History Main / IstanbulNotConstantinople

5th Feb '17 2:25:59 PM kazokuhouou
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Added DiffLines:

** The [[VideoGame/PokemonSunAndMoon seventh generation]] is based on Hawaii.
6th Dec '16 5:31:18 AM AgentKyles
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See also FantasyCounterpartCulture. PleaseSelectNewCityName often provides names to choose from.

to:

See also FantasyCounterpartCulture. PleaseSelectNewCityName often provides names to choose from.
from (and real life examples should rather go there).
5th Dec '16 6:57:52 AM DoctorCooper
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[[folder:Real life]]
* The city now known as Istanbul was founded as "Byzantion" (often referred to in the latinised form "[[UsefulNotes/ByzantineEmpire Byzantium]]"), and was later renamed "Nova Roma" (New Rome) by Constantine, but people kept on calling it Constantine's City ([[AC:Constantinopolis]]/Κωνσταντινούπολις/Constantinople) until the name stuck. The alternate name "Istanbul" came into use at least a millennium before Turkey finally made it official in 1930. Its origin might come from the Greek "εις την Πόλιν," literally "to the city," and roughly "downtown." It might also simply be a corruption of "-instantinople." In spite of all this, there lingers a popular perception that Istanbul is a Turkish name applied through conquest by the Turks.
* Australia was hypothesised to exist, and given the name ''Terra Australis'' ("Southern Land"), long before the Dutch discovered it and named it New Holland. That was reduced to the name of the western parts, after the British charted the east coast and called their part New South Wales. At that point, the British felt that the whole continent needed a name separate from those of its parts, and went back to ''Terra Australis'', or just ''Australia'' ("Southern"). New Holland is now obsolete, although New South Wales remains the name of part of the old British region.
** Various parts of Australia have also had this: Tasmania was originally called Van Diemen's Land, Melbourne was informally named Batmania[[note]] not after enthusiasm for the Caped Crusader. Instead after founder John Batman.[[/note]] until the British made Melbourne official, and Brisbane was originally named Moreton Bay, just to name a few.
* Egypt is originally called "Misr" (from an archaic word meaning "capital" or "civilization"; compare Hebrew ''Mitzrayim'') in the local language (Arabic). In [[AncientEgypt Ancient Egyptian]], the word was something like ''Kemet'', meaning "the Black Land" (from the black soil of the Nile Valley, in contrast to the surrounding "Red Land", i.e. desert), but nobody speaks that anymore.
* Morocco is called "Al-Maghreb" ("The Country of the Sunset").
* The Arabic language itself adapts some country names in a very particular fashion: for example, Venice is called "Al-Bunduqia" (approximately "The Hazelnut," for reasons that remain unclear; either way, "hazelnut" came to mean "bullet" and eventually "musket or rifle" ), and "al-Yunaan" (from "Ionia") for Greece for starters. The trope namer town is called "Al-Qusṭanṭiniyyah" (now "Isṭanbūl"). Most countries are rendered in the feminine (adding an -a suffix) like "Firansa", "Esbania", "Bolanda" (Poland; Arabic has no "p" sound), "Amriika", probably under a combination of Latin/Romance influence and an old tradition that prefers to give names of regions feminine names unless the name is also an Arabic masculine word (e.g. Morocco--Al-Maghrib, which is the Arabic word for "sunset" and is masculine in that usage). Correspondingly, those names that don't end in "a" are still usually considered feminine and are assigned the definite article ("al-", equivalent to "the"): al-Siin (China), al-Yaban (Japan, from English), al-Sawiid (Sweden), al-Maksiik (Mexico, also from English), al-Brasiil (Brazil)... Peculiarly, there is one country that ends in "a" and also has the definite: al-Nimsa, the Arabic word for Austria, which arrived in Arabic at the end of a long chain of meaning mutation and borrowing: originally from ''nemets(y)", a Slavic term for "mute", which became a Slavic term for "foreigner", which was narrowed down to mean "German", which the Turks took as "Nemce" meaning "Austrian" because those were the Germans they had the most, um, [[UsefulNotes/BattleOfLepanto extensive]] [[UsefulNotes/SiegeOfVienna contact]] with, and then borrowed to al-Nimsa (for no apparent reason) by the Arabs.
* In a similar way, many countries in Japanese are or were spelled in a different way from the originals, sometimes using how the locals call their country or using another proxy language: Spain is spelled in Japanese as スペイン (Supein, from English), instead of using the Spanish one, the same goes with Mexico, who is spelled in Japanese as メキシコ (Mekishiko, also from English). The biggest offenders are Argentina (アルゼンチン, Aruzenchin, from ''Argentine'', a very archaic English spelling of that country that even the British doesn't use it any more) and the Netherlands/Holland (オランダ, Oranda, from Spanish since the country is named ''Holanda'' in that language).
** Often, Japanese-speakers would borrow the Chinese characters for a country's name when writing it, which would lead to alternate pronunciations. For example, in older documents the Japanese word for America was often written using the Chinese characters 米国 as shorthand, and was meant to be read as "Ame-rika". However, in most other contexts those Chinese characters stood for the words "bei-koku." As a result, "Beikoku" became an alternate Japanese name for America alongside "Amerika." The characters translate into "rice-country": an allusion to Uncle Ben's is apparent.
** The name of Mexico also has different spelling in Japanese, depending of which part of Mexico we're talking about: As already mentioned, the name of the country is spelled in Japanese by using English as proxy, but on the other hand, the State of Mexico is spelled in Japanese as メヒコ州 (Phonetically spelled as ''Mehiko-shuu'' and translated literally as ''State Of Mexico'', in Spanish ''Estado de Mexico)'', being Japanese one of the few languages who make a differentiation of the spelling between the country and the Mexican state. In Spanish, the people of Mexico are named ''Mexicanos'' (male plural) and ''Mexicanas'' (female plural), while the people of the State of Mexico are named ''Mexiquenses''. (plural for both genders)
* New Amsterdam was immediately renamed "New York" after the English took the city from the Dutch; this was done to publicize the conquest, boost nationalism, and [[{{Egopolis}} honor the Duke of York]], who was appointed its governor.
* Speaking of the Dutch, that is only the English word for inhabitants and the language of the Netherlands (Netherlanders is what they call themselves). Confusingly, both the Netherlands and Germany refer to 'German' as Duits/Deutsch.
* After UsefulNotes/TheAmericanRevolution, some cities underwent mild name changes: most famously, Charles Town became Charleston, but other changes included Nashborough and Jonesborough becoming Nashville and Jonesville, respectively.
* Some other examples of English place-names sounding slightly or not so slightly different from the form used in the place itself. The forms frequently are taken from French or Latin, while in some cases they reflect older forms that have fallen into disuse: Albania (Shqiperia), Antwerp (Antwerpen), Athens (Athinai), Austria (Österreich), Bavaria (Bayern), Berne (Bern), Brittany (Bretagne aka "Little Britain"), Brunswick (Braunschweig, derived from the original name Brunswich), Burgundy (Bourgogne, via German Burgund), Camperdown (Kamperduijn), Cologne (Köln, from Colonia Agrippina via French), Constance (Konstanz), Copenhagen (Köbenhavn), Crimea (Krym), Dunkirk (Dunkerque), [[{{Hamlet}} Elsinore]] (Helsingör), Finland (Suomi), Flanders (Vlaanderen), Flushing (Vlissingen), Geneva (Génève), Genoa (Genova), Germany (Deutschland), Ghent (Gent), Heligoland (Helgoland), Jutland (Jylland), Lake Constance (Bodensee), Leghorn (Livorno), Lisbon (Lisboa), Marseilles (Marseille), Milan (Milano), Moscow and Muscovy (Moskva), Munich (München), Naples (Napoli), Norway (Norge), Nuremberg (Nürnberg), Ostend (Oostende), the Palatinate (die Pfalz), Poland (Polska, probably via either German "Polen" or French "Pologne"), Prague (Praha, via German "Prag"), Prussia (Preußen), Rome (Roma), Saint Petersburg (Sankt-Peterburg), Saxony (Sachsen), Seville (Sevilla), Spire (Speyer), Sweden (Sverige), Turine (Torino), Tuscany (Toscana), Ushant (Ouessant), Venice (Venezia, via French "Venise"), Vienna (Wien, Latin Vindobona, French Vienne), Vistula (Wisla, preferring the Latin name), Warsaw (Warszawa), Zealand (Sjaelland, the one in Denmark), Zealand (Zeeland, the one in the Netherlands, after which New Zealand is named).
** Some examples of French names for places better known in English by English names: Amérique (America), Angleterre ("Angles-Land", England), Cornouailles (Cornwall), Douvres (Dover), Ecosse (Scotland), Edimbourg (Edinburgh), les Etats-Unis (the United States), les îles Anglo-Normandes ("the Anglo-Norman Islands", i. e. the Channel Islands), Londres (London), les Malouines (the Falkland Isles, named after the French seaport of Saint-Malo, although "îles Falkland" also is used), Nouvelle-Ecosse ("New Scotland", Nova Scotia, part of the old French colony Acadie), la Nouvelle Orléans (New Orleans, after the French city of Orléans), le pays de Galles ("Country of Wales"), la Tamise (the Thames), Terre-Neuve ("New Land", Newfoundland). New York remains New York, though.
** And some German ones that are still current: Amerika, Australien, Britisch-Kolumbien (British Columbia, but beware: Kolumbien = Colombia), Kalifornien (California), Kanada, Mittelengland ("Central England" = Midlands plus southern Part of North England), Neuengland (New England), Neuseeland (New Zealand), Norddakota (North Dakota), Schottland (Scotland), Südafrika, Süddakota (South Dakota), die Themse (the Thames). As English became the dominant language on Earth in the 20th century, some names have fallen into disuse, e. g. das Felsengebirge (the Rocky Mountains), Neuyork and Pennsylvanien.
** Many cities have some very different names in different languages, even ones that don't border on it. For instance Germany's westernmost major city Aachen is called Aix-la-Chapelle in French, Aken in Dutch, Flemish and Afrikaans, Achenas in Lithuanian, Ahene in Latvian, Aquisgranum in Latin, Aquisgrana in Italian, Aquisgrà in Catalan, Aquisgrán in Spanish, Aquisgrano in Portuguese, Akwizgran in Polish, Akisgran in Basque, Cáchy in Czech, Oochen in Letzeburgisch (the language of Luxembourg), and Oche in the local German dialect. That it used to be one of the most important cities of the UsefulNotes/HolyRomanEmpire probably helps.
* Supposedly, Osama Bin-Laden made a point of referring to Spain and Portugal as Al-Andalus. Al-Andalus (for which the modern southern portion of Spain, Andalucia is called) was what the Iberian Peninsula was called by the Islamic world, of which it was a part of, before the Reconquista period. He also referred to Iraq as Mesopotamia.
* Greece, which is called Ellada / Hellas by Greeks themselves and is officially called the Hellenic Republic, which many people have probably never heard. The word Greek comes from Latin, but it stuck so now the whole world uses it, even by Greeks themselves when talking to foreigners.
** This goes back all the way to the Romans, who called the areas of modern-day Italy that were then heavy with Greek settlers as [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magna_Graecia Magna Graecia,]] literally "Greater Greece".
** When Greece gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century, government agents were sent to every village to spread the news that the residents were now Greek citizens. Many villagers were surprised, as they still considered themselves Romans!
*** For those who don't get it, some people in charge of Roman Empire moved their capital from Rome to Constantinople. They still call themselves Roman and their kingdom Roman Empire (althought not centered in Rome), other people call them Greek-Rome or Byzantine.
** Greece still calls France "Gallia", the name used by the ancient Romans.
* Iran is a slightly different case, since the government accepts the use of both terms interchangeably to refer to the country but adamantly uses Iran officially. Iran has been the name of the nation since ancient times, but the first Iranian empire was based in the region of Pars, so the Greeks called the country Persia, and the name stuck for 2500 years.
* The Polish-Ukrainian border has plenty of these problems, stemming back to the chaotic birth of Poland in the interbellum and the Soviet invasion and seizure of Eastern Poland in UsefulNotes/WorldWarII.
** Hell, even Kiev suffers from this. Or is it Kyiv?
*** The Norse named it Kænugarðr (Boat City)
*** Nowadays Kiev sits at the heart of the mostly Russian-speaking (though generally not Russian-aligned) Central Ukraine, where few people speak Ukrainian in informal situations. Urban Kiev is mostly Russian-speaking, except for official business, while the surrounding countryside mainly speaks an Ukrainian-Russian pidgin called "Surzhik" (a word that originally meant the mix of rye and wheat).
** A case study of this is Lemberg, Austria. Or perhaps Lwów, Poland. Then again we have Львов (L'vov), Soviet Union (and before that Russia). Of course many in Львів (L'viv), Ukraine would object....
*** Of course all these names already were used before 1918, since most of the languages were represented in the city's population, and e. g. Austrians and Germans still refer to the place as "Lemberg" today without dreaming of "claiming it back".
** A lot of cities in former Austro-Hungarian empire had mixed populations (Germans were quite a diaspora back then) and thus multiple names, such as Pressburg/Pozsony/Bratislava, Brünn/Brno, Prag/Praha, Pilsen/Plzeň, Eger/Cheb in Bohemia (not to be confused with Erlau/Eger in Hungary), Ödenburg/Sopron, Fünfkirchen/Pécs, Großwardein/Nagyvárad/Oradea Mare, Klausenberg/Kolozsvár/Cluj...
** Another case is the region known as Ardeal in Romanian, Erdély in Hungarian, Siebenbürgen in German or an English name derived from the Latin Transsilvania.
* Many of those who are generally sore about the Vietnam War often refuse to call Saigon by its modern name, Ho Chi Minh City.
** "Saigon" pretty much remains an alternate name for the city in Vietnam itself, and many Vietnamese still use the old name as well. In fact, plenty of places in Ho Chi Minh City still refers to it as Saigon (e.g. Saigon Zoo and Botanical Garden), and the name of the Saigon River was never changed in any way.
* St. Petersburg was renamed Petrograd before being renamed Leningrad and then being named St. Petersburg again.
** Hence the joke about an old Jewish man picked up by the Stalinist police and brought in for questioning:
--->Q: Where were you born?!
--->A: St. Petersburg.
--->Q: Where did you go to school?!
--->A: Petrograd.
--->Q: Where do you live?!
--->A: Leningrad.
--->Q: (menacingly) Where would you like to die?!
--->A: [[BookEnds St. Petersburg.]]
*** And ''before'' that, it was a tiny Swedish village called Nyen. UsefulNotes/PeterTheGreat took this territory from the Swedes and decided to build a new city there.
** There's also Tsaritsyn --> Stalingrad --> Volgograd
** And Yuzovka [[note]]After the Welsh industrialist named Hughes who funded its founding[[/note]] --> Trotsk [[note]]Possibly, for a little while in 1923; if it ever happened, it would be after Leon Trotsky[[/note]] --> Stalino [[note]]after Josef Stalin[[/note]] --> Donetsk [[note]]After the Seversky Donets River on which it lies.[[/note]]
** The entire former Soviet Union has this going on. After the Soviet Union crumbled most of the cities that had been changed to incorporate Lenin or Stalin's names have now reverted back to their original names.
* A certain contentious strip of land in the Middle East has been known by quite a few names, most recently "Palestine" before it changed (back, I suppose) to "Israel", though depending on how world politics go at least some chunk of it may be referred to as "Palestine" again.
** During Roman times it was referred to as Judaea. ''Farther'' back after the reign of King Solomon, it was Israel (Northern Kingdom) and Judah (Southern Kingdom). Before ''that'', it was Canaan...
** The Romans purposedly renamed Iudaea to Palaestina after repressing a Jewish revolt, after the Philistines, their former enemies in the area. It became Syria Palaestina, part of the larger Roman Syria province. The Arabic use of the term "Filastiin" ("Palestine") for the region derives from the fact that the Romans controlled it when the Muslim armies conquered it, and the Arabs being rather ignorant of the region's history just continued to use Roman names.
** When modern Israel was being founded, there was a debate of what to name it: "Judea," "Eretz Israel," "Zion," and "Palestine" were a few of the candidates. [[JewsLoveToArgue The debate went on so long]] that some documents were drawn up with a blank for the name of the country.
* The city of New Berlin in southern Ontario changed its name to Kitchener during the First World War.
** Several Canadian cities have gone through this: York/North York was changed to "Toronto" upon Confederation, as was Bytown --> Ottawa. Ontario and Quebec were themselves referred to as "Upper" and "Lower" Canada, respectively, until 1867.
*** "North York" is still used to refer to a suburb of Toronto, and many local buildings - such as the North York General Hospital - bear its name.
* "China" comes from the Qin (Ch'in) Dynasty. They call their nation "Zhongguo" or "The Middle Kingdom".
* "Japan" is also "Nippon" or "Nihon", or "The Source of the Sun". The name "Japan" in English and a lot of other languages comes from an old Chinese pronunciation for "Nihon" which was "Cipan" which was written by Marco Polo as "Cipangu". When the Portuguese came to Malaysia, they encountered the pronunciation having turned into "Jepang". And then when it was brought to English, it was "Giapan".
** "Nippon" is the official designation, used in official Japanese government communication, as well as most corporate and formal situations. "Nihon" is a dialect variant used in casual, informal situations.
*** To expand further, 'Nippon' is the traditional form, remembered because of its importance and its frequent use in official situations; however, a few centuries of linguistic drift have corrupted the 'pp' sound to an 'h' sound[[note]]via something like an 'f' sound, which is why you sometimes see 'Nifon', particularly in documents dating from Japan's early contact with the West, when it was current[[/note]], hence the casual form used in daily conversation.
* There once was a Roman settlement in Britain named Eboracum, probably named after a Celtic town possible itself named after a founder called Eboras or alternatively from Eborakon meaning "place of yew trees". When the Angles invaded, they renamed it Eoforwic (switching Ebor for Anglian Eofor meaning boar). Then the vikings came, and the name of the city became Jórvík. Following the Norman conquest, the name eventually changed to York.
* Mumbai, the second largest city in the world, was known as Bombay until 1995.
** India [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaming_of_cities_in_India sanskritized (or tamulized in the South) the name of a lot of cities since decolonization,]] thus we have Bombay->Mumbai, Madras->Chennai, Benares->Varanasi, Pondichéry->Puducherry...
*** And, hilariously, Kamptee->Kamthi, even though the name of the city comes from the English "Camp T", i.e. a British Army camp.
*** Also, Calcutta has become Kolkata once again.
*** Some of those name changes are really only changes on ortography, to reflect better the pronunciation of the name.
* In 1850 the [[UsefulNotes/{{Mormonism}} Mormon]] leaders submitted proposal to add an enormous state called "Deseret" to the United States. It stretched all the way from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. Congress, realizing that this was a not-so-sneaky attempt to create a vast new Mormon quasi-theocracy on a sizable chunk of land, decided to admit California instead, cut Deseret down to half its proposed size,[[note]]And, before statehood, cut further swaths of land from it to add to the nearby state of Nevada.[[/note]] rename it "Utah," organize it as a territory and not a state, and refuse admission as a state until 1896. Its capital, Great Salt Lake City, would have a much less radical name change a few years later.
** Timeline-191 has Mormon separatists repeatedly attempt to establish an independent Republic of Deseret in Utah based on the state proposed by RealLife Mormon settlers. The name derives from [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deseret_(Book_of_Mormon) the Book of Mormon.]]
** Like many odd Mormon words, this is derived from Joseph Smith's "Reformed Egyptian", and supposedly means "Honeybee" (a Mormon symbol of industry and industriousness). However, the only actual Ancient Egyptian term resembling "Deseret" is "dṛt" (Ancient Egyptian writing used no vowels; "deshret" is the most common reconstructed pronunciation). It means "Red Land", i.e. the desert[[note]]The similarity to English "desert" is entirely coincidental[[/note]] that surrounds the Nile Valley.[[note]]As mentioned above, "Kemet" - "The Black Land", or civilized Egypt[[/note]] So--desert. Which is most of "Deseret".
* For 190 years, most of the land now known as UsefulNotes/{{California}} was called "New Albion" and claimed by the British, despite a total lack of colonization. "UsefulNotes/{{California}}" was only the peninsula further south. Only in 1769, when the Spanish Empire began colonizing the region, did the name change.
** Under the Viceroyalty of Spain, what is now the U.S. State of California (and much of the SW U.S.) was called Alta California, or "Upper California", which is why the peninsula to the south is called Baja California, or "Lower California".
* The United States itself was originally going to be named Columbia, or United States of Columbia, or some variation thereof. The American moniker that was decided instead would symbolize how one day, all the Americas would be united. Up to World War I, the US' mascot was the goddess Columbia, as opposed to the more common nowadays Uncle Sam. In more iconic artwork, Columbia still represents the USA, as opposed to Uncle Sam.
** So that's where that studio got their logo from...
*** It is, though their version intentionally resembles the Statue of Liberty (Lady Liberty enlightening the world) .
** Hence, Washington, a District (as in an unincorporated city) of Columbia. Incidentally, she was a fictitious goddess, whose name is just a feminized version of Columbus (and the whole of the "Americas" were called Columbia for a while (hence the South American country, which was once the United States of Colombia)). She was the guardian spirit of America (and sits atop the Capitol) and also used as the personification of the States for some time. (Uncle Sam was used simultaneously, he used to represent the gov't specifically (and comes from a Revolutionary War hero who sent boxes mysteriously labeled 'Uncle Sam' containing supplies to the troops. The United States stopped referring to itself as Columbia in an effort to drop ties to the "Old World". America may be named after Amerigo Vespucci, but probably isn't (that would make it Ameriga, after all and more likely Vespuccina). It appears to be named after a typo on an antique map (commissioned by Dutchman).
* In Chinese, cities whose names don't stem from Chinese are usually rough transliterations of how they're pronounced in the native language (e.g., Rome is simply "Ro-ma" (罗马 in simplified)). The one exception is San Francisco, which is 旧金山 ("jiù jīn shān", "Old Gold Mountain").
** Actually, there are quite a few exceptions. Generally speaking, places with large Chinese-speaking populations will end up with abbreviated or more poetic names, presumably to make them easier to talk about among their Chinese-speaking residents.
** Phoenix, AZ, is called by the direct translation of the name into Chinese, roughly meaning "Immortal Bird," i.e. the phoenix of Egyptian mythology.
* The name of Vilnius, Lithuania, had been a SeriousBusiness in recent history, due to competing claims by multiple groups in the 20th century (Lithuanians, Poles, Belorussians, etc.), having been referred to as Wilno, Vilna, Vilnius, and a few others, depending on whom you talk to. For now, however, it is Vilnius and it's no one business but Lithuanians'.
* Finland itself is called "Suomi" in Finnish, a language which natively doesn't have an "f" sound. It is almost ''impossible'' to find someone who would be offended over the word "Finland" (whether the Swedish word Finland or the English word Finland - the pronunciations are different).
** The name goes back to Roman times at least, who called the Finno-Ugric people living on the north-eastern shore of the Baltic Sea "Fenni".
* Armenia has been referred to as such by foreigners going back to Ancient Egypt, where New Kingdom texts refer to it as 'Ermenen'. The annals of King Darius of Persia from the 500s BC refer to it as "Arminiya". But going back almost as far, its natives have referred to their country as Hayastan, and themselves as "hay". This could be because, as one theory of their ethnogenesis suggests, the Armenian race was formed by an inter-mixing of two ancient Anatolian tribes, the Armens and the Hayasa.
** That's not to mention the cities that had their names changed in the early 90s once the Soviet Union fell, like in most other former Soviet republics (for example Leninakan became Gyumri, which was actually its name before the Russian Empire took over in the 1820s when it became Alexandropol for around a century).
* Hungary is Magyarország to its people, who call themselves Magyar. The Huns were actually the earlier rulers of the area, who conquered it from the Romans. During the Roman times, the country was known as Pannonia.
** Although associating Hungary with the Huns appears to have been a mistake. The Hunnic empire was extremely short-lived, didn't actually include most of modern Hungary, and existed several centuries before the terms Hungary or Hungarian were ever used. The people living in Hungary (mainly descended from the Avars, not Huns), were actually known as Unkalī, Ungroi or Ungri (or a few other variations). The "H" appears to have been added by medieval scholars who mistakenly thought the name was supposed to suggest they were originally Huns.
* Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, a province in Pakistan, used to be named "Northwest Frontier Province". Other names that have been suggested for the province are Afghania, Abasin, Pashtunistan, Nuristan, and Ghandara.
* Belgium has three official languages, so most cities have two or three names. Some examples are Antwerpen-Anvers; Mechelen-Malines-Mecheln; Brussel-Bruxelles-Brüssel; Doornik-Tournai. Road signs to these cities depend on which part of the country you're in.
** Although German names are rarely signposted outside the small German-speaking area in the east of the country (close to Liège-Luik-Lüttich). Also, some non-Belgians tend to prefer to use the French names of some places for historical reasons (usually because of some battle), vide e.g. which name English-speakers use for the Flemish towns of Ieper-Ypres-Ypern and Bergen-Mons. This reflects the pre-World War 2 linguistic Walloon dominance.
* South Africa has ''eleven'' official languages, so alternative names abound. This is especially true of cities that have descriptive names rather than being named after a founder; for instance, Cape Town (Kaapstad, iKapa, etc.). Some cities just have a ton of nicknames, e.g., Johannesburg also being called eGoli ("City of Gold"), Joburg, Jozi, etc.
** For added controversy, a whole lot of city names are now up for review because they get associated with [[TheApartheidEra yesteryear]]. Although there are many local examples, the most controversial one is the name change of Pretoria (the proposed new name being "Tshwane"). Although Tshwane has long been the name of a local river, and by association a lot of the surrounding area, the city was ''founded'' as Pretoria (kind of like how there is an island called Manhattan in New York City, but NYC has its own name). So, insisting that the name change is a restoration of a pre-colonial name is somewhat dishonest, but which side of the argument you lend more weight to largely depends on your politics. Due to being heavily opposed by locals, the move to rename the city has been ruled unconstitutional and was withdrawn (for now), but that hasn't stopped mapmakers both local and international from enthusiastically renaming the place Tshwane.
** Tshwane is now also the name of the newly created metropolitan area that Pretoria is a part of, so that's somewhat justifiable. But it's still incorrect to refer to the city of Pretoria by that name.
** As a compromise, the city was referred to as "Pretoria/Tshwane" in locally issued print media during the World Cup.
** Some AlternateHistory has South Africa rename itself Azania, an actual name that has been applied to various parts of the region, and one rechristened a future Johannesburg as "Mandelaville."
* Switzerland has four official languages. Most regions of the country speak primarily German, French or Italian so those names tend to dominate in general usage, but almost all places have multiple names. For example, Geneva is actually called Genève, Genf, Ginevra or Genevra (all actually stemming from a Celtic word via the Romans).
* UsefulNotes/{{Taiwan}} is called The Republic of China on its official documents, China: Taipei or Chinese Taipei in international games, and occasionally also as "Formosa", as it was referred to as "Ilha Formosa" (the beautiful island) by early explorers. There was a movement to make "Taiwan" the official government name, but it didn't stick, not least because [[RedChina the folks across the border]] would regard this as a sneaky declaration of independence and object. [[UsefulNotes/ChineseWithChopperSupport Violently]]. Possibly [[UsefulNotes/TheDragonsTeeth with mushrooms]], if you catch our drift...
** There's also the fact that the Taiwanese government originally was the mainland government in exile, and to some extent may still consider itself as the "true" one. Of course, the regime in Beijing disagrees...
* Dingle in Co. Kerry, Ireland was officially changed to its Irish name of Dangean. Some Anglophone locals were upset with this, arguing that as the town relies heavily on tourism the name should be recognisable, and a campaign to change the name back is ongoing. A plebiscite in 2005 showed that an overwhelming majority of residents favoured the bilingual name of "Dingle/Daingean Uí Chúis".
** Around the time of independence, many Irish towns and counties reverted from names imposed by the English back to their native placenames as part of a Regaelicisation process. For example, "Queen's County" became "Laois", "Kingstown" to "Dún Laoghaire" etc.
** Cobh (''an Cóbh'') is an interesting case, because it is a gaelicisation of the English word for "cove," rather than a Gaelic version of its former British name "Queenstown" or an an older name, of which there are many. "An Cóbh" has no meaning in Irish, according to the other Wiki.
* In the Middle Ages, China was known as "Cathay" and Siberia was called "Tartary". Note though that there was some confusion in the Middle Ages and early Renaissance as to whether Cathay was China or some country between China and Mongolia.
** The confusion was legitimate, since 'Cathay' originally referred to the land of the Khitan, a Mongol Tribe that dominated most of Northern China and Manchuria before they were kicked out by another tribe, the Jurchens. Since Northern China was the eastern terminus of the Silk Road, and had previously been dominated by said Mongol tribe under the name of the 'Liao Dynasty', the name stuck in Europe as referring to all of China until the Europeans reached the country through sea routes. The remnants of the Liao moved into Central Asia and founded a rather large empire there, also referred to Cathay, hence the confusion.
* The Romans knew China as Seres, Silk-Land.
* The military regime in Burma changed the country's name to Myanmar. Both names mean essentially the same thing, but because many countries refuse to recognize the legitimacy of the government, they do not recognize their authority to make ''any'' changes to the name of the country.
* The the Khmer Rouge changed the name of Cambodia to Kampuchea during their reign, but the name didn't stick after they lost power.
* "South Korea" is actually the Republic of Korea; "North Korea" is the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Of course, neither Korea officially recognizes the other one. This is more difficult in Sinosphere languages whose names for those two countries are derived from their respective endonyms in hanja. South Korea's official name is causally shortened to 韓國 (''hanguk''). North Korea's official gets shortened to 朝鮮 (''choson''). This doesn't stop people from using north/south coupled with either Han or Choson when referring to the two countries. See [[https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/Names_of_Korea Names of Korea]] on TheOtherWiki.
* [[UsefulNotes/NorthernIreland Stroke Country]]. In particular, the Derry/Londonderry issue - use either one and you risk offending someone, whether it's the unionists or republicans. A compromise is the nickname The Maiden City.
* Jakarta, the capitol of Indonesia. During the antiquity it was Sunda Kelapa. Then after Fatahillah, the general of the Sultanate of Demak, [[WoodenShipsAndIronMen drove the Portuguese out]], it became Jayakarta (City of Glory). Then during the Dutch Colonial era it was called Batavia. And finally, when [[UsefulNotes/WorldWar2 the Japanese took over]], it was renamed Jakarta, its official name today. (The {{Imperial Japan}}ese, despite all the horrid things they did, fostered a sense of Asian self-esteem by reviving old or ancient Asian cultures that were made illegal in Asian countries during European rule.)
* The English Channel is known in French as ''La Manche'', i.e. "the Sleeve", a name sometimes used in English until the early modern age. German uses a translation of the French name ''Ärmelkanal''. Spanish uses a phonetic translation, ''Canal de la Mancha'' which means "The Stain's Channel". While in Dutch it's simply ''Het Kanal'' "the Channel". Russian, on the other hand, simply transliterates the strait's name as "Ла-Манш".
* Hamburg is called Hanbao in Chinese. The name can be translated as "castle of the Han", which is rather apposite as Hamburg contains the biggest Chinese community in Germany and the German head offices of most major Chinese firms are located there.
* UsefulNotes/NaziGermany renamed hundreds of towns and villages especially in East Prussia and Silesia because their names were considered too Polish or too Lithuanian. (Part of East Prussia was known as ''Littauen'' in German and "Little Lithuania" in Lithuanian.) After the ''Anschluss'', Österreich (UsefulNotes/{{Austria}}) was renamed "Ostmark" to erase its national identity.
* In those parts of Germany that became Polish in 1945, cities, towns and villages for the most part received names that were Polish forms or translations of the German names (which had often existed earlier, partly due to the fact that many of these places had been Polish or Slavic before they became German). In the northern part of East Prussia, which was annexed to the Soviet Union, specifically the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic, the Russians used a different system. Every town or village that was still inhabited was given an all-new Russian name, eschewing even names famous from Russian history. E. g. the town of Preußisch Eylau, site of a bloody battle against Napoleon in 1807, was renamed Bagrationovsk, after a Russian (or rather Georgian) general who had been wounded on the eve of said battle. This was not least because the Russians wanted to show the neighboring Lithuanian S. S. R. that this territory was not for them by replacing all originally Lithuanian names with Russian ones. After the end of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation even passed a law expressly forbidding to alter these new names in that ''oblast'', which is why e. g. its capital, the former Königsberg, is still called Kaliningrad and the border town of Tilsit Sovietsk.
* When the [[UsefulNotes/{{Venice}} Venetians]] controlled much of the eastern Mediterranean during the Middle Ages, many islands, towns etc. were given Italian names, e. g. Peloponnesos became Morea, Corcyra became Corfu, Crete became Candia and Melos Milo (hence the name "Venus de Milo" for a statue found there). One notable example is that the country of Crna Gora ("Black Mountain") is known to this days as Montenegro.
* The river known as Istros to the ancient Greeks and (in its upper part) Danuvius to the Romans is now called in the countries on its shores Donau, Donava, Dunav, Dunaj and Dunarea. In English it is known by its French name, Danube.
* Interestingly, both ''Rhenus'' (Rhine, Rhein, Rijn, Rein etc) and ''Danuvius'' (Donau, Donava, Dunav, Dunaj, Dunarea...), the border rivers of the Roman Empire, mean "flow-water" and "run-water" in Latin...
* The Gaelic name for Scotland is Alba, which is derived from the same root as Albion which means "The white land" or...Albania.
* The island of Truk became Chuuk, to better reflect the pronunciation. Everyone pronounced it as "truck", while the correct pronunciation would have been "trook"
* One needs not much srilankity...eh, ceylonity...damn it, serendipity to add another random example.
[[/folder]]
29th Nov '16 7:45:42 PM nombretomado
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* The ''ConanTheBarbarian'' books and related materials, set in what was constructed to be a feasible vanished age. Scandinavia is not called Jotunheim, but it's called Vanaheim and Asgard, which isn't better. Robert E. Howard claimed things to be the other way around: the different mythological names of people and places he mentions were 'corrupted' over time, becoming the myths we know of today. Some other examples are:

to:

* The ''ConanTheBarbarian'' ''Franchise/ConanTheBarbarian'' books and related materials, set in what was constructed to be a feasible vanished age. Scandinavia is not called Jotunheim, but it's called Vanaheim and Asgard, which isn't better. Robert E. Howard claimed things to be the other way around: the different mythological names of people and places he mentions were 'corrupted' over time, becoming the myths we know of today. Some other examples are:
15th Nov '16 7:22:20 PM WillKeaton
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** This goes back all the way to the Romans, who called the areas of modern-day Italy that were then heavy with Greek settlers as [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magna_Graecia Magna Graecia]], literally "Greater Greece".

to:

** This goes back all the way to the Romans, who called the areas of modern-day Italy that were then heavy with Greek settlers as [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magna_Graecia Magna Graecia]], Graecia,]] literally "Greater Greece".



** India [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaming_of_cities_in_India sanskritized (or tamulized in the South) the name of a lot of cities since decolonization]], thus we have Bombay->Mumbai, Madras->Chennai, Benares->Varanasi, Pondichéry->Puducherry...

to:

** India [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaming_of_cities_in_India sanskritized (or tamulized in the South) the name of a lot of cities since decolonization]], decolonization,]] thus we have Bombay->Mumbai, Madras->Chennai, Benares->Varanasi, Pondichéry->Puducherry...
15th Nov '16 7:21:50 PM WillKeaton
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* In 1850 the [[UsefulNotes/{{Mormonism}} Mormon]] leaders submitted proposal to add an enormous state called "Deseret" to the United States. It stretched all the way from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. Congress, realizing that this was a not-so-sneaky attempt to create a vast new Mormon quasi-theocracy on a sizable chunk of land, decided to admit California instead, cut Deseret down to half its proposed size[[note]]And, before statehood, cut further swaths of land from it to add to the nearby state of Nevada[[/note]], rename it "Utah," organize it as a territory and not a state, and refuse admission as a state until 1896. Its capital, Great Salt Lake City, would have a much less radical name change a few years later.
** Timeline-191 has Mormon separatists repeatedly attempt to establish an independent Republic of Deseret in Utah based on the state proposed by RealLife Mormon settlers. The name derives from the Book of Mormon http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deseret_(Book_of_Mormon).
** Like many odd Mormon words, this is derived from Joseph Smith's "Reformed Egyptian", and supposedly means "Honeybee" (a Mormon symbol of industry and industriousness). However, the only actual Ancient Egyptian term resembling "Deseret" is "dṛt" (Ancient Egyptian writing used no vowels; "deshret" is the most common reconstructed pronunciation). It means "Red Land", i.e. the desert[[note]]The similarity to English "desert" is entirely coincidental[[/note]] that surrounds the Nile Valley[[note]]As mentioned above, "Kemet" - "The Black Land", or civilized Egypt[[/note]]. So--desert. Which is most of "Deseret".

to:

* In 1850 the [[UsefulNotes/{{Mormonism}} Mormon]] leaders submitted proposal to add an enormous state called "Deseret" to the United States. It stretched all the way from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. Congress, realizing that this was a not-so-sneaky attempt to create a vast new Mormon quasi-theocracy on a sizable chunk of land, decided to admit California instead, cut Deseret down to half its proposed size[[note]]And, size,[[note]]And, before statehood, cut further swaths of land from it to add to the nearby state of Nevada[[/note]], Nevada.[[/note]] rename it "Utah," organize it as a territory and not a state, and refuse admission as a state until 1896. Its capital, Great Salt Lake City, would have a much less radical name change a few years later.
** Timeline-191 has Mormon separatists repeatedly attempt to establish an independent Republic of Deseret in Utah based on the state proposed by RealLife Mormon settlers. The name derives from the Book of Mormon http://en.[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deseret_(Book_of_Mormon).
org/wiki/Deseret_(Book_of_Mormon) the Book of Mormon.]]
** Like many odd Mormon words, this is derived from Joseph Smith's "Reformed Egyptian", and supposedly means "Honeybee" (a Mormon symbol of industry and industriousness). However, the only actual Ancient Egyptian term resembling "Deseret" is "dṛt" (Ancient Egyptian writing used no vowels; "deshret" is the most common reconstructed pronunciation). It means "Red Land", i.e. the desert[[note]]The similarity to English "desert" is entirely coincidental[[/note]] that surrounds the Nile Valley[[note]]As Valley.[[note]]As mentioned above, "Kemet" - "The Black Land", or civilized Egypt[[/note]]. Egypt[[/note]] So--desert. Which is most of "Deseret".
15th Nov '16 7:18:31 PM WillKeaton
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* Thomas Hardy set all his novels in his native region of southwest England but with most placenames changed; he called it [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wessex.png Wessex]].

to:

* Thomas Hardy set all his novels in his native region of southwest England but with most placenames changed; he called it [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wessex.png Wessex]].Wessex.]]
15th Nov '16 7:18:09 PM WillKeaton
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* In the [[ComicBook/XMen Astonishing X-Men]]: Ghost Boxes mini-series, It featured a SteamPunk version of the team known as The X-Society that's based in New Portsmouth, New Albion; a version of San Francisco where California was colonised by the British, rather than the Spanish.

to:

* In the [[ComicBook/XMen ''[[ComicBook/XMen Astonishing X-Men]]: X-Men]]'': Ghost Boxes mini-series, It featured a SteamPunk version of the team known as The X-Society that's based in New Portsmouth, New Albion; a version of San Francisco where California was colonised by the British, rather than the Spanish.
15th Nov '16 3:36:09 AM Ereiam
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** His more traditional alternate history novels feature this too, mainly for objects -- nukes become "exploding-metal bombs" (in the Literature/WorldWar/Colonization series) or "superbombs" and "sunbombs" (Literature/{{Timeline 191}}), suicide bombers become "people bombs," the Molotov cocktail is the "Featherston Fizz," and the Army's heavily armored frontline combat vehicles are "barrels," not tanks. A laser is called "skelkwank" in the Literature/WorldWar/Colonization series (having been borrowed, along with invention, from the [[TheReptilians Race]]).\\

to:

** His more traditional alternate history novels feature this too, mainly for objects -- nukes become "exploding-metal bombs" (in the Literature/WorldWar/Colonization series) or "superbombs" and "sunbombs" (Literature/{{Timeline 191}}), suicide bombers become "people bombs," the Molotov cocktail is the "Featherston Fizz," and the Army's heavily armored frontline combat vehicles are "barrels," not tanks. A laser is called "skelkwank" in the Literature/WorldWar/Colonization series (having been borrowed, along with invention, from the [[TheReptilians Race]]).\\



** Speaking of nukes, element 92 is still named uranium, but while the USA names the next two elements neptunium and plutonium as in RealLife, the Confederate States Of America goes the other direction and calls them saturnium and jovium. (Britain calls element 94 churchillium.)\\

to:

** Speaking of nukes, element 92 is still named uranium, but while the USA names the next two elements neptunium and plutonium as in RealLife, the Confederate States Of America goes the other direction and calls them saturnium and jovium. (Britain calls element 94 churchillium.)\\)
15th Nov '16 3:35:35 AM Ereiam
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\\
And when the superbombs go off, they produce a "toadstool cloud".\\
\\
Speaking of nukes, element 92 is still named uranium, but while the USA names the next two elements neptunium and plutonium as in RealLife, the Confederate States Of America goes the other direction and calls them saturnium and jovium. (Britain calls element 94 churchillium.)\\
\\
London, Ontario, is renamed Berlin by the occupying US authorities; Roanoke, Virginia, is called Big Lick (justified in that that was the original name before the N&W Railroad renamed the town); and Hawaii is British-ruled and still called the Sandwich Islands.

to:

\\
** And when the superbombs go off, they produce a "toadstool cloud".\\
\\
cloud".
**
Speaking of nukes, element 92 is still named uranium, but while the USA names the next two elements neptunium and plutonium as in RealLife, the Confederate States Of America goes the other direction and calls them saturnium and jovium. (Britain calls element 94 churchillium.)\\
\\
** London, Ontario, is renamed Berlin by the occupying US authorities; Roanoke, Virginia, is called Big Lick (justified in that that was the original name before the N&W Railroad renamed the town); and Hawaii is British-ruled and still called the Sandwich Islands.
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