran not only resisted assimilation, but ''took over'' the hegemony in favor of their own; Baghdad was controlled by Shari'a Law. Iran's judicial law is made-up on the spot. Iran's political system is supposed to be a mixture Iran, so all Abbasid caliphs there became tributaries of "what's good and evil according Persian empires to the subtext."
** This
east. Persian culture essentially shaped up the bulk of what we call today "Muslim culture", including but not limited to architecture, music, literature, even the administrative structure of many Muslim empires were modeled after the Sassanids. Without Iran, the Muslim world won't probably become as successful as it did in history. Sir Muhammad Iqbal put it this way:
-->''If you ask me what
is mostly because ''Shari'a'' is chiefly the most important event in the history of Islam, I shall say without any hesitation: “The Conquest of Persia.” The battle of Nehawand gave the Arabs not only a Sunni concept, beautiful country, but also an ancient civilization; or, more properly, a people who could make a new civilisation with the Semitic and relies on an interpretation Aryan material. Our Muslim civilisation is a product of the way the judiciary ought to work that fell out of fashion in Shi'a circles several centuries ago. Mainstream Shi'a jurisprudence is cross-fertilisation of the Usuli branch of Semitic and the Ja'fari school, which grants (among other things) extensive power to judges to interpret and re-interpret Qur'anic law as they see fit in a process known as ''ijtihad''; ''ijtihad'' is seen in most Sunni circles as more or less impossible in modern times, and its revival and application to modern times Aryan ideas. It is a very controversial issue among Sunni legal scholars.child who inherits the softness and refinement of his Aryan mother, and the sterling character of his Semitic father. But for the conquest of Persia, the civilisation of Islam would have been one-sided. The conquest of Persia gave us what the conquest of Greece gave to the Romans.''



* Currently Iran is under sanctions by the West, with at least a hundred people dying every year because of outdated airplanes, tears dropped because of low-speed Internet connections, and millions wasted from the lack of support of [=PayPal=]/Visa. Or so the Iranian government unhesitatingly says, and while more than a bit might have kernals of truth in it people are advised to take this with [[UnreliableNarrator the usual grains of salt.]]
** In 2015, the government of Iran and a coalition of several other governments, including the US, the UK, and Germany, came to an historic agreement that would involve lifting most of the sanctions in exchange for Iran discontinuing any plans for a nuclear weapon and submitting to random inspections to ensure they were not building one. Though lauded in some circles (notably, of course, Iran itself), conservatives in many coalition governments were mercilessly critical of the agreement; Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel called it a "stunning historic mistake," and American conservatives unfavorably compared it to Neville Chamberlain's infamous appeasement of Hitler.
* The president from 2005 to 2013 was Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, widely noted for his antics and [[TheUnpronounceable tongue-twister name]]. Widespread protests broke out over the results of his last election (2009), but were quickly put down. This was big news in the West, but then Music/MichaelJackson died and they forgot about it. The President [[NeverLiveItDown famously declared]] at Columbia University that Iran didn't have gay people like the United States did, and is an avowed Holocaust denier, as well as being anti-Israel in general. Internally, Ahmedinejad was noted as a populist and a leader of a movement of pietist laity: he was the first president not to be a cleric (he was a civil engineer and professor of engineering before going into politics full-time), and his faction was noted for mostly being made of hard-headed merchants and professionals, deeply religious and conservative but with a suspicion of clerics (he and Khamenei famously did not get along).
** Ahmedinejad's successor is Hassan Rouhani, who surprisingly won the 2013 elections in one round. Rouhani is noted as a moderate cleric, from the same faction as former President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, and a pragmatist engaged in serious diplomacy on the nuclear issue, of the same clout as former President Mohammad Khatami.
* Contrary to a popular interpretation of the Middle East, Iran actually has plenty of mountains covered in snow enough to support ski resorts. (This is actually true of the Middle East more generally; there are also snowy mountains and ski resorts in Turkey, Lebanon, and Morocco, and Iraq and Syria would be able to support a reasonable industry if they weren't, well, [[TheWarOnTerror Iraq]] and [[CivilWar Syria]]).
** The entire country is covered from head to toe by mountains it really is ridiculous should one depict the country as anything but that. Look at [[http://www.antiquity.ac.uk/projgall/roustaei325/images/figure1big.jpg this map]]. See how brown the country is compared to its surroundings? Persia was famous in the ancient world due to how painfully hard it is to conquer by outside powers, as the people there were mountaineers, very much a reversal of their ArchEnemy, the Greeks, who were primarily seafarers. Depicting it as mere desert is akin to showing that the Switzerland is a confederation of swampy bogs and marshes.

[[AC: Human Rights and Politics]]

to:

* Currently Iran is under sanctions by the West, with at least a hundred people dying every year because of outdated airplanes, tears dropped because of low-speed Internet connections, and millions wasted from the lack of support of [=PayPal=]/Visa. Or so the Iranian government unhesitatingly says, and while more than a bit might have kernals of truth in it people are advised to take this with [[UnreliableNarrator the usual grains of salt.]]
**
]]\\
\\
In 2015, the government of Iran and a coalition of several other governments, including the US, the UK, and Germany, came to an historic agreement that would involve lifting most of the sanctions in exchange for Iran discontinuing any plans for a nuclear weapon and submitting to random inspections to ensure they were not building one. Though lauded in some circles (notably, of course, Iran itself), conservatives in many coalition governments were mercilessly critical of the agreement; Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel called it a "stunning historic mistake," and American conservatives unfavorably compared it to Neville Chamberlain's infamous appeasement of Hitler.
* The president from 2005 to 2013 was Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, widely noted for his antics and [[TheUnpronounceable tongue-twister name]]. Widespread protests broke out over the results of his last election (2009), but were quickly put down. This was big news in the West, but then Music/MichaelJackson died and they forgot about it. The President [[NeverLiveItDown famously declared]] at Columbia University that Iran didn't have gay people like the United States did, and is an avowed Holocaust denier, as well as being anti-Israel in general. Internally, Ahmedinejad was noted as a populist and a leader of a movement of pietist laity: he was the first president not to be a cleric (he was a civil engineer and professor of engineering before going into politics full-time), and his faction was noted for mostly being made of hard-headed merchants and professionals, deeply religious and conservative but with a suspicion of clerics (he and Khamenei famously did not get along).
**
along).\\
\\
Ahmedinejad's successor is Hassan Rouhani, who surprisingly won the 2013 elections in one round. Rouhani is noted as a moderate cleric, from the same faction as former President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, and a pragmatist engaged in serious diplomacy on the nuclear issue, of the same clout as former President Mohammad Khatami.
* Contrary to a popular interpretation of the Middle East, Iran actually has plenty a variable geography defined less as desert and more as mountains; the Iranian Plateau (and so the country) is almost entirely of orogenic origin, with the Zagros making up the longest mountain range. Of the 10 most populous cities, only two (Ahvaz and Rasht) do not exceed 900 meters/3000 feet above sea level. Tehran is [[https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5d/Tehran111.jpg located on a mountainous valley]]. In the Caspian Sea coast, however, the land abruptly lowers until it hits below sea level. The coast and surrounding mountains covered in snow enough to support ski resorts. (This is actually true of are lush and green. The same goes for the Middle East more generally; there are also snowy mountains Persian Gulf coast, minus the lush and ski resorts in Turkey, Lebanon, and Morocco, and Iraq and Syria would be able to support a reasonable industry if they weren't, well, [[TheWarOnTerror Iraq]] and [[CivilWar Syria]]).
** The entire country is covered from head to toe by mountains it really is ridiculous should one depict
green part. Meanwhile, the country as anything but that. Look at [[http://www.antiquity.ac.uk/projgall/roustaei325/images/figure1big.jpg this map]]. See how brown the country is compared to its surroundings? Persia was famous in the ancient world due to how painfully hard it is to conquer by outside powers, as the people there were mountaineers, very much a reversal of their ArchEnemy, the Greeks, who were primarily seafarers. Depicting it as mere southeastern Dasht-e-Lut desert is akin to showing that contending for the Switzerland is a confederation title of swampy bogs and marshes.

[[AC:
the hottest desert on Earth.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:
Human Rights and Politics]]



* Iran is controlled by an interesting conglomeration of a government. There is a Supreme Leader, a President, and the Majles, the Iranian parliament. The Supreme Leader is exactly as powerful as the name implies; elected officials only have however much authority the Supreme Leader sees fit to delegate to them. While the President is usually the most visible member of the government, especially in the West, his influence is usually over economic policy.
** Interestingly, the Jewish populace of Iran has a seat in parliament. (Iran hosts the second-largest population of Jews in the Middle East.) The Armenian populace has one as well.
* Iran's major export, and best known, is oil. It also exports goods to the landlocked countries of Central Asia, such as foodstuffs. It has also started exporting cars to other countries; some are license-built European items, but others are homegrown. Iran also has its hand in electronic consumerism, but just enough for the domestic use.
** The Iranian economy is very interesting to economists, as it has robust GDP growth, but both inflation and unemployment are high--and having all three together is supposed to be impossible. As it turns out, when you factor out oil, Iran's economic growth rate is rather small--in other words, Iran is facing stagflation. Although sanctions haven't exactly helped Iran's economic circumstances, it does mean that Iran's current economic policy--which is highly inflationary (to the point of [[RidiculousExchangeRates near-hyperinflation]] in late 2012)--is exactly the opposite of what it should be doing from a purely economic standpoint. (Mainstream economics holds that when faced with stagflation, the first priority should be contractionary monetary policy to fight inflation, taking the hit to growth and employment while prices stabilize; for political reasons, Iran can't do this, as a hit to growth or employment might cause political instability, resulting in the whole complicated political system outlined above crashing down.) As of 2015, the prospective lifting of sanctions as a result of the nuclear deal with the United States, China, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany (but mostly just the United States) has some prospects for changing things, but everything remains untested.
* The Cyrus Cylinder, issued by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century B.C., proclaims the benefits of Cyrus' rule, and has been called the first human rights charter in history. Despite being an ancient propaganda piece, [[FairForItsDay Cyrus was indeed known for his enlightened rule]]. Iranian reformers count Cyrus and the Cylinder among their sources of inspiration.
** Regarding Cyrus the Great, his ludicrously-massive accomplishments almost border on the stuff of legend. He created Iran's first multi-national empire: the Achaemenid Empire, which [[http://orig13.deviantart.net/ebbc/f/2013/027/c/d/achaemenid_empire_engorged_by_daeres-d5sxia8.png stretched all the way from northwestern Indian subcontinent to Greece, then down to Egypt]]. It was the largest empire in the ancient world had known by that point, even surpassing the Roman Empire, which only reached such extent about five centuries later. Such accomplishment obviously netted him many titles, including the King of Kings, Great Leader (this time, that pretentious title ''is'' justified), and believe it or not, ''[[MessianicArchetype Messiah]]''. The last part was even written in the freaking ''[[UsefulNotes/{{TheBible}} Bible]]''; Cyrus' annexation of Babylonia happened when the Jews were in the midst of their exile. Being known for his leniency against minorities, he allowed the Jews their safe return to the Holy Land and even approved the building of the Second Temple, two things that the Jews will never forget him for. For this reason, he is the only Gentile (i.e. non-Jew) to explicitly be called by their prophetic title: Messiah.

to:

* Iran is controlled by an interesting conglomeration of a government. There is a Supreme Leader, a President, and the Majles, the Iranian parliament. The Supreme Leader is exactly as powerful as the name implies; elected officials only have however much authority the Supreme Leader sees fit to delegate to them. While the President is usually the most visible member of the government, especially in the West, his influence is usually over economic policy.
**
policy.\\
\\
Interestingly, the Jewish populace of Iran has a seat in parliament. (Iran hosts the second-largest population of Jews in the Middle East.) The Armenian populace has one as well.
* Iran's major export, and best known, is oil. It also exports goods to the landlocked countries of Central Asia, such as foodstuffs. It has also started exporting cars to other countries; some are license-built European items, but others are homegrown. Iran also has its hand in electronic consumerism, but just enough for the domestic use. \n** \\
\\
The Iranian economy is very interesting to economists, as it has robust GDP growth, but both inflation and unemployment are high--and having all three together is supposed to be impossible. As it turns out, when you factor out oil, Iran's economic growth rate is rather small--in other words, Iran is facing stagflation. Although sanctions haven't exactly helped Iran's economic circumstances, it does mean that Iran's current economic policy--which is highly inflationary (to the point of [[RidiculousExchangeRates near-hyperinflation]] in late 2012)--is exactly the opposite of what it should be doing from a purely economic standpoint. (Mainstream economics holds that when faced with stagflation, the first priority should be contractionary monetary policy to fight inflation, taking the hit to growth and employment while prices stabilize; for political reasons, Iran can't do this, as a hit to growth or employment might cause political instability, resulting in the whole complicated political system outlined above crashing down.) As of 2015, the prospective lifting of sanctions as a result of the nuclear deal with the United States, China, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany (but mostly just the United States) has some prospects for changing things, but everything remains untested.
* The Cyrus Cylinder, issued by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century B.C., proclaims the benefits of Cyrus' rule, and has been called the first human rights charter in history. Despite being an ancient propaganda piece, [[FairForItsDay Cyrus was indeed known for his enlightened rule]]. Iranian reformers count Cyrus and the Cylinder among their sources of inspiration.
**
inspiration.\\
\\
Regarding Cyrus the Great, his ludicrously-massive accomplishments almost border on the stuff of legend. He created Iran's first multi-national empire: the Achaemenid Empire, which [[http://orig13.deviantart.net/ebbc/f/2013/027/c/d/achaemenid_empire_engorged_by_daeres-d5sxia8.png stretched all the way from northwestern Indian subcontinent to Greece, then down to Egypt]]. It was the largest empire in the ancient world had known by that point, even surpassing the Roman Empire, which only reached such extent about five centuries later. Such accomplishment obviously netted him many titles, including the King of Kings, Great Leader (this time, that pretentious title ''is'' justified), and believe it or not, ''[[MessianicArchetype Messiah]]''. The last part was even written in the freaking ''[[UsefulNotes/{{TheBible}} Bible]]''; [[UsefulNotes/{{TheBible}} Bible]]; Cyrus' annexation of Babylonia happened when the Jews were in the midst of their exile. Being known for his leniency against minorities, he allowed the Jews their safe return to the Holy Land and even approved the building of the Second Temple, two things that the Jews will never forget him for. For this reason, he is the only Gentile (i.e. non-Jew) to explicitly be called by their prophetic title: Messiah.




[[AC: Culture]]
* Though Iranians do not like to say they imitate Western culture ''per se'', in reality the country is extremely multicultural and open to foreign influences.
** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arsacid_empire#Society_and_culture Not much]] has changed in 2000 years.

to:

\n[[AC: [[/folder]]

[[folder:
Culture]]
* Though Iranians do not like to say they imitate Western culture ''per se'', in reality the country is extremely multicultural and open to foreign influences.
**
influences. [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arsacid_empire#Society_and_culture Not much]] has changed in 2000 years.




[[AC: Stereotypes]]

to:

\n[[AC: [[/folder]]

[[folder:
Stereotypes]]



[[AC: Movies and TV Industry]]

to:

[[AC: [[/folder]]

[[folder:
Movies and TV Industry]]




[[AC: Literature]]

to:

\n[[AC: [[/folder]]

[[folder:
Literature]]




to:

[[/folder]]
29th Aug '17 6:32:11 PM KnightOfGondor
Is there an issue? Send a Message


** UsefulNotes/{{Iraq}} was always a regional rival due to the oil issue, even under the Shah, but it wasn't until UsefulNotes/SaddamHussein came into power that things really boiled over. Sensing the turmoil wrought from the Islamic Revolution, Saddam [[UsefulNotes/IranIraqWar launched a military offensive]] in an attempt to gain control of Iranian oil, consequently instigating a war that lasted throughout the 1980s. Most countries supported Iraq,the largest contributors being the Soviet Union and France, with America even going so far as to ignore Saddam's use of chemical weapons, although Iran did receive foreign aid, most notably from China. It was only after the death toll reached a quarter of a million deaths that anybody was willing to negotiate a ceasefire. Ruhollah Khomeini, the orchestrator of the Revolution and the Supreme Leader of Iran, refused initially. It wasn't until Hashemi Rafsanjani, his deputy, persuaded him otherwise that he accepted the ceasefire. Tensions remained long after the war, and it wasn't until Saddam was dethroned that Iran and Iraq have started patching things up.

to:

** UsefulNotes/{{Iraq}} was always a regional rival due to the oil issue, even under the Shah, but it wasn't until UsefulNotes/SaddamHussein came into power that things really boiled over. Sensing the turmoil wrought from the Islamic Revolution, Saddam [[UsefulNotes/IranIraqWar launched a military offensive]] in an attempt to gain control of Iranian oil, consequently instigating a war that lasted throughout the 1980s. Most countries supported Iraq,the Iraq, the largest contributors being the Soviet Union and France, with America even going so far as to ignore Saddam's use of chemical weapons, although Iran did receive foreign aid, most notably from China. It was only after the death toll reached a quarter of a million deaths that anybody was willing to negotiate a ceasefire. Ruhollah Khomeini, the orchestrator of the Revolution and the Supreme Leader of Iran, refused initially. It wasn't until Hashemi Rafsanjani, his deputy, persuaded him otherwise that he accepted the ceasefire. Tensions remained long after the war, and it wasn't until Saddam was dethroned that Iran and Iraq have started patching things up.
29th Aug '17 6:29:19 PM KnightOfGondor
Is there an issue? Send a Message


** UsefulNotes/{{Iraq}} was always a regional rival due to the oil issue, even under the Shah, but it wasn't until UsefulNotes/SaddamHussein came into power that things really boiled over. Sensing the turmoil wrought from the Islamic Revolution, Saddam [[UsefulNotes/IranIraqWar launched a military offensive]] in an attempt to gain control of Iranian oil, consequently instigating a war that lasted throughout the 1980s. Most countries supported Iraq, with America even going so far as to provide chemical weapons to Saddam, although Iran did receive foreign aid, most notably from China. It was only after the death toll reached a quarter of a million deaths that anybody was willing to negotiate a ceasefire. Ruhollah Khomeini, the orchestrator of the Revolution and the Supreme Leader of Iran, refused initially. It wasn't until Hashemi Rafsanjani, his deputy, persuaded him otherwise that he accepted the ceasefire. Tensions remained long after the war, and it wasn't until Saddam was dethroned that Iran and Iraq have started patching things up.

to:

** UsefulNotes/{{Iraq}} was always a regional rival due to the oil issue, even under the Shah, but it wasn't until UsefulNotes/SaddamHussein came into power that things really boiled over. Sensing the turmoil wrought from the Islamic Revolution, Saddam [[UsefulNotes/IranIraqWar launched a military offensive]] in an attempt to gain control of Iranian oil, consequently instigating a war that lasted throughout the 1980s. Most countries supported Iraq, Iraq,the largest contributors being the Soviet Union and France, with America even going so far as to provide ignore Saddam's use of chemical weapons to Saddam, weapons, although Iran did receive foreign aid, most notably from China. It was only after the death toll reached a quarter of a million deaths that anybody was willing to negotiate a ceasefire. Ruhollah Khomeini, the orchestrator of the Revolution and the Supreme Leader of Iran, refused initially. It wasn't until Hashemi Rafsanjani, his deputy, persuaded him otherwise that he accepted the ceasefire. Tensions remained long after the war, and it wasn't until Saddam was dethroned that Iran and Iraq have started patching things up.
22nd Jul '17 11:59:31 AM jamespolk
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* '''Film/ASeparation''': About the disintegration of a marriage, Iranian-style, which has won quite a few awards.

to:

* '''Film/ASeparation''': About the disintegration of a marriage, Iranian-style, which has won quite a few awards. First Iranian film to win the Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film.




to:

* '''Film/TheSalesman''': Husband-and-wife actors have to cope after an incident of shocking violence. Second Iranian film to win the Foreign Language Film Oscar.
8th Jul '17 3:32:13 AM jormis29
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* '''Taste of Cherry''': Probably the most famous movie of Iranian auteur Abbas Kiarostami, about a man seeking help with his suicide. Suprisingly un-depressing for some reason.

to:

* '''Taste of Cherry''': '''Film/TasteOfCherry''': Probably the most famous movie of Iranian auteur Abbas Kiarostami, about a man seeking help with his suicide. Suprisingly un-depressing for some reason.
1st Jul '17 4:46:40 PM nombretomado
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* Iranians have a rich background when it comes to science. You can check TheOtherWiki for more information.

to:

* Iranians have a rich background when it comes to science. You can check TheOtherWiki Wiki/TheOtherWiki for more information.
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http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=UsefulNotes.Iran