A couple has a baby that's the opposite gender from the one they [[WhyCouldntYouBeDifferent wanted]] or [[HeirClubForMen needed]]. For whatever reason, they decide that rather than keep trying, they're going to raise the existing child as if the child were the desired gender. Very often applied to young girls being raised as boys because their families needed an [[HeirClubForMen heir]].

Once the kid is a little older, this usually leads to conflict between the child and the parents and/or inner conflict for the child, who has to weigh the desire to be themselves against their desire to please their parents (or keep their inheritance or what have you). In a few cases, though, the child turns out to identify just fine with the gender they were raised to be. When the child's gender identity does match their physical sex, they may still retain some WholesomeCrossdresser tendencies.

Can result in a lot of {{Angst}} if the child suppresses his/her desire to be him/herself (until it can't be suppressed anymore, like when the child begins to show prominent secondary sexual characteristics, or when the child begins to love someone of their opposite sex), or when the child rebels against the parent's desire and the parent simply can't accept the child for who he/she is.

One possible idea is that [[UsefulNotes/{{Transgender}} the character was raised as their biological gender, and came to identify as the opposite gender]] but is forced to continue living as their biological one. However, discussing whether or not a character ''is'' trans has been known to cause many an InternetBackdraft, so unless there is basis in canon, [[RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgement let's not get too deep into the subject]].

Beware of inherent spoilers in the examples.

'''Girls Raised as Boys'''

[[AC:Anime and Manga]]
* [[spoiler:Akito Sohma]] in ''Manga/FruitsBasket''. There's a long story behind it involving some sort of reverse OedipusComplex, but suffice it to say that [[EvilMatriarch her mother]] [[spoiler: Ren Sohma]] was to blame for it. She was always aware of her true gender and identified as such, but other than that, only some of the old family servants and the oldest Zodiac members (Ayame, Hatori, Shigure and Kureno) know about it [[spoiler: until she goes through a HeelFaceTurn and then willingly reveals her gender/identification, via [[SheCleansUpNicely showing up in a very feminine kimono instead of the manly ''yukata'' robes she usually wears]].]] It's probably the main reason why she hates her mother so much.
* Tsukasa Shuro in ''Manga/AyashiNoCeres'', according to the tie-in novel focusing on her backstory, didn't even realize she was a girl until she was about 8 years old. She was raised as a boy to [[spoiler: protect her from the curse of the Hagoromo, since she's one of the Celestial Maidens; her parents, and specially [[MyBelovedSmother her mother]], feared that she would take her Hagoromo and run away from them.]] As an adult, she identifies as a girl and has grown up into a {{Bifauxnen}} IdolSinger.
* Lady Oscar in ''RoseOfVersailles'', raised by her father as such due to the lack of a son to continue the family's military tradition. By the time she meets Andre at age 7, she already knows she is a girl and identifies as such. By the time Oscar joins the military at age 14, most people can tell she is female.
* ''Manga/{{Gintama}}'''s Kyuubei was raised as a boy so that she could succeed her family's clan.
* Princess Sapphire from ''The Manga/PrincessKnight'' - again raised as a boy due to a law that only male heirs could rule, and further complicated by the fact that she had the "hearts" of both a boy and girl due to a mistake in Heaven.
* [[spoiler: Genki Saotome]] in ''Manga/GetterRobo Armaggedon''. (And ''only'' in this particular continuity, one might add.) When we meet her as an adult, [[spoiler: she identifies as a female, and has grown into the very tomboyish ActionGirl Kei Kuruma.]] Brilliant plot twist, or an AssPull for the ages? [[InternetBackdraft Who knows.]]
* [[spoiler: Chiyomaru/Kiyone]] in ''Manga/{{Genzo}}''. Princess Kiku is a variation: while her gender wasn't concealed at all, her father raised her like a boy and a warrior [[spoiler: in order to defeat [[EvilWeapon Yasuke and the Yamiganemaru]]]].
* [[spoiler: Shintarou Inoue]] in ''Manga/SumomomoMomomo'', and it's not entirely clear if this happened because [[spoiler: the head of the clans that the Inoue clan were aligned with had to be male to fit into an ArrangedMarriage]], if it's because [[spoiler: Shintarou's dad is an UnknownRival to the main character's dad, and Shintarou's dad wants revenge by proxy]], or if it's because the character's dad is just a bit crazy.
* [[spoiler: Julius]] from ''Orpheus no Mado'', by RiyokoIkeda from RoseOfVersailles. [[spoiler: She knows she's a girl, but has been forcibly raised as a boy by her BigScrewedUpFamily as a condition to be considered as a worthy inheritor. Julius desperately wants to live her life as she sees fit, though, and both her hate for her cruel relatives and her love for her friends and her much abused mom drives her to a massively tragic life.]]
* [[spoiler:Kugayama]] in ''Manga/{{Beelzebub}}''. [[spoiler:This is because only males were allowed to inherit the family fortune, and therefore she was raised as a male. However, when she ended up falling in love with her best friend, Himekawa, her feminine desires ended up conflicting with her masculine upbringing, and caused her a great deal of emotional turmoil. To remedy this, her grandfather made an ArrangedMarriage between the two for when they were older, so that she could freely be female. However, she never had the guts to tell Himekawa about it or her true gender. Years later, after she betrayed years before in spite of still being in love with him, the truth finally comes out and Himekawa still has no idea how to react to all this.]]
* Juliet Fiamatta Asto Capulet from ''RomeoXJuliet''. She's self-identified as a girl since birth, but has been presented as a boy to everyone outside her closest confidantes since the other members of her family were murdered when she was just two years old; it is common knowledge that the SoleSurvivor of the massacre was a girl, so under the diguise of a boy named Odin, Juliet arouses less suspicion. When she learns her true identity as a Capulet on her DangerousSixteenthBirthday, she presents as a boy to those outside her closest social circle, but begins wearing dresses in private; when her true gender is publically revealed (which includes a scene in which Juliet is "presented" to the BigBad while wearing her hair down and a simple dress), she switches her cross-dressing for a tomboyish SkirtOverSlacks look, occasionally complemented by a TomboyishPonytail.
* ''UruseiYatsura'' has Ryuunosuke Fujinami. Ryuunosuke's dad [[HeirClubForMen wanted a boy to carry on his family sea-side shop]] and decided to raise his only daughter as one. Ryuunosuke knows she's really a girl and wants to be more girly, but fails due to her father's meddling.

* ''[[https://www.fanfiction.net/s/7603977/1/Genma-s-Daughter Genma's Daughter]]'' has Ranma going through this, justified by the fact that Genma [[BeCarefulWhatYouWishFor made a drunken deal with]] [[DirtyOldMan Happosai]] to provide an heir. Ranma never realized the truth until Nodoka finally catches up to him, searching for her daughter, Ranko, who disappeared over ten years before.

* Violeta, the middle daughter in the Spanish film ''Belle Epoque''. Her mother raised her to be a boy and she became a Lesbian.

* In the [[Literature/LandOfOz Oz series]], Princess Ozma was magically disguised as a boy for most of her childhood. Even she didn't know the truth. She seemed to adjust to being a girl very easily, however.
* One of the stories from ''Literature/ArabianNights'' had a groom reveal to the bride on their wedding night that he was actually a woman raised as a man due to her father [[YouHaveFailedMe putting pressure on her mother]] [[HeirClubForMen for a son]].
* Tamir (a.k.a. Prince Tobin) from Lynn Flewelling's ''Tamir Triad'' was magically transformed into a boy at birth (long story short, the people currently in power required a male heir, but certain groups wanted a return to the country's old matriarchal ways). She didn't know she was a girl until puberty hit and weakened the spell, and had some awkwardness adjusting to being female later.
* In ''Literature/TheMetamorphoses,'' Iphis's mother raises her daughter as a boy on divine orders to avoid exposing her at birth. Iphis falls in love with another girl named Ianthe, so the goddess Isis turned Iphis into a man and the two got married.
* Features in Mark Twain's ''A Medieval Romance''.
* Kellen in ''The Dream-Maker's Magic'' was raised as a boy by her mother, who was convinced she had actually given birth to a boy and couldn't handle having a daughter instead. Kellen started occasionally dressing as a woman around the time she hit puberty. When she left to go to Wodenderry, she switched back to pretending to be a man for her own safety, but was eventually forced to admit the truth to her friends. [[spoiler: It turned out her mother really had given birth to a boy, and the babies were SwitchedAtBirth.]]
* Celeste in the ''Gemini'' books by VCAndrews.
* [[spoiler:The narrator, Frank,]] in ''Literature/TheWaspFactory'' as it turns out [[spoiler:her father wanted to experiment and see if it would work]].
* [[spoiler:Viscount Leos von Liebowitz]] of [[{{Warhammer}} Nuln]], in the Creator/KimNewman novel ''Beasts in Velvet''. Spoilered as it's a murder mystery, the relevant character is raised as a boy because [[spoiler:his elder sister, Countess-to-be Emmanuelle von Liebowitz declared she didn't want a sister taking the attention from her]]. ''He'' was repeatedly beaten if he showed any signs of femininity, including an awareness that he had girl-parts. [[FreudianExcuse As a result]], he became a serial killer, targeting whores, while wearing his sister's green velvet cloak and dress. The truth of his gender was only discovered after his death.

[[AC:Live-Action TV]]
* ''HowIMetYourMother'': Robin Scherbatsky was raised as a boy by her father, until he caught her kissing a boy. Currently, she still has some [[TheLadette boyish tendencies]] and a lingering [[WellDoneSonGuy desire to please her father]] whenever he appears in her life, and his constant dismissal of her is a RunningGag.
* In ''Series/{{Arrow}}'', [[ActionGirl Shado]] mentions she learned to fight from her father, because "he wanted a boy." Slade comments, "Well, he got one."

* Queen of ''Webcomic/GirlsOfTheWild'' was raised this way for much of her life, as her parents were major figures in the financial world. She didn't even know she was female until age 5. When she was 9 her brother was born and thus she was allowed to live as a girl.

[[AC:Visual Novels]]
* Saber [[spoiler: aka King Arthur]] from ''VisualNovel/FateStayNight'' is a standard "needed a male heir" example.
* In ''VisualNovel/PhoenixWrightAceAttorneyDualDestinies'', this turns out to be the case with [[spoiler:Robin Newman]]. Why exactly her parents did this is left uncertain, but she is pretty happy when [[spoiler:Athena reveals her secret to the court, allowing her to openly live as a girl]].

'''Boys Raised as Girls'''

[[AC:Anime, Manga and Manhwa]]
* North Italy from ''Manga/AxisPowersHetalia'' was raised as a girl by Austria and Hungary. Though it's implied that everyone ''but'' [[LockedOutOfTheLoop Austria]] [[spoiler:(and the Holy Roman Empire, but that's another bag of cats)]] knew that Nitaly was a boy and not a girl, simply going along with his crossdressing until Italy reached physical puberty and started openly presenting himself as a male.
** Oddly, North Italy's older brother South Italy/Romano also dressed up as a girl when living with Spain, but everyone treated him as a boy from the beginning. Likely because [[BrattyHalfPint he was much more brash and kinda bratty.]]
* Izumo Kunisaki in ''KunisakiIzumoNoJijou''. Technically, he was raised to perform female roles at kabuki.
* ''MeiNoNaisho'': Haruna Mei's mother raised him as a girl. Mai only learned the truth when "her" classmates saw his penis. Mei believed it'd eventually fall.
* An obscure manga called ''Princess Prince'' had Lawrence raised as a girl named Lori, due to a prophecy that if one of the twin sons born to the king was raised as a 'child of the moon' (read: a girl), there would be prosperity in the kingdom. (It doesn't help that of the two, he resembles his dead mother more.) HilarityEnsues as Lawrence has a crush on a girl, is constantly hit on by men, and wonders what will happen when he hits puberty.
* In the manhwa ''AngelDiary'', Ee-Jung is raised as a girl because he is the Red Phoenix.
* According to side materials, this seems to have been the case of [[spoiler: Kazuto "Towa" Sakuma]] in Manga/SensualPhrase.
* Nagisa Shiowatari from ''UruseiYatsura''. His dad raised him as a girl just because he wanted to fulfil his promise to have a daughter to marry Fujinami's son ([[FridgeLogic and apparently never thought about how to keep said son from protesting that his "bride" was actually another guy]]). Nagisa knows he's a boy and identifies as such but he just prefers to act like a girl, coming off as a CreepyCrossdresser (especially given he's a "living ghost" and so can do stuff like walk through walls).
* First-born sons of the Higashikata family in part 8 of ''Manga/JojosBizarreAdventure'' are raised in girls' clothing until a certain age due to a superstition to ward off evil spirits. The tradition started because firstborn sons of the Higashikatas always die to an unknown disease. Currently this is done with Tsurugi Higashikata.

* In ''{{Finder}}'', Lynne was raised as a girl because her mother was from the Llaverac clan, where everyone, regardless of functional gender, has breasts and dresses and acts female. Lynne grew up to be an odd mixture.
* Lord Fanny in ''TheInvisibles'' is born as a boy into a family of powerful female witches, and s/he is raised as a girl so that s/he can continue the family tradition (which is forbidden to men). Her/his grandmother even chastises her/his father for producing a male child instead of the preferred female one. Fanny quite easily accepts the gender she is given and grows up to be a transgender woman with magical powers.

* Calliope/Cal, the central character of ''Literature/{{Middlesex}}'', although being [[WrongGeneticSex genetically male]], is born with [[{{intersex}} a condition that makes him look externally female]]. As neither the parents nor family doctor realized it until the child hit puberty, Callie was raised as a girl. Eventually, upon discovering his true nature he comes to terms with his male identity. Note that although Cal's parents specifically intended to have a baby girl (their first child was a boy), they obviously didn't intend to force her to fake her gender identity.
* In ''Perfect Peace'' by Daniel Black, the mother of a black Southern family raises her youngest son as a girl. She manages to get away with this for 7 years because she makes sure to be the only one who changes her clothes, helps her in the bathroom etc.
* Lila in the book ''Flavor of the Month'' by Olivia Goldsmith. Lila was already born with a testicle issue and a gay dad who wasn't going to be able to handle having a son, so her crazy mom Theresa got her remaining testicle removed and gave Lila hormones and breast surgery. It's unclear as to whether or not Lila was a transgender personality, but she pretty much hates both genders equally, and gay men especially. When she has sex with her fiance, well...she manages successfully to hide something.
* The Counterfeit Marquise is a story about a woman whose husband died in battle raising her son as a girl so he won't have to join the army. She doesn't tell "Marianne" he is actually a boy until he is engaged to be married. And even then, he doesn't tell his husband until after the wedding. [[spoiler:Everything turns out better than expected when Marianne's husband reveals he is a cross-dressing woman]]

[[AC:Live Action Television]]
* The ''Series/TrueLife'' episode "I'm Living As Someone I'm Not" had a woman who was biologically a man. She was raised by her mother as a girl after her mother saw that she was transgender around the age of 13. This counts as this trope because she did not really see herself as transgender, just as a woman and in fact had lived as a woman so long that she had even perfected techniques so that it looked like she had breasts, and it was impossible to tell that she was biologically a man (she just looked like a skinny tall woman). The story follows her trying to come out of the closet, so to speak.
* An episode of ''LawAndOrderSVU'' featured a pair of fraternal twins. However, you find out later that [[spoiler:they were born identical, and the sister was actually a boy who was given a sex change after a botched circumcision]]. This was RippedFromTheHeadlines, oddly enough.
* On ''[[Series/ThirtyRock 30 Rock]]'', it's mentioned as a NoodleIncident that Josh was raised as a girl for 10 years.

* The singer in TheWho's song "I'm a Boy":
--> I'm a boy, I'm a boy, but my ma won't admit it; I'm a boy, I'm a boy, but if I say I am, I get it.

* Daisy in the Christopher Durang play ''Baby with the Bathwater''.
* In the Brazilian soap-opera [[ChocolateComPimenta "Chocolate com Pimenta"]] (Chocolate with Pepper), there was a woman who suffered from a serious illness and promised to St. Bernardette she'd adopt a girl if she's cured. A maid working for the woman had a son and desired for him a better life so she passed the boy as a girl with no family and claimed the "girl's" name to be Bernardette. Not caring about her foster child more than required to keep good on her promise, she spent years unknowingly raising a boy until the truth came out and Bernardette renamed himself "Bernardo". The woman then started to think everything bad that happened to her was divine punishment for not keeping her promise.

[[AC:Video Games]]
* Bridget from ''VideoGame/GuiltyGear'' was raised as a girl because of a superstition in his village about having same gender twins. His story mode actually has him setting off to become a bounty hunter to actually prove that he wouldn't be a curse on those he loved.
* Gwyndolin of ''Videogame/DarkSouls'' was born with an affinity for the moon, and as such was raised as a female.

[[AC:Visual Novel]]
* [[spoiler:Cassidy]] in ''VisualNovel/TheRoyalTrap'' was born male but raised female for complicated political reasons. [[UnfortunateImplications Despite what the title suggests]], she is solidly female in personality and has no desire to be changed back.

* Canadian superhero Green Gables from the ''{{Spinnerette}}'' webcomic may possibly be an example. While he has not made mention of his childhood, he stated that the Green Gables persona is a matriarchal legacy in his family, leaving his origin hanging somewhere between this trope and WholesomeCrossdresser.

[[AC:Web Original]]
* WebVideo/TheNostalgiaCritic: "Granted, I didn't grow up as a girl. At least, not for long. *{{beat}}* I-I have a history."

[[AC:Real Life]]
* In real life, David Reimer had his penis destroyed as a baby during a circumcision. John Money (a psychologist) then encouraged and oversaw David being sexually re-assigned to female and raised as such. John Money reported the case as a success, and used it as evidence that gender identity is environmental. However, it was later revealed that David had never identified as female, and began living as a male at age 15. He suffered from suicidal depression starting at 13, and eventually killed himself at 38.
** This ended up being RippedFromTheHeadlines on LawAndOrderSVU with a set of identical twins. One of them was this and ended up raised as a girl. Eventually they find out and plot to kill the psychologist who tried to psychologically reprogram one of them as female claiming Nurture over nature.
** Ripped again, following Reimer's story more closely, on ''Mental''. The key to a patient-of-the-week's self-immolation attempt lied in his disgust for his female body.
* Creator/RainerMariaRilke's mother, in mourning after losing a baby daughter after a week of life, dressed him in dresses throughout his early childhood.

'''Mixed Examples'''

[[AC:Anime and Manga]]
* Hansel and Gretel in ''Manga/BlackLagoon'' were raised to role-play whatever sick scenarios their owner created for them and as the result learned to "switch" gender at will, becoming a dual CreepyCrossdresser.
** It gets to the point that no one in-universe or out knows the actual genders of the duo. Are they both girls? Boys? Different genders? Rock ''might'' know, but he might also have been too [[{{Squick}} squicked out]] by [[BrainBleach what was happening]] to really think about it.
* ''Manga/AxisPowersHetalia'' has [[NationsAsPeople Hungary]] growing up living as a boy, then identifying as a female as she grew up - the trick is that, as a kid, she thought she really was a boy and thought that "we all get one when we get older anyway". Fandom opinions on Hungary's gender range from {{tomboy}} to female-to-male {{transsexual}}. [[InternetBackdraft It's not always safe to comment on it.]]

* The Japanese classic ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torikaebaya_Monogatari Torikaebaya Monogatari]]'' has a brother and sister raised in this way. They go on to careers at court in those roles, but eventually switch to match their birth genders.
** The story has been adapted as a manga under the title of ''The Change!''.

[[AC:Live Action Television]]
* On ''Series/{{CSI}}'', the FreudianExcuse of a SerialKiller is revealed to be a gender identity issue: His father raised him as a boy, his mother as a girl.
* Interesting example in an episode of ''Saving Hope''. The team is working on gender-reassignment surgery for a transman but have to stop due to a new medical issue that they can't quite figure out. It turns out the patient was born intersex and, while the doctors advised waiting to see which gender the child identified with before performing surgery, the mom decided to make the child female. This is a huge source of guilt later when it turns out that mom made the "wrong" choice when her daughter decides she'd rather be male.

[[AC:Visual Novels]]
* ''VisualNovel/UminekoWhenTheyCry'' has [[spoiler:[[AmbiguousGender Sayo Yasuda]] (AKA Shannon, Kanon and Beatrice)]], whose original gender is unknown ([[GenderNeutralWriting and the narration and dialogues do nothing to help]]). Note that a large reason that no one can tell due to secondary attributes is that [[spoiler:Sayo]]'s body didn't develop correctly [[ScarsAreForever due to a severe injury received as a baby.]] However, the manga heavily implies that [[spoiler:Sayo would fit in the "Boys Raised as Girls" category, and if so his/her situation would have some parallels to David Reimer's as seen above]].