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* AdaptationDisplacement: ''Madame Butterfly'' started its existence as a short story by John Luther Long, inspired both by stories his sister had written to him about life in Japan and Pierre Loti's semi-autobiographical novel ''Madame Chrysanthème''. It was then adapted into a play by David Belasco. Both of these were quite successful in their day, but today the opera is one of the most famous examples of the genre and has totally overshadowed its predecessors.
* AlternativeCharacterInterpretation: Pretty much any production with have its own take on how sorry Pinkerton really is, particularly his MyGodWhatHaveIDone moment. Sometimes he's genuinely remorseful, others he's [[{{Wangst}} complaining about]] [[ItsAllAboutMe the pain and guilt he and only he feels]], and some have anything in between. A lot of it depends on the translation being used.
** Did Butterfly ask for Pinkerton to come to get his son in half an hour simply so she'd have the chance to see him one more time before she killed herself? Or did she do it as a way to punish him for dashing all her hopes and ruining her life, letting him be confronted with her bleeding corpse?
* FairForItsDay: Nowadays, the play gets criticism for codifying the stereotype of Asian women as fragile and nothing without their Western men, but in its time it was meant to ''condemn'' the cruelty of the West towards the East via making Butterfly a victim of Pinkerton's thoughtlessness and {{jerk ass}}ery.
* FridgeLogic: How did Sharpless not ''already'' know Butterfly had given birth to Pinkerton's son? He's presumably been keeping an eye on her in the interim three years, but missed that ''huge'' detail?
* HarsherInHindsight: Puccini wrote the opera in part to criticize America and the West's treatment of Japan, no doubt having things like [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perry_Expedition Admiral Perry's forcible opening of Japan to trade]] in mind. But the theme resounds much more strongly to modern ears when you consider the opera is set in ''[[AtomicBombingsOfHiroshimaAndNagasaki Nagasaki]]''.
* TearJerker: Definitely.
* WhatAnIdiot: People who are less receptive to Butterfly's woobieness (and even some who ''are'') believe that while Pinkerton '''is''' a massive ass, Butterfly shouldn't be left off the hook. She ''is'' given warnings, help offers and/or useful advice by Suzuki, Gorou and even Sharpless... ''but she refuses all of this and chooses to wait for Pinkerton's return'', still blindly believing that he'd come back to her. As the viewer can see, all of these backfire ''massively'' on both her ''and'' her child, and even if she's NOT responsible for Pinkerton's actions she is responsible ''for her own''.
** Pinkerton is just as stupid, if not even more. Ever since the ''start'' he's warned by the GenreSavvy Sharpless that this Japanese girl has taken the vow he takes for granted ''very'' seriously, and the consul spends the whole first act telling him not to be a jackass ''and'' to take Butterfly's feelings in consideration. He refuses to take Sharpless seriously and insists that he won't give her the time of the day after the first month, then takes off to America and acts almost as if Butterfly didn't exist. ''Of course'' she turns out to be THE Japanese woman who would take his "promise" seriously.
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