[[quoteright:197:[[Literature/AberdeenBestiary http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/wolfinbestiary.jpg]]]]
[-[[caption-width-right:197:The ''[[http://www.abdn.ac.uk/bestiary/intro.hti Aberdeen Bestiary]]'', c. late 12th century]]-]
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From the fall of Rome (c. 476 CE) to the invention of printing. The precise dates vary from region to region, but this was a time when literacy was low and books rare. Most western folklore originated here, often echoing earlier tropes. ChivalricRomance developed in this era.

Note: this is older than ''UsefulNotes/JohannesGutenberg's printing press'' (1439 CE), not metal movable-type characters (ca. 1230 CE, Korea), movable-type printing (1040 CE, China), and certainly not wood-block printing (220 CE or earlier, China again). In short, the Middle Ages -- assuming you don't take Petrarch's definition for it, as he lived in the 1300s.

Specific works from this time period include:

* ''The Literature/ArabianNights'', mostly (though "Literature/{{Aladdin}}" and "Literature/AliBaba" have no known source before Galland's OlderThanRadio French translation.)
* ''Literature/{{Beowulf}}''
* ''Literature/TheCanterburyTales'' by Creator/GeoffreyChaucer
* Giovanni Boccacio's ''Literature/{{Decameron}}''
* ''Literature/TheDivineComedy'' by Dante Alighieri
* Almost everything we know of CelticMythology and NorseMythology was first written down during this period.
* Literature/TheIcelandicSagas
* Most sources of [[KingArthur Arthurian legend]], from Geoffrey of Monmouth's ''Literature/HistoryOfTheKingsOfBritain'' to ''Literature/SirGawainAndTheGreenKnight''.
* ''{{Literature/Nibelungenlied}}''
* The ''Literature/TaleOfGenji''
* ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms'' (though set in the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE)
* ''Literature/TheSongOfRoland''
* ''Literature/TheShahnameh'' by Ferdowsi
* The [[{{UsefulNotes/Hinduism}} Hindu]] [[HinduMythology Puranas]] were composed in more-or-less their present form during the centuries before about 1000 CE, although their origins and some portions of the texts go back to at least 300 BCE.
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!! Tropes from this time period:
[[index]]
* AbhorrentAdmirer: Seen in the Wife of Bath's Tale in ''Literature/TheCanterburyTales''.
* AboveTheInfluence: Kamar and Budur in ''The Literature/ArabianNights''.
* AdjectiveAnimalAlehouse: European [[TheHighMiddleAges High Middle Ages]] practice.
* TheAgeless: The [[NorseMythology Norse gods]] are unaging, so long as they continue to eat the Apples of Idun.
* AlasPoorYorick: St. Catherine of Siena did this, supposedly.
* AllWitchesHaveCats: 'A woman with a black cat is a witch' dates to this time period.
* AnatomicallyImpossibleSex: Works by Duke William IX of Aquitaine.
* ArrowCatch: Odin in NorseMythology and Jiang Wei in ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms'' can both do this.
* AscendedFanboy: Back in 12th century Europe, a lot of knights JumpedAtTheCall of the Second Crusade. Why? They were raised on stories of the First Crusade.
* AttractiveBentGender: "Prince Camaralzaman and Princess Badoura" in ''The Literature/ArabianNights''.
* BehemothBattle: St. Brendan and his crew in ''Literature/TheVoyageOfStBrendan'' witness two sea-monsters as well as a two giant birds fight each other to the death. Both times a "good" monster sent by God defeats and kills a "bad" monster that had tried to harm the voyagers.
* BerserkButton: Liu Bei in ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms''.
* BewareOfHitchHikingGhosts: Mi Zhu picks up a hitchhiking [[spoiler:fire spirit]] in ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms''.
* {{Bishonen}}: [[Literature/TaleOfGenji Prince Genji]].
* BlackKnight: The two black knights from [[KingArthur Arthurian legend]].
* BolivianArmyEnding: The game of TabletopGame/{{Chess}} ends when the king is surrounded with no chance of escape, but has not yet been killed or captured.
* TheCallLeftAMessage: The Sword in the Stone and the Siege Perilous from the KingArthur legends.
* CatchAndReturn: Catching a spear from mid-flight and throwing it back is a feat mastered by various heroes of Literature/TheIcelandicSagas.
* ChainOfDeals: The Japanese legend of the straw millionaire, a poor man who prayed to the goddess of mercy. She granted him a piece of straw, which he traded through his travels until he managed to win the heart of an heiress.
* ChangelingTale: Supernatural beings enticing humans away into the Otherworld is a trope of IrishMythology, though this is not done from malice. The folk belief (common to most of Western Europe) that malicious supernatural beings outright kidnap people (especially babies) and substitute them with changelings is documented from the {{the Late Middle Ages}} onwards.
* CharacterNameAndTheNounPhrase: ''Literature/SirGawainAndTheGreenKnight'', 14th century.
* ChessMotifs: Chaturanga existed by the 7th century CE.
* ChivalricRomance: Hallmark of [[TheHighMiddleAges High Middle Ages]] literature.
* ColdIron: The traditional bane of TheFairFolk.
* ContentWarnings: Chaucer uses them in "The Miller's Prologue" of the ''CanterburyTales''.
* CoolBoat: NorseMythology gives us Skblanir, ship of the god Freyr, made by [[Main/OurDwarvesAreAllTheSame dwarves]]. It was a full-sized ship, big enough to carry the entire Norse pantheon, that you could fold up and store in your pocket when you were done. Also, whenever you opened the sail, a favorable wind for taking you where you wanted to go would spring up.
* CorruptChurch: Medieval Western Europe allegedly got it bad enough to be commented on in several contemporary sources. The most notable of these is Dante, who puts several popes in Hell for corruption in the ''[[TheDivineComedy Inferno]]'', and the one pope we meet in the ''Purgatorio'' is also there for being too greedy before he repented.
* TheCorpseStopsHere: "The Story of the Hunchback" from the ''Literature/ArabianNights''.
* CountryMatters: ''Literature/TheCanterburyTales''
* CourtroomEpisode: Elaborate law court scenes are found in many of the [[Literature/TheIcelandicSagas Sagas of Icelanders]].
* CourtlyLove: A staple of ChivalricRomance.
* DamselErrant: In [[KingArthur Arthurian myths]], such as in the Forest of Arroy.
* TheDeadCanDance: The ''danse macabre'' motif in art (first in 1425), and various morality plays.
* DirectLineToTheAuthor: ''Literature/TaleOfGenji'' and ''Literature/TheCanterburyTales'' both have this.
* DisposableWoman: ''Literature/VitaeSanctorumBritanniae'', before the 9th century. Also ''Shui Hu Zhuan,'' aka ''Literature/OutlawsOfTheMarsh'' or ''The Water Margin'' (mid-14th century).
* DraconicHumanoid: A few [[Literature/TheIcelandicSagas Old Norse sagas]] (for example, "Literature/TheTaleOfStyrbjorn") mention a monster called ''finngalkn'', a gigantic creature with the head and shoulders of a man and the lower body of a dragon.
* DrawSwordDrawBlood: From NorseMythology, King Hgni's dwarf-made sword Dinsleif could not be sheathed until it had drawn blood or taken life. Another dwarf-forged sword, Tyrfing, was cursed so that it would kill a man every time it was drawn.
* TheDulcineaEffect: Chivalric stories, such as the 12th-century tale of the Troubadour Joufre.
* TheEveryman: These were often the protagonists of medieval everyman plays.
* EverythingsBetterWithRainbows (Rainbows as solid objects): In NorseMythology the rainbow is Bifrost, the bridge between Asgard and Midgard, a solid road on which the gods travel.
* EvilTowerOfOminousness: Kajebi fortress in [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Knight_in_the_Panther%27s_Skin ''The Knight in the Tiger's Skin'']] (12th century).
* EyeBeams: The Fomor Balor from IrishMythology had a magic eye that could burn men "like leaves cast into a forge" (''Literature/TheBattleOfMaghTuireadh''). In the ''Literature/MatsyaPurana'', Shiva used his third eye to burn the love-god Kama to ash in wrath over being forced to fall in love with Parvati.
* EyeObscuringHat: Odin from NorseMythology.
* EyepatchOfPower: The god Odin in NorseMythology.
* TheFairFolk: Ancient IrishMythology, bleeding through into British folk tales.
* {{Fanfare}}: European practice heralding the arrival of a King.
* FamilyEyeResemblance: In ''Literature/VolsungaSaga'', all the Volsungs have unusually bright, piercing eyes.
* FantasticFoxes: Oral traditions in Europe and Asia.
* FauxDeath: The [[CelticMythology Celtic]] precursor of "Sleeping Beauty".
* FedToPigs: Amleth in ''Literature/GestaDanorum'' kills his uncle's spying courtier that tries to eavesdrop on Amleth's conversation with his mother, then cuts the body to pieces, boils it, and throws it into a sewer for pigs to eat.
* FencePainting: The modus operandi of the West African trickster Anansi the Spider. It eventually backfires on him.
* FeudingFamilies: Many [[Literature/TheIcelandicSagas Sagas of Icelanders]], such as ''Njls saga'', ''Laxdla saga'', and ''Eyrbyggja saga''.
* FleurDeLis: European heraldry.
* FootsieUnderTheTable: In the Icelandic ''Saga of Bsi and Herraud'', Bsi initiates his one-night stand with a farmgirl of Bjarmaland by "touching her foot with his toe" at table, "and she did the same to him".
* ForWantOfANail: The proverb first appeared during this period, though the concept may be older. There's also the ''Arabian Nights'' tale "What a drop of honey caused" (it caused a war.)
* GenerationalSaga: Various [[Literature/TheIcelandicSagas Icelandic sagas]], such as ''Laxdla saga'', ''Eyrbyggja saga'', or ''Literature/VolsungaSaga'' (all 13th century).
* GenieInABottle: Arabian myth and legend.
* GentleGiant: Saint Christopher, post CharacterDevelopment, in the ''Golden Legend'' c. 1260 CE.
* GreedyJew: Medieval European prejudice.
* TheGrimReaper: The personification of Death as a skeletal figure with a scythe was common in the middle ages in Europe, starting in the 14th century.
* TheGuardsMustBeCrazy: The mobility limitations of the Advisors[=/=]Guards in {{Xiangqi}} means they're often getting in each other's way.
* HammerSpace: Thunder-god Thor of NorseMythology could make his hammer shrink to an incredibly tiny size, and be pulled out of seemingly nowhere, and is both the first user and [[TropeNamer namer of this trope]].
* HeadTurnedBackwards: In the ''[[Literature/TheDivineComedy Inferno]]'', fortune-tellers have to walk forwards with their heads on backwards, unable to see what is ahead, [[IronicHell because of their forbidden attempts to see the future in life]].
* HeroicAlbino: Prince Zal in ''Literature/TheShahnameh'' by the great Persian poet Ferdowsi.
* HoldingTheFloor: Scheherezade in ''Literature/ArabianNights'' dragged this on a ''long'' time.
* HollywoodAtheist: Despite the name, this shows up at least as early as the Arabic ''[[Literature/HayyIbnYaqzan Hayy ibn Yaqzan]]'' of the 11th and 12th centuries.
* HormoneAddledTeenager: Serious scholarship says this about the narrators of ''Literature/TheDecameron''.
* ICallHimMisterHappy: "The Porter and the Three Ladies of Baghdad" in ''Literature/ArabianNights''.
* IKEAErotica: The gods Izanagi and Izanami, in the {{Japanese|Mythology}} creation myth.
* InsubstantialIngredients: The sound of a cat's footfall is one of several impossible ingredients in the unbreakable ribbon [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gleipnir Gleipnir]] in NorseMythology.
* IsThatWhatTheyreCallingItNow: ''Decameron'', 14th century CE. [[http://dante.ilt.columbia.edu/books/decamer/eng/Day_03/novella_03_10.html Day 3, Story 10]]
* KingInTheMountain: KingArthur in Cadbury Hill, Frederick Barbarossa in Kyffhuser, King Wenceslas in Blank, to only name a few.
* {{Knighting}}: Medieval European practice.
* KnightErrant: ChivalricRomance
* KnightInShiningArmor: ChivalricRomance
* TheLadysFavour: ChivalricRomance
* LampshadeHanging: Dante's reaction to seeing so many Florentines he recognizes in Hell in ''Literature/TheDivineComedy''. The narrator of ''Literature/TheTaleOfGenji'' concludes her glamorous description of Genji's awesomeness with the note that if she mentioned ''all'' the ways he was amazing, it would only look absurd.
* LandOfFaerie: The Otherworld, inhabited by the Sidhe of IrishMythology.
* LineOfSightName: ''The Romance of the Three Kingdoms'', 1300s
* LiteralAssKissing: "The Miller's Tale" in ''Literature/TheCanterburyTales'', late 14th century
* MadEye: Cuchulain, [[CelticMythology Irish]] folk hero, sucks one eye all the way into his skull while the other pops right out when he gets into a rage.
* MagicKnight: The [[NorseMythology Norse god]] Odin.
* {{Merlin}}: The "modern" incarnation of him began in this time period, along with the modern [[KingArthur Arthurian mythos]].
* MerlinAndNimue (a relationship between two magic-users): The pair from [[KingArthur Arthurian legend]] are the {{Trope Namer}}s and makers.
* MineralMacGuffin: In ChivalricRomance, the magical jewel that shone of its own light is a stock magical item.
* TheMourningAfter: The ChivalricRomance ''Floris and Blanchefleur''.
* MurderInc: TheHashshashin, the original assassins, come from this period.
* NameAndName: "Troilus and Criseyde", Creator/GeoffreyChaucer.
* {{Nerf}}: Generals in {{Xiangqi}}.
* NiceToTheWaiter: In ''Literature/TheTaleOfGamelyn'', c. 1350.
* OnceUponATime: Per Webster's, started around 1380.
* OneHitPointWonder: Pieces in Chaturanga.
* OurGeniesAreDifferent: The varying portrayal of genies in the ''Literature/ArabianNights'' are often quite different from what the Western world expects of genies.
* {{Outlaw}}: Outlawry was a common punishment in many ancient and medieval societies. In fiction, outlaws and their precarious situation are frequently represented in the Sagas of Icelanders (13th-14th century), where outlaws can play villainous, ambiguous or even heroic roles. Sympathetic outlaws are also the heroes of ''Literature/OutlawsOfTheMarsh''.
* PopGoesTheHuman: There's a Celtic yarn about a boy who is mad at his brother for being a glutton, and makes a ChainOfDeals so he can hang him. When he finally gets the materials to build a gibbet, he returns home to discover that his brother burst.
* PrivatelyOwnedSociety: RealLife Gaelic Ireland, between 650 and 1650, and the Icelandic Commonwealth, between 930 and 1262.
* ThePromise: In the ChivalricRomance ''Sir Orfeo''.
* RandomEventsPlot: ''Literature/ApolloniusOfTyre'', a ChivalricRomance.
* RageAgainstTheReflection: In ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms'' Xiahou Dun, after getting his EyepatchOfPower, is said to have a "wanting to break things" expression on his face whenever he got near a mirror.
* ReforgedBlade: The TropeMaker is the Icelandic ''Literature/SagaOfTheVolsungs'': When no other blade meets his requirements, the hero Sigurd makes the dwarf Regin forge the pieces of his father's sword into a new weapon of superior quality.
* RobeAndWizardHat: The [[NorseMythology Norse god]] Odin invented it.
* RollInTheHay: A popular pastime for couples on the countryside.
* RumpRoast: In ''[[TheCanterburyTales The Miller's Tale]]''
* SandIsWater: According to ''Mandeville's Travels'' (14th century), there is a "Sea of Sand" in India which consists of sand that flows like water, and which even has fish that are "different from other fishes" but still edible.
* SandNecktie: Domenico I Contarini, doge of Venice, captured the patriarch of Aquileia, Poppo of Treffenand, in 1045, and let him be buried up to his neck, and left guards to watch over him until he died.
* SassyBlackWoman: Brunhild the Moor in ''[[Literature/DieMorin Die Mrin]]'' by Hermann von Sachsenheim, 1453
* SecretIdentity: The protagonist of the ChivalricRomance ''Literature/RoswallAndLillian''.
* SecretStabWound: In one KingArthur story, Sir Gareth inflicted one of these on a BlackKnight in a joust; said knight abruptly fell dead during the ensuing swordfight.
* SelfInsertFic: Dante's ''Literature/DivineComedy''
* ShapeshiftingLover: {{Japanese|Mythology}} kitsune and tanuki, [[CelticMythology Irish]] selkies, European swan maidens, and others.
* ShapeShifterShowdown: The [[CelticMythology Welsh myth]] of Cerridwen and Taliesin. The Tale of the Kalandar Prince in The ''Literature/ArabianNights''.
* ShapeshiftingSquick: Foxes in {{Japanese|Mythology}} folklore who seduced men, then turned back into foxes after a one night stand.
* ShortLivedBigImpact: ''Literature/TheCanterburyTales'' were never finished yet have influenced all of Western literature.
* ShutUpKirk: In the ''Literature/ChansonDeRoland'', Charlemagne calls on the Pagan leader Baligant to repent and be baptized, and then the Emperor his "first friend will be." Baligant tells him, "Your sermon's but ill preached." Of course, the medieval belief that being non-Christian necessarily makes Baligant the villian of the piece hits modern ValuesDissonance.
* SimpleStaff: Little John, ''RobinHood'', 14th century
* SingleTear: In ''Literature/TheDivineComedy'', "Purgatory" part, Dante meets a soldier who was spared damnation because he wept a single tear of repentance in his dying moments. Aslaug in ''[[Literature/RagnarLodbrokAndHisSons Saga of Ragnar Lodbrok]]'' weeps a single tear of blood over the death of her stepsons.
* SlasherSmile: Skarp-Hinn Njlsson in [[Literature/TheIcelandicSagas the Icelandic]] ''Brennu-Njls Saga''. Loki in NorseMythology.
* SnakePit: In NorseMythology, Gunnar the Niflung as well as Ragnar Lothbrok are executed in this way.
* SortingAlgorithmOfEvil: In ''Literature/{{Beowulf}}'', in the order in which he fights the three monsters.
* SpoiledSweet: Kaguya-hime, the Shining Princess from the 8th or 9th-century Japanese FairyTale of the same name (or "The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter").
* StarvingStudent: The Clerk of Oxford from ''Literature/TheCanterburyTales''.
* StrangeSalute: In ''Literature/TheDivineComedy'', some demons salute each other by ''farting''.
* StylisticSuck: The tale of Sir Thopas in ''Literature/TheCanterburyTales''.
* SuicideAttack: TheHashshashin, the original assassins.
* TalkingWeapon: ''Literature/TheBattleOfMaghTuireadh'' from IrishMythology mentions Oghma's talking sword Orna, formerly owned by the Fomor king Tethra, which, when taken out of its sheath, tells every deed that has been done with it.
* TearOffYourFace: In ''Literature/TheSagaOfArrowOdd'', the half-troll Ogmund tries to get away from Odd by sinking into the earth (as trolls can). Odd gets hold of Ogmund's beard and rips "off the whole beard with the skin underneath right down the bone, including the entire face and both cheeks".
* TearsOfBlood: A common trope in Heian era Japanese literature, for example ''Literature/TheTaleOfGenji''. Also shed by Kriemhild for her husband Siegfried in ''Literature/{{Nibelungenlied}}'', and by Aslaug for her stepsons in ''Literature/TheSagaOfRagnarLodbrok''.
* ThievingMagpie: ''The Arabian Nights'' story "the Stolen Necklace".
* TheReasonYouSuckSpeech: In pre-Islamic Arabic poetry, the poetic form of ''Hijaa[='=]'', although called satire by more polite historians, is actually a kind of insult poetry directed at an enemy, explaining all the reasons why he was an awful, terrible, dishonorable, no-good human being. Like satire, ''Hijaa[='=]'' is supposed to be funny to the general audience, but it was mostly supposed to be read or heard by its target, who would be gravely insulted. Essentially the world's first diss tracks.
* ThirdEye: The Hindu ''Literature/MatsyaPurana'' tells of the fear of the gods when Shiva mourned unceasingly for his dead wife Sati, because a prophecy stated that a new son of Shiva was needed to save the gods from a coming catastrophe. Kama, god of love, shot Shiva to make him fall in love with Parvati, so Shiva grew a third eye and burnt him to a crisp with EyeBeams.
* ThrowingYourSwordAlwaysWorks: From [[NorseMythology Norse heroic legend]]: When the hero Sigurd is stabbed in his sleep, he throws his sword after the fleeing murderer that cuts him clean in two. The incident is related identically in the ''Literature/ProseEdda'', ''Literature/PoeticEdda'' and ''Literature/VolsungaSaga''.
* ThudAndBlunder: ''Literature/{{Beowulf}}''
* TradingBarsForStripes: One of the earliest known examples comes from the Ottoman Empire in RealLife. The bashi-bazouk were a type of irregular soldier dating back to the 1300s who were recruited from criminals, vagrants, and the homeless. Instead of being salaried, their pay consisted solely of whatever they could steal.
* TurnOutLikeHisFather: Some variants of Percival, from KingArthur myths.
* UnableToCry: In the "First Lay of Gudrun" of the ''Literature/PoeticEdda'', Gudrun does not weep over her murdered husband Sigurd. Several women attempt to console her by relating her own sad stories, but fail to get a reaction. Only when Gudrun's sister uncovers the dead Sigurd's face does Gudrun weep.
* UptownGirl: [[ByzantineEmpire Prince Justinian I]] married Theodora, a low-class actress/prostitute. As emperor he actually [[ScrewTheRulesIMakeThem abolished the laws prohibiting their marriage.]]
* {{Valkyries}}: May have dated from earlier, but the age of Vikings was in full-swing during this period, and most NorseMythology was codified and recorded during this period.
* VikingFuneral: The first instances are the funerals of King Scyld Scefing of Denmark in ''Literature/{{Beowulf}}'' (no fire), of the god Baldur in ''Literature/SnorraEdda'' (fire), and of King Haki of Sweden in ''Literature/{{Heimskringla}}'' (fire. Probably neither variant represents real-life burial customs).
* VillainousBreakdown: In ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms'', Zhou Yu is completely unhinged by the failure of his last plan against Zhuge Liang. Zhou Yu's rage causes a wound to reopen and he sickens and dies shortly thereafter.
* WeNamedTheMonkeyJack: ''Literature/TheSagaOfHrolfKraki'' has Queen Olof of Saxony bearing a baby daughter after being raped. She names the girl Yrsa after one of her dogs and has her raised as a serf.
* WhereDaWhiteWomenAt: In the framing story of the ''Literature/ArabianNights'', as well as within more than one tale. The women in question are Persian, but the dynamic with black male slaves is the same.
* WhoNeedsTheirWholeBody: In the Arthurian story of ''Literature/SirGawainAndTheGreenKnight'', the Green Knight gets beheaded and then calmly talks and walks while carrying his head.
* WifeHusbandry: Hikaru Genji does this with/to Murasaki in ''Literature/TaleOfGenji''. King Conchobar of Ulster tries to do this with Deirdre in ''Literature/DeirdreOfTheSorrows'', but it doesn't work.
* TheWildHunt: Unequivocal instances of this trope date to this era, the oldest probably found in the ''Literature/BhagavataPurana'' of Hindu literature (9th or 10th century), where mention is made of a travelling army of ghosts, headed by Shiva. For Europe, this supernatural phenomenon is probably first described by the chronicler Ordericus Vitalis in the 1130s.[[note]]The "Wild Hunt" myth is also often connected to the army of the ''Harii'' described by Tacitus in ''Germania'' (c. 100 AD). The ''Harii'' supposedly attack at night, with their bodies painted black, thus willfully spreading fear. However, Tacitus says they are a real, living tribe.[[/note]]
* WilliamTelling: The earliest instance is that of Palnatoki or Toko, recorded in the 12th century in Saxo Grammaticus' ''Literature/DanishHistory''. William Tell, in contrast, is first described performing the feat in the 15th century in the ''Literature/WhiteBookOfSarnen''.
* {{Wishplosion}}: In the original ''Literature/ArabianNights'' a man's wife gets rid of an evil genie by wishing he would straighten out a single hair. (In today's age of salons, this wouldn't work.)
* YouAllMeetInAnInn: The pilgrims in ''Literature/TheCanterburyTales'', and Liu Bei and his (future) sworn brothers in ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms''.
* YouthIsWastedOnTheDumb: In ''Beowulf'', the eponymous hero describes his and his cousin's swimming across the sea as something they did when they were young and prideful.
[[/index]]
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