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Basic Trope: A character goes though an event that is indicated to be unsurvivable, but usually survives.
Straight: Bob fell off a big cliff, but managed to cling to a branch before hitting the bottom.
Exaggerated: Bob was eaten whole by a monster, who then fell off a cliff, followed by a bunch of rocks falling on him. Bob then manages to use his knife to rip out of the dead monster's body, and with heroic strength moves the rocks aside and comes to without a scratch.
Downplayed: Bob survives the fall, but is realistically injured and spends months recovering.
Justified: Bob was trained in rock climbing and had specialized gear on him.
Inverted: Bob is now in a sanctuary. Nothing bad happens there.
Subverted: The Big Bad saw Bob fall off a cliff and assumed he died. This was a correct assessment.
Double Subverted: Bob didn't actually die, rather the person who fell off the cliff just happened to look like Bob.
Parodied: The cliff was only 4 ft high, Bob sprained an ankle in the fall and it took him a while to get back up.
Zig Zagged: Bob fell off the cliff and died, became a ghost and haunted the Big Bad. He was then brought back to life by one group of friends, but he Came Back Wrong because another group already reincarnated his soul into another being.
Averted: Bob never survives anything that would make everyone think he is dead. Either he dies when he falls, or he never falls.