History Main / ConfirmationBias

27th Jun '17 5:10:49 PM nombretomado
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* In his Youtube podcast series ''Afterburner'', conservative American pundit Creator/BillWhittle often falls to this kind of logic, such as when attributing Plano, TX' record homicide lows to their [[UsefulNotes/AmericanGunPolitics high gun ownership rate]] -- [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plano,_Texas and absolutely no other factors]]. Another [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nuv0K8H8ILM example]] has him concluding that America's ''laissez-faire'' economic model had [[CulturalPosturing made the country more inventive and ingenious]] than 'Socialist' countries like Sweden. His compelling evidence: the clicks he needed on [[TheOtherWiki The Other Wiki]] to find entries on American and Swedish inventions.

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* In his Youtube podcast series ''Afterburner'', conservative American pundit Creator/BillWhittle often falls to this kind of logic, such as when attributing Plano, TX' record homicide lows to their [[UsefulNotes/AmericanGunPolitics high gun ownership rate]] -- [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plano,_Texas and absolutely no other factors]]. Another [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nuv0K8H8ILM example]] has him concluding that America's ''laissez-faire'' economic model had [[CulturalPosturing made the country more inventive and ingenious]] than 'Socialist' countries like Sweden. His compelling evidence: the clicks he needed on [[TheOtherWiki The Other Wiki]] Wiki/TheOtherWiki to find entries on American and Swedish inventions.
22nd May '17 1:32:12 PM Josef5678
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* Confirmation bias drives the mindset of the Reapers in the VideoGame/MassEffect series. They were created by an advanced Artificial Intelligence who became convinced that synthetic life would inevitably attack and destroy organic life, and created the reapers as a way to supposedly "preserve" organic life in a synthetic form. The idea that organics and synthetics could co-exist peacefully (as demonstrated by [[{{Fembot}} EDI]], the Geth, and (in VideoGame/MassEffectAndromeda) [[BenevolentAI SAM]]) never occurred to them, or were considered one-off anomalies every time the situation popped up.

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* Confirmation bias drives the mindset of the Reapers in the VideoGame/MassEffect series. They were created by an advanced Artificial Intelligence who became convinced that synthetic life would inevitably attack and destroy organic life, and created the reapers as a way to supposedly "preserve" organic life in a synthetic form. The idea that organics and synthetics could co-exist peacefully (as demonstrated by [[{{Fembot}} EDI]], the Geth, and (in VideoGame/MassEffectAndromeda) ''VideoGame/MassEffectAndromeda'') [[BenevolentAI SAM]]) never occurred to them, or were considered one-off anomalies every time the situation popped up.
21st May '17 4:00:13 AM BigJaredMonkey
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* This trope becomes an actual plot point in ''[[https://www.tthfanfic.org/story.php?no=10229&rewrite=true Father Goose and the Black Knight]]'' (a Series/BuffyTheVampireSlayer / Series/LawAndOrderSpecialVictimsUnit crossover fanfic). Detective Stabler is so convinced that the only reason why an adult man like Xander Harris would be associated with a school for teenaged girls is that he (Xander) is a pedophile. Of course, the truth is that the girls are all Slayers-in-Training, and Xander is one of their three teachers (the other two being a Watcher and Faith).


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[[folder:Video Games]]
* Confirmation bias drives the mindset of the Reapers in the VideoGame/MassEffect series. They were created by an advanced Artificial Intelligence who became convinced that synthetic life would inevitably attack and destroy organic life, and created the reapers as a way to supposedly "preserve" organic life in a synthetic form. The idea that organics and synthetics could co-exist peacefully (as demonstrated by [[{{Fembot}} EDI]], the Geth, and (in VideoGame/MassEffectAndromeda) [[BenevolentAI SAM]]) never occurred to them, or were considered one-off anomalies every time the situation popped up.
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6th May '17 4:02:20 PM Luigifan
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** The older ads weren't quite as preachy. The newer ones, though...well, they really rely on ViewersAreMorons and what people already hate about Windows (one commercial featured all the PC's walking away and just Justin Long staying after a potential user asked for a computer [[BlatantLies that didn't have any error messages or other problems]]).

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** The older ads weren't quite as preachy. The newer ones, though... well, they really rely on ViewersAreMorons and what people already hate about Windows (one commercial featured all the PC's walking away and just Justin Long staying after a potential user asked for a computer [[BlatantLies that didn't have any error messages or other problems]]).



** Though Walter seems to be set up so that those who agree with him can laugh with him, and those who disagree with him can laugh ''at'' him; he's not exactly portrayed as a happy, admirable, or attractive individual after all. Obviously those who tend towards an extreme of either won't laugh at all.

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** Though Walter seems to be set up so that those who agree with him can laugh with him, and those who disagree with him can laugh ''at'' him; he's not exactly portrayed as a happy, admirable, or attractive individual individual, after all. Obviously Obviously, those who tend towards an extreme of either won't laugh at all.



* Much of Creator/LewisBlack's material pre-2009 was essentially a liberal critique of the Bush administration, individuals within it, and cultural conservatives paired with over the top facial expressions and screaming in reaction to those things. Hilarious if you're a culturally liberal person but mostly just plain insulting if you aren't.
* Creator/BillMaher falls under this, hard. His highly political material, paired with his tendency to try to be edgy make him a very divisive comic prone to clapter/criticism depending on who's watching.

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* Much of Creator/LewisBlack's material pre-2009 was essentially a liberal critique of the Bush administration, individuals within it, and cultural conservatives paired with over the top over-the-top facial expressions and screaming in reaction to those things. Hilarious if you're a culturally liberal person person, but mostly just plain insulting if you aren't.
* Creator/BillMaher falls under this, hard. His highly political material, paired with his tendency to try to be edgy edgy, make him a very divisive comic prone to clapter/criticism clapter/criticism, depending on who's watching.



* One of the more prevalent biases that the narrator is guilty of in the ''WesternAnimation/MyLittlePonyFriendshipIsMagic'' fanfic ''FanFic/EquestriaAHistoryRevealed''. She directly goes out of her way to ignore information that contradicts her claims, and even directly states a few times, that the rest of the "idiot historians" can be right occasionally, given that they match her beliefs. Her terrible reasoning skills in her essay, however, are thankfully {{played for laughs}} in-universe.
* Discussed in ''FanFic/HarryPotterAndTheMethodsOfRationality'': to make Hermione a better researcher, Harry puts her through the "2-4-6 task", an experiment created by Peter Wason, the real life psychologist who coined the term "Confirmation Bias": Harry writes down and folds up a "rule" that certain triplets of numbers follow and tasks Hermione with figuring out what it is. Hermione can say as many triplets of numbers as she likes and Harry will say "Yes" or "No" depending on if they follow the rule or not. As a starting point, Harry says that the triplet "2-4-6" follows the rule. Hermione tests the triplets "4-6-8", "10-12-14", "1-3-5" and "-3,-1,1" and is told "Yes" for all of them. Hermione guesses that the rule is that each number is increased by two. Harry doesn't answer and points out that less than 20% of people can guess the correct answer. Hermione then tests "2-5-8", "10-20-30" and also gets yes for both, leading her to revise her answer to "each number must increase the same amount each time". Harry gives her the paper and to her shock, the actual rule is "Three real number in increasing order, lowest to highest". Harry then points out that Hermione had only come up with triplets that would confirm the hypothesis she already had in her mind and was content to end the experiment without getting a single "No" response, leading her to come up with a result much more specific than the real one.

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* One of the more prevalent biases that the narrator is guilty of in the ''WesternAnimation/MyLittlePonyFriendshipIsMagic'' fanfic ''FanFic/EquestriaAHistoryRevealed''. She directly goes out of her way to ignore information that contradicts her claims, and even directly states a few times, times that the rest of the "idiot historians" can be right occasionally, given that they match her beliefs. Her terrible reasoning skills in her essay, however, are thankfully {{played for laughs}} in-universe.
* Discussed in ''FanFic/HarryPotterAndTheMethodsOfRationality'': to make Hermione a better researcher, Harry puts her through the "2-4-6 task", an experiment created by Peter Wason, the real life psychologist who coined the term "Confirmation Bias": Harry writes down and folds up a "rule" that certain triplets of numbers follow and tasks Hermione with figuring out what it is. Hermione can say as many triplets of numbers as she likes and Harry will say "Yes" or "No" depending on if they follow the rule or not. As a starting point, Harry says that the triplet "2-4-6" "2, 4, 6" follows the rule. Hermione tests the triplets "4-6-8", "10-12-14", "1-3-5" "4, 6, 8", "10, 12, 14", "1, 3, 5", and "-3,-1,1" "-3, -1, 1" and is told "Yes" for all of them. Hermione guesses that the rule is that each number is increased by two. Harry doesn't answer and points out that less than 20% of people can guess the correct answer. Hermione then tests "2-5-8", "10-20-30" "2, 5, 8" and "10, 20, 30" and also gets yes for both, leading her to revise her answer to "each number must increase the same amount each time". Harry gives her the paper paper, and to her shock, the actual rule is "Three real number numbers in increasing order, lowest to highest". Harry then points out that Hermione had only come up with triplets that would confirm the hypothesis she already had in her mind and was content to end the experiment without getting a single "No" response, leading her to come up with a result much more specific than the real one.



* The documentary ''Gasland'' about the supposed harm caused by hydraulic fracturing ('Fracking') of rock to mine natural gas. As the ''Podcast/{{Skeptoid}}'' [[http://skeptoid.com/episodes/4275 podcast points out]], it is hard to know what to make of the movie since it's devoted to proving that fracking is dangerous and generally assumes all of the ill effects to local people (such as tap water that is ''flammable'') are caused by fracking and aren't simply natural phenomena specific to the area. Yet, conversely, most of the high profile criticism of the movie has come from the natural gas industry, so it is very difficult to find an un-biased opinion on the subject.

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* The documentary ''Gasland'' about the supposed harm caused by hydraulic fracturing ('Fracking') of rock to mine natural gas. As the ''Podcast/{{Skeptoid}}'' [[http://skeptoid.com/episodes/4275 podcast points out]], it is hard to know what to make of the movie movie, since it's devoted to proving that fracking is dangerous and generally assumes all of the ill effects to local people (such as tap water that is ''flammable'') are caused by fracking and aren't simply natural phenomena specific to the area. Yet, conversely, most of the high profile high-profile criticism of the movie has come from the natural gas industry, so it is very difficult to find an un-biased opinion on the subject.



* The film ''Film/RockItsYourDecision'' heavily engages in this by turning the protagonist into a mouthpiece for the filmmaker's views. According to this film, ''all'' artists within the broad spectrum of "rock" music engage in drugs, promiscuity and Satanism, and many of them sing openly about this. Also, the rock beat apparently "controls" you by compelling you to dance along, tap your feet, snap your fingers, etc., and this is apparently something unique to this type of music. There are hardly any counter-arguments presented, and most of them come from a [[StrawCharacter straw]] [[JerkAss jerk]] who, nonetheless, often [[StrawmanHasAPoint sounds more reasonable than the protagonist]].

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* The film ''Film/RockItsYourDecision'' heavily engages in this by turning the protagonist into a mouthpiece for the filmmaker's views. According to this film, ''all'' artists within the broad spectrum of "rock" music engage in drugs, promiscuity promiscuity, and Satanism, and many of them sing openly about this. Also, the rock beat apparently "controls" you by compelling you to dance along, tap your feet, snap your fingers, etc., and this is apparently something unique to this type of music. There are hardly any counter-arguments presented, and most of them come from a [[StrawCharacter straw]] [[JerkAss jerk]] who, nonetheless, often [[StrawmanHasAPoint sounds more reasonable than the protagonist]].



* ''Film/TheUsualSuspects'': This trope is {{discussed}} by Verbal Kint, who is interrogated by Inspector Kujan at a police investigation. Later, the audience will discover that Verbal not only discussed it, [[spoiler: but exploited it]].
--> '''Verbal:''' ''To a cop the explanation is never that complicated. It's always simple. There's no mystery to the street, no [[DiabolicalMastermind arch criminal]] behind it all. If you got a dead body and you think his brother did it, you're gonna find out you're right.''

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* ''Film/TheUsualSuspects'': This trope is {{discussed}} by Verbal Kint, who is interrogated by Inspector Kujan at a police investigation. Later, the audience will discover that Verbal not only discussed it, [[spoiler: but [[spoiler:but exploited it]].
--> '''Verbal:''' ''To a cop cop, the explanation is never that complicated. It's always simple. There's no mystery to the street, no [[DiabolicalMastermind arch criminal]] behind it all. If you got a dead body and you think his brother did it, you're gonna find out you're right.''



* This trope is one of the many criticisms of Creator/PureFlix's ''Film/GodsNotDead'' and its [[Film/GodsNotDead2 sequel]]. Both of the films don't seem to do much other than play to the persecution complex that many American Christians have by making public education institutions out as atheist/liberal run establishments bent on stamping out Christianity and portrays every character who isn't a Christian as being a miserable {{Jerkass}} who's hostile towards Christians. Not to mention the court cases cited in the end credits of both films as evidence that the films' plots are happening in real life; if you actually look into them, you'd see that none of them come close to the films' plots but rather were cases of Christians discriminating against LGBT students or just more right-leaning political issues.

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* This trope is one of the many criticisms of Creator/PureFlix's ''Film/GodsNotDead'' and its [[Film/GodsNotDead2 sequel]]. Both of the films don't seem to do much other than play to the persecution complex that many American Christians have by making public education institutions out as atheist/liberal run establishments bent on stamping out Christianity and portrays every character who isn't a Christian as being a miserable {{Jerkass}} who's hostile towards Christians. Not to mention the court cases cited in the end credits of both films as evidence that the films' plots are happening in real life; if you actually look into them, you'd see that none of them come close to the films' plots plots, but rather were cases of Christians discriminating against LGBT students or just more right-leaning political issues.



* ''Literature/LeftBehind'' is largely only liked by people who already believe in the Rapture. However, the author's beliefs regarding the rapture, the afterlife, and who is "worthy" is very old testament and controversially exclusive (the "only protestant Christians" and "you only get one chance if you've never heard of the bible until then" rules being the most obvious) make a lot of mainstream Christians uncomfortable because it reeks of DisproportionateRetribution.

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* ''Literature/LeftBehind'' is largely only liked by people who already believe in the Rapture. However, the author's beliefs regarding the rapture, the afterlife, and who is "worthy" is very old testament and controversially exclusive (the "only protestant Christians" and "you only get one chance if you've never heard of the bible Bible until then" rules being the most obvious) make a lot of mainstream Christians uncomfortable because it reeks of DisproportionateRetribution.



* Whenever politics is mentioned in any work by Creator/JohnRingo, you can bet that conservatives will be upright, heroic, and correct, and liberals will be obstructionist (if not evil), ignorant, and wrong wrong wrong wrong wrong. And most intelligent people will be conservative. The stories sometimes reads as a "how to hate the liberals" manual. And of course, most of Ringo's fans are themselves conservative.

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* Whenever politics is mentioned in any work by Creator/JohnRingo, you can bet that conservatives will be upright, heroic, and correct, and liberals will be obstructionist (if not evil), ignorant, and wrong wrong wrong wrong wrong. And most intelligent people will be conservative. The stories sometimes reads read as a "how to hate the liberals" manual. And of course, most of Ringo's fans are themselves conservative.



* In the Literature/MythAdventures novel ''M.Y.T.H. Inc. Link'', Skeeve is continually examining the books of the gambling club he won in a poker game, looking for evidence that the manager is skimming money off the top. One of his bodyguards points out that the problem with what he's doing is that "if you look for evidence of graft long enough, you're going to find it whether its there or not." So he gives up the constant audits. Turns out, the manager was skimming off the top, but the point was still made.

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* In the Literature/MythAdventures novel ''M.Y.T.H. Inc. Link'', Skeeve is continually examining the books of the gambling club he won in a poker game, looking for evidence that the manager is skimming money off the top. One of his bodyguards points out that the problem with what he's doing is that "if you look for evidence of graft long enough, you're going to find it whether its it's there or not." So he gives up the constant audits. Turns out, the manager was ''was'' skimming off the top, but the point was still made.



* The word "clapter" was coined to describe the latter effect in TV - when an audience applauds a joke more than actually laughing at it. It's an accusation often leveled at the more political years of ''Series/TheDailyShow'' after Jon Stewart took the helm. (Its synonym "clappy humor" has an entry in the [[http://www.urbandictionary.com Urban Dictionary]].)

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* The word "clapter" was coined to describe the latter effect in TV - -- when an audience applauds a joke more than actually laughing at it. It's an accusation often leveled at the more political years of ''Series/TheDailyShow'' after Jon Stewart took the helm. (Its synonym "clappy humor" has an entry in the [[http://www.urbandictionary.com Urban Dictionary]].)



** One unused stand-up bit from ''Series/{{Seinfeld}}'' is about this. "To comedians, the truth is just bad material. The last thing you want is for people to just be thinking, "Hey, he's...right. He's a really, really ''accurate'' guy."
* ''Series/{{MASH}}'' started with a noticeable anti-war stance, but was still entertaining enough to be enjoyed by someone who disagreed with the show's views. As the series went on it seemed to become, at least within the show, increasingly required that viewers agree with every line of the Alan Alda Book Of Morality.

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** One unused stand-up bit from ''Series/{{Seinfeld}}'' is about this. "To comedians, the truth is just bad material. The last thing you want is for people to just be thinking, "Hey, he's... right. He's a really, really ''accurate'' guy."
* ''Series/{{MASH}}'' started with a noticeable anti-war stance, but was still entertaining enough to be enjoyed by someone who disagreed with the show's views. As the series went on on, it seemed to become, at least within the show, increasingly required that viewers agree with every line of the Alan Alda Book Of Morality.



* Panel shows try to avert this by having a variety of guests of different viewpoints (mainly because it would be boring to see a bunch of people sitting around agreeing on everything). Of course, there are plenty of ways to make a biased panel show (i.e. get a FoxNewsLiberal, stack the deck by putting [[ChewbaccaDefense aggressive "strong" debaters]] against lesser experienced ones, unevenly stack the panel on one side so [[QualityByPopularVote everyone can gang up on the minority opinion]], etc.)

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* Panel shows try to avert this by having a variety of guests of different viewpoints (mainly because it would be boring to see a bunch of people sitting around agreeing on everything). Of course, there are plenty of ways to make a biased panel show (i.e. get a FoxNewsLiberal, stack the deck by putting [[ChewbaccaDefense aggressive "strong" debaters]] against lesser less experienced ones, unevenly stack the panel on one side so [[QualityByPopularVote everyone can gang up on the minority opinion]], etc.)



* In the ''Series/CriminalMinds'' episode "Profiler, Profiled" Gideon and Reid discuss the fact that the detective who arrested Agent Morgan for murder already suspected Morgan of the crime before requesting an "anonymous" profile of the likely killer, and then applied the profile directly to Morgan. Reid specifically points out all the parts of the profile the detective ''ignored'' because they were inaccurate when considering Agent Morgan as a suspect. Snarky fans and critics might point out that the team themselves are just as guilty of this in their own way, frequently smashing through the doors of suspects who happen to fit their ofttimes sketchy profiles (and occasionally rejecting suspects because they ''don't'' fit the profile, regardless of other evidence)- of course, since it's the ''heroes'', [[ProtagonistCentredMorality they are almost always in the right]].
* In the UK, Channel 4 has made a slew of fly-on-the-wall documentaries that look at particular groups of people that relate to very controversial topics; e.g. ''My Granny, The Escort'' which looks at elderly prostitutes, ''Crazy About One Direction'' which, [[CaptainObvious needless to say,]] looks at Music/OneDirection fans and perhaps more infamously ''Benefits Street'' which looks at benefit claimants. What makes one hesitant to call these shows "documentaries," is that they don't present these issues in an informative manner, instead presenting a one-sided view of the people being covered. ''Benefits Street'' especially focuses primarily on people who aren't doing much with their lives outside of watching T.V. painting benefit claimants in a negative light, which has been pointed out by full-time parents and disabled people. This seems to be becoming more transparent however, as a proposed spin-off ''Immigration Street'' was cancelled half-way through filming due to protests over possible racism related violence.

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* In the ''Series/CriminalMinds'' episode "Profiler, Profiled" Profiled", Gideon and Reid discuss the fact that the detective who arrested Agent Morgan for murder already suspected Morgan of the crime before requesting an "anonymous" profile of the likely killer, and then applied the profile directly to Morgan. Reid specifically points out all the parts of the profile the detective ''ignored'' because they were inaccurate when considering Agent Morgan as a suspect. Snarky fans and critics might point out that the team themselves are just as guilty of this in their own way, frequently smashing through the doors of suspects who happen to fit their ofttimes often-times sketchy profiles (and occasionally rejecting suspects because they ''don't'' fit the profile, regardless of other evidence)- evidence) -- of course, since it's the ''heroes'', [[ProtagonistCentredMorality they are almost always in the right]].
* In the UK, Channel 4 has made a slew of fly-on-the-wall documentaries that look at particular groups of people that relate to very controversial topics; e.g. ''My Granny, The Escort'' Escort'', which looks at elderly prostitutes, prostitutes; ''Crazy About One Direction'' Direction'', which, [[CaptainObvious needless to say,]] looks at Music/OneDirection fans fans; and perhaps more infamously ''Benefits Street'' Street'', which looks at benefit claimants. What makes one hesitant to call these shows "documentaries," "documentaries" is that they don't present these issues in an informative manner, instead presenting a one-sided view of the people being covered. ''Benefits Street'' especially focuses primarily on people who aren't doing much with their lives outside of watching T.V. , painting benefit claimants in a negative light, which has been pointed out by full-time parents and disabled people. This seems to be becoming more transparent transparent, however, as a proposed spin-off ''Immigration Street'' was cancelled half-way through filming due to protests over possible racism related racism-related violence.



* The Evening Standard for 2014-08-18 published [[http://www.standard.co.uk/news/londoners-diary/naked-truth-when-reading-the-script-9676283.html a short piece about Daniel Radcliffe]] whose author took the opportunity to have a dig at ''Literature/TheCasualVacancy'', quoting from a scene and then saying that it is "not erotic". [[CowboyBebopAtHisComputer As anyone knows who has actually read the novel]], the scene takes place in primary school, and the participants are all five years old, so ''of course'' it isn't erotic -- it isn't meant to be. (And the fact that the author of the piece considered even for a moment that the scene ''might'' be erotic is deeply suspect.)

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* The Evening Standard for 2014-08-18 published [[http://www.standard.co.uk/news/londoners-diary/naked-truth-when-reading-the-script-9676283.html a short piece about Daniel Radcliffe]] whose author took the opportunity to have a dig at ''Literature/TheCasualVacancy'', quoting from a scene and then saying that it is "not erotic". [[CowboyBebopAtHisComputer As anyone knows who has actually read the novel]], novel would know]], the scene takes place in primary school, and the participants are all five years old, so ''of course'' it isn't erotic -- it isn't meant to be. (And the fact that the author of the piece considered even for a moment that the scene ''might'' be erotic is deeply suspect.)



* In his Youtube podcast series ''Afterburner'', conservative American pundit Creator/BillWhittle often falls to this kind of logic, such as when attributing Plano, TX' record homicide lows to their [[UsefulNotes/AmericanGunPolitics high gunownership rate]] - [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plano,_Texas and absolutely no other factors]]. Another [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nuv0K8H8ILM example]] has him concluding that America's ''laissez-faire'' economic model had [[CulturalPosturing made the country more inventive and ingenious]] than 'Socialist' countries like Sweden. His compelling evidence: the clicks he needed on [[TheOtherWiki The Other Wiki]] to find entries on American and Swedish inventions.
%%* Gleefully parodied [[http://www.smbc-comics.com/?id=2444 in this strip]] of ''Webcomic/SaturdayMorningBreakfastCereal''.

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* In his Youtube podcast series ''Afterburner'', conservative American pundit Creator/BillWhittle often falls to this kind of logic, such as when attributing Plano, TX' record homicide lows to their [[UsefulNotes/AmericanGunPolitics high gunownership gun ownership rate]] - -- [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plano,_Texas and absolutely no other factors]]. Another [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nuv0K8H8ILM example]] has him concluding that America's ''laissez-faire'' economic model had [[CulturalPosturing made the country more inventive and ingenious]] than 'Socialist' countries like Sweden. His compelling evidence: the clicks he needed on [[TheOtherWiki The Other Wiki]] to find entries on American and Swedish inventions.
%%* * Gleefully parodied [[http://www.smbc-comics.com/?id=2444 in this strip]] of ''Webcomic/SaturdayMorningBreakfastCereal''.



* Some critics have argued that [[NewMediaAreEvil the internet would result in "echo chambers" where everyone would just view news sites, blogs, and forums that didn't challenge their views]]. Online communities have since adopted the term "echo chamber" to refer to this phenomenon -- along with other terms like "circlejerk" (which refers to a group of people [[ADateWithRosiePalms masturbating together]]) and "hug box" (which refers to [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hug_machine an actual device used to calm hypersensitivity]]). According to one [[http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1588920 study]], online "echo chambers" aren't any worse than other media (since radio, TV and print media that pander to either side do exist and always have).

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* Some critics have argued that [[NewMediaAreEvil the internet would result in "echo chambers" where everyone would just view news sites, blogs, and forums that didn't challenge their views]]. Online communities have since adopted the term "echo chamber" to refer to this phenomenon -- along with other terms like "circlejerk" (which refers to a group of people [[ADateWithRosiePalms masturbating together]]) and "hug box" (which refers to [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hug_machine an actual device used to calm hypersensitivity]]). According to one [[http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1588920 study]], online "echo chambers" aren't any worse than other media (since radio, TV TV, and print media that pander to either side do exist and always have).



* The Republican National Committee, in the wake of the 2012 presidential election, admitted this as one of their problems. Many conservatives spoke only to people on their side, or paid attention to news sources slanted in their favor (such as the Fox News Channel), which was likewise basing their stories only on what their own side was saying. As a result, they were convinced that Mitt Romney would be elected in a landslide, and basically let his campaign coast, confident he would win handily. Once that bubble of comfort was burst, however, the results were less than pretty. Karl Rove in particular had an on camera meltdown when Fox News called Ohio[[note]] a big swing state and Mitt Romney's major hope to remain in the race[[/note]] for Barack Obama.

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* The Republican National Committee, in the wake of the 2012 presidential election, admitted this as one of their problems. Many conservatives spoke only to people on their side, or paid attention to news sources slanted in their favor (such as the Fox News Channel), which was likewise basing their stories only on what their own side was saying. As a result, they were convinced that Mitt Romney would be elected in a landslide, and basically let his campaign coast, confident he would win handily. Once that bubble of comfort was burst, however, the results were less than pretty. Karl Rove in particular had an on camera on-camera meltdown when Fox News called Ohio[[note]] a Ohio[[note]]a big swing state and Mitt Romney's major hope to remain in the race[[/note]] for Barack Obama.



--> There was redemption for all - our loved ones forgive us for any wrongdoing; they still love us; they suffer no more; they want us to be happy. What else would he say? "Your father wants you to know that he will never forgive you for wrecking his car"? (On James Van Pragh)

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--> There was redemption for all - -- our loved ones forgive us for any wrongdoing; they still love us; they suffer no more; they want us to be happy. What else would he say? "Your father wants you to know that he will never forgive you for wrecking his car"? (On James Van Pragh)



* For a long time it was believed that the circle was the most "perfect" and aesthetically pleasing shape and, therefore, planetary orbits would naturally tend to be circular. Measurements that didn't support this were dismissed as inaccurate until too much contrary evidence was piled up to ignore, and then ever-more-complex models involving small circular micro-orbits ("epicycles") around the main orbit were devised to account for the discrepancy. Finally Johannes Kepler showed that all this silliness could be avoided by [[OccamsRazor dropping the insistence on perfectly circular orbits]] and moving to a more elegant model of elliptical orbits.

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* For a long time time, it was believed that the circle was the most "perfect" and aesthetically pleasing shape and, therefore, planetary orbits would naturally tend to be circular. Measurements that didn't support this were dismissed as inaccurate until too much contrary evidence was piled up to ignore, and then ever-more-complex models involving small circular micro-orbits ("epicycles") around the main orbit were devised to account for the discrepancy. Finally Finally, Johannes Kepler showed that all this silliness could be avoided by [[OccamsRazor dropping the insistence on perfectly circular orbits]] and moving to a more elegant model of elliptical orbits.



* Gamers (and gamblers) have a wide range of superstitions surrounding the RandomNumberGod, though mostly this falls among tabletop gamers who handle the dice themselves as opposed to a computerized RNG. It's easy to remember having a hot streak one night, leading you to favor the same dice later; or a die seems "cursed" because you missed a few hits in a row in an important fight. In either case you're most likely selectively remembering what confirms the feeling of whether you're doing well or not - if you're losing games or your character takes a pounding, you're more likely to remember the dice or cards "working against" you. Outside of tabletop and video games, gamblers have been suffering far longer under the same basic fallacies from confirmation bias and misunderstanding of things like the law of averages.

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* Gamers (and gamblers) have a wide range of superstitions surrounding the RandomNumberGod, though mostly this falls among tabletop gamers who handle the dice themselves as opposed to a computerized RNG. It's easy to remember having a hot streak one night, leading you to favor the same dice later; or a die seems "cursed" because you missed a few hits in a row in an important fight. In either case case, you're most likely selectively remembering what confirms the feeling of whether you're doing well or not - -- if you're losing games or your character takes a pounding, you're more likely to remember the dice or cards "working against" you. Outside of tabletop and video games, gamblers have been suffering far longer under the same basic fallacies from confirmation bias and misunderstanding of things like the law of averages.
16th Apr '17 2:39:46 AM Morgenthaler
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1st Mar '17 10:16:37 AM VanHohenheimOfXerxes
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* Some critics have argued that the internet would result in "echo chambers" where everyone would just view news sites, blogs, and forums that didn't challenge their views. However, according to one [[http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1588920 study]], the "echo chamber" isn't any worse than any other media (since radio, TV and print media that pander to either side do exist and always have).

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* Some critics have argued that [[NewMediaAreEvil the internet would result in "echo chambers" where everyone would just view news sites, blogs, and forums that didn't challenge their views. However, according views]]. Online communities have since adopted the term "echo chamber" to refer to this phenomenon -- along with other terms like "circlejerk" (which refers to a group of people [[ADateWithRosiePalms masturbating together]]) and "hug box" (which refers to [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hug_machine an actual device used to calm hypersensitivity]]). According to one [[http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1588920 study]], the online "echo chamber" isn't chambers" aren't any worse than any other media (since radio, TV and print media that pander to either side do exist and always have).have).
14th Feb '17 3:47:01 AM smalltime
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* One variant of this is called [[https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Kafkatrapping kafkatrapping]]. It's when you accuse someone of bigotry and then take their denial as proof that they're a bigot.
11th Feb '17 7:31:49 AM Morgenthaler
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* This is undoubtedly one of [[AuthorTract two reasons]] that TheOReillyFactor and CountdownWithKeithOlbermann exist. By extension, any show (or book, or radio program, or ''whatever'') with a severe political slant is going to fall into this at some point as the [[PanderingToTheBase Invisible Hand]] pulls them in that direction. There's almost no pundit who doesn't.

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* This is undoubtedly one of [[AuthorTract two reasons]] that TheOReillyFactor ''Series/TheOReillyFactor'' and CountdownWithKeithOlbermann ''Series/CountdownWithKeithOlbermann'' exist. By extension, any show (or book, or radio program, or ''whatever'') with a severe political slant is going to fall into this at some point as the [[PanderingToTheBase Invisible Hand]] pulls them in that direction. There's almost no pundit who doesn't.
11th Feb '17 6:51:43 AM Morgenthaler
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* Most political radio shows tend to be this by default. NealBoortz does his best to encourage dissenting opinions, for certain values of "encourage" and "dissenting" and "his best", because (as he said in his book ''Somebody's Gotta Say It'') shows where everybody agrees with the host tend to be extremely boring and sycophantic.

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* Most political radio shows tend to be this by default. NealBoortz Radio/NealBoortz does his best to encourage dissenting opinions, for certain values of "encourage" and "dissenting" and "his best", because (as he said in his book ''Somebody's Gotta Say It'') shows where everybody agrees with the host tend to be extremely boring and sycophantic.
23rd Jan '17 12:53:41 AM Morgenthaler
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* ''LeftBehind'' is largely only liked by people who already believe in the Rapture. However, the author's beliefs regarding the rapture, the afterlife, and who is "worthy" is very old testament and controversially exclusive (the "only protestant Christians" and "you only get one chance if you've never heard of the bible until then" rules being the most obvious) make a lot of mainstream Christians uncomfortable because it reeks of DisproportionateRetribution.

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* ''LeftBehind'' ''Literature/LeftBehind'' is largely only liked by people who already believe in the Rapture. However, the author's beliefs regarding the rapture, the afterlife, and who is "worthy" is very old testament and controversially exclusive (the "only protestant Christians" and "you only get one chance if you've never heard of the bible until then" rules being the most obvious) make a lot of mainstream Christians uncomfortable because it reeks of DisproportionateRetribution.
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