[[quoteright:350:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/InheritTheWind_191.jpg]]
->''He that troubleth his own house shall inherit the wind: and the fool shall be servant to the wise of heart.''
-->--'''Proverbs 11:29, ''Literature/TheBible'''''

Originally a 1955 play by Jerome Lawrence and Robert Edwin Lee, then filmed in 1960 (and adapted for television three times between 1965 and 1999), ''Inherit The Wind'' is a very (''very'') fictionalized account of the "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scopes_Trial Scopes Monkey Trial]]," a 1925 Tennessee court case which revolved around the teaching of UsefulNotes/CharlesDarwin's Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection in public schools. The whole thing was actually a publicity stunt by the backwater town of Dayton, TN, leading to the trial being sensationalized beyond belief. It kind of went OffTheRails from there, bringing many (at the time) 'incontrovertible' tenets of American thought, such as a literal interpretation of Literature/TheBible, into question.

The play revolves primarily around Bert Cates, a schoolteacher in the small, "simple" town of Hillsboro. Bert is arrested for teaching the theory of evolution in his class in violation of a state law, and the film opens with him being placed under arrest before his class by the police. The town's mayor initially wants to keep the whole affair quiet, and some of the more prominent members of the community urge him to drop the matter entirely...but others (especially in the film; see below) agitate for ''more'' publicity, hoping to raise their town's profile to the national stage. That side wins when Matthew Harrison Brady -- [[NoCelebritiesWereHarmed the analogue of]] William Jennings Bryan -- announces that he's coming to Hillsboro to assist the prosecution. Cates writes to a newspaper in Baltimore for assistance, and is presented with Henry Drummond (Clarence Darrow by another name) as his defense attorney, and E.K. Hornbeck (standing in for Creator/HLMencken) [[LemonyNarrator as a chronicler]].

The film version was well received, directed by Creator/StanleyKramer with Creator/SpencerTracy as Drummond, Creator/FredricMarch as Brady, [[TheOtherDarrin Dick York]] as Cates, Creator/HarryMorgan as the judge, and ([[PlayingAgainstType surprisingly]]) Creator/GeneKelly as the all-snarking, never-dancing Hornbeck. It takes a few more liberties with the real story than the play does, but also incorporates more of the trial transcript; [[RealityIsUnrealistic today, most people thinking of the real trial instead remember details from the film]]. The film also has the distinction of being the first in-flight movie, according to TheOtherWiki.

[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inherit_the_Wind Speaking of what the other wiki says,]] the play was intended as a criticism of of the [[RedScare anti-Communist hysteria]] of TheFifties. However, with the newly-reborn debate on evolution versus creationism, the film is often shown at face value without the [=McCarthyism=] subtext being considered.
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!!This work includes examples of:

* AmoralAttorney: Brady's more interested in preaching than prosecuting and his religious devotion is more or less a way to be famous, compensating for all the times he's failed to become president. In contrast, the town accuses Drummond of taking the case solely to denounce religion, though Drummond is an agnostic who has nothing against religion save for the fundamentalists' literal interpretation of the Bible. The ending, by showing Drummond's familiarity with Biblical passages and Hornbeck's disgusted reaction, shows that the former is quite familiar with and respectful of the Bible, having taken up the case not out of hostility to religion but because of his devotion to freedom of thought. Earlier, Drummond makes this plain: "The Bible is a book. It's a good book, but it is not the ''only'' book."
* AlasPoorVillain: Brady's downfall is played completely tragically, as he inadvertently makes himself look like a fool in front of the courtroom audience, suffers a massive VillainousBreakdown, and suffers a heart attack right in the court room. Drummond especially doesn't take any joy in seeing his WorthyOpponent die in such a pathetic fashion, especially since they had been friends and allies during his presidential campaigns of the past.
* AntiVillain: The worst you could say about Brady is that he's a pompous blowhard. Despite his posturing and sanctimonious oratory, he's a decent enough man, especially when compared to the madly fanatical Reverend Brown. Likewise with Hornbeck; he may be a misanthropic {{Jerkass}}, but he's only barely antagonistic enough to qualify as a villain at all.
* AsTheGoodBookSays: Many instances as would be expected. Brady quotes Solomon's [[TitleDrop inherit the wind]] passage with great effect to defend Rachel from her father's condemnation.
* BadassPacifist: Drummond is an aging man who takes a lot heat from everybody, but he never loses his cool demeanor and instead turns words into weapons to defend his cause with a respect-worthy dignity. All in the middle of a hostile town where death threats are matter-of-factly sung.
* BigEater: Brady; yet another way of coping with his inferiority complex after losing three bids for president. This was true for his real life counterpart Bryan as well.
* CollapsedMidSpeech: Brady is giving his closing speech, which his old and weary voice tries and fails to make sound passionate. After the microphone is taken away from him, he desperately tries to continue, but suddenly falls silent and collapses. As he is carried out of the courtroom in a semi-conscious state, he starts speaking on being inaugurated as President, reflecting his failed hopes. He dies offstage soon after. TruthInTelevision, as Bryan actually did die (in his sleep) five days later.
* CompleteTheQuoteTitle: It has nothing to do with inheritance or wind, but a great deal to do with the idea of a community tearing itself apart. The complete quotation, which comes from the Book of Proverbs, is recited by Brady when Reverend Brown turns on his own daughter:
-->"He that troubleth his own house shall inherit the wind:\\
and the fool shall be servant to the wise of heart."
* CoolTeacher: The implication is Cates is one and well-respected by his students. There is even a switch moment when Drummond and Hornbeck see a group of young men staring at them and approach, ask if they are there to help Mr. Cates, then ask if they need help carrying their luggage.
* CourtroomAntic: A lot of them. Badgering witnesses, limiting the defense's options by claiming areas of science irrelevant to the case at hand, and of course, direct-examining the prosecutor. TruthInTelevision for the real case too: it was an absolute ''circus''.
* DeadpanSnarker: Hornbeck, as an {{Expy}} of H. L. Mencken, the famously sarcastic "Sage of Baltimore".
--> "Darwin was wrong. Man's still an ape."
* DeepSouth: A very, very deep and unenlightened 1925 Tennessee.
* EurekaMoment: When Hornbeck jokingly notes the only book and area of expertise Brady and the prosecutor would permit to be allowed in the court is the Bible, Drummond realizes his next attack should be on the literal interpretation of the Bible and breakdown Brady's view.
* EvenEvilHasStandards: Brady may be a self-aggrandizing religious opportunist, but he is still the one who publicly tells Rachel's hateful pastor father, with his usual eloquence and biblical knowledge, to stop condemning his own daughter.
* FamedInStory: Brady and Drummond are respectively the champions of traditional religion and secularism in the United States.
* FriendlyEnemy: Drummond and Brady are good friends outside the courtroom, as were their real life counterparts. Several WeUsedToBeFriends remarks are also pronounced.
* TheFundamentalist: Brady and Brown.
* GreekChorus: Hornbeck's function; he even speaks in verse.
* HamToHamCombat: The plot revolves around this.
* HeatWave: The characters are soaked with sweat and most of the courtroom audience are fanning themselves with hand-held fans, which display in-universe ProductPlacement ("Courtesy of X's Funeral Service"), a reflection of the tradition of funeral homes giving out free fans as promotional items. Some people even collect them.
* HeelRealization: While it doesn't stop him from participating in the trial in any sense, Brady has a serious OhCrap moment when his wife screams at him in the middle of his verbal beat down of Rachel. On snapping out of his righteous fury and realizing that he's driven her to tears, Brady sheepishly backs away and suggests the witness should be excused.
* HeterosexualLifePartners: It's implied in the film that Drummond and Brady were this in their youth. Drummond and Hornbeck are also this until the finish when Drummond finally tires of Hornbeck's cynicism.
* HoistByHisOwnPetard: Drummond manages to turn the crowd against Brady by using his own knowledge of the Bible against him by forcing him to concede that there are inconsistencies in it.
* HolierThanThou: Reverend Brown. Even Brady is appalled by his display.
* HollywoodAtheist: Hornbeck. His views aren't all that different from his real life counterpart.
-->'''Hornbeck:''' Ah, Henry! Why don't you wake up? Darwin was wrong. Man's still an ape. His creed's still a totem pole. When he first achieved the upright position, he took a look at the stars -- thought they were something to eat. When he couldn't reach them, he decided they were groceries belonging to a bigger creature. And that's how Jehovah was born.
-->'''Drummond:''' I wish I had your worm's-eye view of history...
* HollywoodLaw: There are so, so many instances of this (however much of it's actually TruthInTelevision, since the entire trial was staged).
** Brady badgering Rachel (though that may have been allowed because the town adores him).
** This is a minor one, but in the play, Rachel goes up to the stand from the audience. A major no-no.
** One example is actually removed from the play. The judge intentionally and cynically screwed up the sentencing procedure to get the result thrown out on a technicality (the jury were the ones supposed to decide the amount of fine, not him) thus allowing the Tennessee Supreme Court to avoid the constitutional issue entirely and thus prevent the overturn of the law.
* {{Hypocrite}}: The town and Reverend Brown believe themselves to be good Christians for following the Bible. They fail to realize one ought to forgive a man his transgressions, not sing in a mob to hang the man from an apple tree. Also, despite basing their whole position on Biblical literalism, the townsfolk are weirdly loose in their wording when quoting it. For instance, in the prayer meet where they recite Genesis the days of creation are marked by "the morning and the evening" when the Bible says the opposite.
* {{Irony}}: When Brady gives his final address after the trial is ended, the majority of the few people who are really listening to him with sympathy are his enemies.
* {{Jerkass}}:
** The fanatical Reverend Brown.
** Hornbeck goes too far with his [[HollywoodAtheist cynicism]] when he refuses to show [[DueToTheDead due respect after the death]] of [[spoiler:Brady]] at the end of the movie.
** The members of the mob who chant death threats against Drummond and Cates.
* TheJudge: Judge Mel Coffey.
* KirkSummation: A variation since the speech is the fight itself. Drummond deconstructs Brady as a self-proclaimed prophet incapable of accepting any view or position but his own.
* LargeHam: Brady is practically made of ham.
* LawProcedural: Though a bit lighter on the law aspect than normal.
* MadScientistsBeautifulDaughter: Rachel Brown. Not literally a mad scientist, obviously.
* MemeticMutation: In-universe by the mob.
** The song "Give me that old time religion" changes to include the line "If it's good enough for ''Brady'', it's good enough for me."
** ''The Battle Hymn of the Republic'' goes [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Brown%27s_Body back to its roots]] to become a death threat towards Cates and Drummond:
---> '''The Mob''': We'll hang Henry Drummond to a sour apple tree...
* MindRape: What Drummond eventually (and inadvertently) does to Brady, signified by his HeroicBSOD / VillainousBreakdown depending on the interpretation. Also somewhat in Brady's brutal cross-examination of Rachel.
* MomentKiller: Meeker when Rachel and Bert are sharing a passionate hug.
-->'''Cates:''' Rachel...love me. [''They hug'']
-->'''Meeker:''' [''Entering with a broom''] I gotta sweep.
* NoYou: By Drummond against Hornbeck after the trial is over.
-->'''Hornbeck:''' What happened today has no meaning...
-->'''Drummond:''' YOU have no meaning! You're like a ghost pointing an empty sleeve and smirking at everything people feel or want or struggle for!
* PenultimateOutburst: Drummond's brush with a contempt charge. This also happened in the real trial, but in a far more subdued manner than in the play.
* PrayerOfMalice: Reverend Brown delivered a fiery sermon praying God will damn Cates to Hell for teaching "evil-lution" and later a mob crowd uses a hymn's tune to claim they want to hang Cates and Drummond from a sour apple tree, because their God is right.
* {{Pun}}: Evil-ution.
* PunchClockVillain: One interpretation of Brady. This was certainly true of his real life counterpart (the "Punch-Clock" part, anyway): as much as Bryan was an anti-evolutionist crusader, the affair in Dayton was more or less something to occupy his time in retirement.
* TheReasonYouSuckSpeech: Half the play consists of these.
* RippedFromTheHeadlines: Play is based on the actual Scopes Monkey Trial in the 1920s, but is supposed to be an allegory for the then-current [[UsefulNotes/JosephMcCarthy McCarthy]] witch-hunts that dominated the headlines.
* RomanAClef: Henry Drummond = Clarence Darrow, Matthew Harrison Brady = William Jennings Bryan, E.K. Hornbeck = H.L. Mencken and Bertram Cates = John Scopes.
* SimpleCountryLawyer: Played with. Hillsboro is an uncommonly provincial town in the DeepSouth, but the main lawyers are from out of town. Brady does play this up to gain the sympathy of the town, but very little of it is affected on his part.
* SinisterMinister: Reverend Jeremiah Brown. Okay, a little bit.
* SmugSnake: Brady, in court only, and Hornbeck.
* SocietyIsToBlame: Name-checked. Drummond ''is'' an {{expy}} of the RealLife TropeCodifier.
* ThatWasObjectionable:
** Most of the challenges are well-grounded and reasoned, but Drummond indulges once in a simple "Objection, objection, objection!"
** Drummond complains about Brady being addressed as Colonel, as this honorary treatment makes Brady appear superior. The judge concedes the point and Drummond is made ''temporary'' honorary Colonel. Interestingly enough, [[RealityIsUnrealistic this actually happened in the real Scopes Trial.]]
* TitleDrop: As stated above, the title comes from a verse of the Book of Proverbs. During the play, Brady quotes the verse to Reverend Brown after he gets too overzealous and damns his own daughter to hell, effectively shutting him up and causing a MyGodWhatHaveIDone moment.
* TokenEvilTeammate: Hornbeck, in his own view.
-->''Now don't worry, little Eva. I may be rancid butter, but I'm on your side of the bread.''
* TorchesAndPitchforks: "We'll hang Bert Cates [and Drummond] from a sour apple tree..."
* VeryLooselyBasedOnATrueStory: Deliberately dramatized from the actual trial, which naturally means that many aspects of the film contradict the actual facts of the Scopes trial:
** The trial itself was hoax and a publicity stunt designed to put Dayton, TN back on the map. Scopes volunteered to be the defendant and was never in any real trouble, and the prosecutors and several lawmakers were in on the whole thing.
** Scopes was not a lone renegade teaching evolution in open defiance of the law. Every teacher in the state taught from the same biology textbook -- Civic Biology -- and thus every teacher in Dayton was violating the law. Any of them could have been a potential defendant. When the law passed, the state university openly declared they would not stop teaching evolution, and were never punished for it. The law itself seems to have simply a means of "looking" good by the politicians to the fundamentalist Tennesseans.
** Clarence Darrow had announced publicly that he would defend, ''pro bono'', anyone who was arrested for teaching evolution in a state where it had been outlawed. He was not called in by H.L. Mencken, nor was he really invited to take part in the proceedings at all. Darrow more or less butted into the affair, edging out the lawyers who had already agreed to take the case.
** H.L. Mencken's participation in the whole affair is magnified. In reality, he merely commentated irreverently from the sidelines for the ''Baltimore Sun'' and actually left Dayton before the trial was over. He therefore missed Darrow's examination of Bryan, something he sorely regretted.
** Likewise, Bryan eagerly jumped on the bandwagon despite not having practiced law for 36 years by that point. The extent of his political failures is exaggerated as well, although he did participate in the trial in the twilight of his career, with his voice and oratory both fading.
** The teacher on "trial" also never spent any time in jail, instead only receiving a fine that was ultimately waived by the judge.
** Brady is shown as totally and willfully ignorant of Darwin's book and evolution in general. In the actual case Bryan quoted parts of it from memory. [[QuoteMine He cherry-picked quotes completely out of context]], but was not totally ignorant.
** Bryan, like Brady, was called to testify as an "expert" on the Bible. This was not, however, due to his claims of actual expertise (he claimed no such thing), but because of his theology. He embraced literal interpretation because he felt a "democratic" religion required an interpretation of the scripture that anyone could make sense of, not just a handful of experts. Given his views, he could not decline on the basis of lacking sufficient expertise.
** Drummond is portrayed as an old friend of Brady and his wife. In real life, Darrow nursed a serious grudge against Bryan due to a political rivalry early in their careers and his hatred of fundamentalism on principle. Bryan himself didn't think much of Darrow and for her part, Mary Bryan absolutely despised Darrow. Darrow expressed little of Drummond's reverence at [[spoiler: Bryan/Brady's death.]]
* VillainousBreakdown: All antagonist characters receive this.
** Rev. Brown gets so fanatical that he damns his daughter to Hell, which also counts as a MoralEventHorizon.
** Brady loses it in court and starts yelling the names of all the books in the Old Testament even though no one is listening to him anymore. The breakdown continues to the next day and [[spoiler: up to his death. As he dies, all the pent-up speeches he was to make if elected President finally come out]]. This may also count as a HeroicBSOD.
** Hornbeck, previously a DeadpanSnarker with no real emotional attachment to anything, gets really pissed off when Drummond chews him out for [[spoiler: insulting Brady after his death]]. He even slips up in insulting Drummond, calling him an "atheist who believes in God!"
* VoteEarlyVoteOften: When Brady is told by the townsfolk that they all voted for him three times, Brady quips that he trusts it was in three separate elections.
* WantingIsBetterThanHaving: Attorney Henry Drummond tells a story about a rocking horse he wanted when he was a child. It was far too expensive for his family to get for him, but his father scrimped and saved and managed to purchase the rocking horse for Drummond as a Christmas present. And the first time Drummond got on it to ride, it fell apart from dry rot. The Horse looked shiny, new and wonderful on the outside, but was really rotten to the core. This is a metaphor for his view on the fundamentalist literal interpretation of the Bible: the outward displays of piety and righteousness do nothing more than hide the moral decay of the community.
* WelcomeToHell: Hornbeck's first line to Drummond upon the latter's arrival in Hillsboro.
* WhiteAndGreyMorality: Hornbeck and Brady are [[SmugSnake Smug Snakes]]s, Rev. Brown is a fanatical {{jerkass}}, but everyone is more or less doing what they think is right.
* WomenAreWiser: In the film, Sarah Brady is the only character who can see things from everyone's point of view. In the play, Rachel shows signs of becoming this by the end.
* WorthyOpponent: Drummond and Brady, who explicitly says so.
* YouCanNotKillAnIdea: Works both ways. The fundamentalists do their spiteful best to "kill" the concept of evolution because, for some, they fear science will come and "kill" their literal view of the Bible.

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