[[quoteright:350:[[Film/{{Junior}} http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/arnie_head.jpg]]]]
[[caption-width-right:350:"'''''[[NightmareSequence MAMA!!]]'''''"]]

Relatively recent among filmmaking effects because it's very difficult to do without CGI, this is a technique that makes it possible for an actor to be uninhibited by the limitations of his body type. It's mostly used for comedic purposes, creating a sort of MixAndMatchCritter situation with a man's head on a woman's body, or something similarly ridiculous. Also popular is the method of putting a real face on an otherwise [[SerkisFolk CGI character]] or vice versa. It can also be done to hide the use of stunt doubles or just to fix a shot in which someone's face is obscured or otherwise not ideal for the film.

[[SpecialEffectsFailure Done poorly]], especially in early cases when the technique was not perfected, this can easily create ConspicuousCGI and dip into the UncannyValley, although this effect can also be invoked on purpose.

Nothing to do with HeadSwap, which is a VideoGame technique to increase the number of characters by reusing the same body.

!!Special Effects Examples:


* Some commercials for Orville Redenbacher's popcorn featured the company's namesake CGI'd post-mortem onto a real actor's body [[UncannyValley to creepy effect]].

[[folder:Films -- Animation]]
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Beowulf|2007}}'' does this, after a fashion, for the lead actor, Creator/RayWinstone. The whole thing was filmed using motion capture, and Winstone claimed they put his head on his eighteen-year-old body. The same sort of thing was done with Creator/AngelinaJolie.

[[folder:Films -- Live-Action]]
* In Creator/TimBurton's ''Film/AliceInWonderland2010'', Tweedledee and Tweedledum have actors' heads on digital bodies. As well, the Red Queen's head is greatly enlarged.
* Used in ''Film/BabyGeniuses'' quite conspicuously to have the baby do various dances in the middle of a mall, do fight scenes against adults, and so on.
* An early non-CGI example in the movie ''Film/BachelorParty'', where Creator/TomHanks's character is conflicted about sleeping with another woman before his wedding and sees several heads of his wife, his male friends, and a nun, superimposed upon the girl's naked torso, exhorting him to either do it or not, FloatingAdviceReminder style.
* In ''Film/BeingJohnMalkovich'', when John Malkovich goes into the door (and inside his own mind), he sees numerous clones of himself (both males ''and'' females), all with Malkovich's face digitally superimposed on everyone. At least partially it is actually a subversion: They used [[http://www.propstore.com/product/being-john-malkovich/john-malkovich-mask/ physical masks]] and make-up extensively through the scene, though, probably, digital make-up, as well.
* ''Film/BladeRunner'': The original version had a shot during Zhora's death where it was obvious that a stunt double (more specifically, the awful cheap wig they had to use) was standing in for the actress. For the 2007 [[ReCut Final Cut]], actress Joanna Cassidy's face was digitally superimposed over that of the stunt double.
** ''Film/BladeRunner2049'' has this to recreate [[spoiler:[[http://ew.com/movies/blade-runner-2049-rachael-sean-young-cameo/building-a-mystery Rachael]]]].
* Franchise/MarvelCinematicUniverse:
** This was going to be done on ''Film/CaptainAmericaTheFirstAvenger'' for the scenes of Steve Rogers before he becomes Cap, sticking Creator/ChrisEvans' face on a shorter, scrawnier stand-in. However, it was subverted when the director decided against it, in order to preserve Evans' unique body language. Instead, Evans was digitally shrunk down.
** Done with Robert Downey Jr. in a couple scenes in ''Film/IronMan3'' as he broke his ankle during a stunt and was unavailable for some time. A younger version of Downey also appears in a "flashback" of sorts in ''Film/CaptainAmericaCivilWar''.
** ''Film/CaptainAmericaTheWinterSoldier'' combines Creator/HayleyAtwell in make-up with an actual octagenarian to show 70 years have passed for Peggy Carter.
** A younger Creator/KurtRussell shows up in flashbacks of ''Film/GuardiansOfTheGalaxyVol2''.
* The Creator/AdamSandler vehicle ''Film/{{Click}}'', during the segment in which his character was enormously fat.
* ''Film/TheCrow'': Brandon Lee's face was digitally grafted onto a stunt performer's body for a small smattering of scenes not yet shot at the time of his death, including Lee's character looking into a mirror at his trashed apartment.
* ''Film/GameOfDeath''. In order to complete the movie after the death of Creator/BruceLee, they hired a FakeShemp to stand in for Lee by either obscuring most of his face with sunglasses or, in one infamous moment, [[SpecialEffectsFailure pasting a cardboard cutout of Bruce's face onto a mirror to act as the double's reflection]].
* ''Film/JackAndJill'' (2011), also with Adam Sandler, this time playing his own sister.
* Used for intentional UncannyValley effect during the NightmareSequence of the film ''Film/{{Junior}}'', in a moment that sent WebVideo/TheNostalgiaCritic screaming out of the room.
* Possibly the TropeCodifier for the digital age is ''Film/JurassicPark'', which did this out of necessity. During an action scene, a stunt double who was suspended over a mat (which later became a raptor's mouth) looked directly up at the camera. Normally this would have ruined the shot, but the effects team were able to splice the normal actress' face over that of the double, turning an otherwise unusable piece of film into a particularly heart-stopping moment.
* ''Film/KungPowEnterTheFist'' is probably the most spectacular use of this trope, and certainly the most ridiculous. Steve Oedekerk took a 1970's Kung Fu movie and used this technique to composite his head over the main character's (or just plain replace the main character's whole body), essentially pulling a DigitalHeadSwap for ''at least half of the movie.'' And then he dubbed every character's voice save one, including his own.
* The Wayans brothers vehicle ''Little Man'', wherein Marlon took position on the body of a child actor.
* In ''Film/TheLordOfTheRings'', this was one of the techniques used to create the illusion of small Hobbits, with actors' faces placed digitally (and sometimes, in wide shots, with just masks) over smaller doubles.
* Done for Guru Pitka's child self (with Mike Myers' normal head) in ''Film/TheLoveGuru''.
* In ''Film/TheMatrixReloaded'', Hugo Weaving's head was digitally overlaid on the bodies of the stunt double "Agent Smiths" in the Burly Brawl sequence.
* ''Film/PiratesOfTheCaribbeanDeadMenTellNoTales'' has a flashback with a young Jack Sparrow, done by pasting the face of late 1980s Creator/JohnnyDepp.
* Done in ''Film/TheSocialNetwork'' with the Winklevoss twins, who were played by two different actors with Armie Hammer's face CGI'd onto his body double.
* In ''Film/SoulSurfer'', the real Bethany Hamilton was her own stunt double, with Creator/AnnaSophiaRobb's face digitally melded onto her body.
* ''Franchise/StarWars'':
** In ''Film/AttackOfTheClones'' and ''Film/RevengeOfTheSith'', this was done with Count Dooku and Palpatine for their lightsaber battles, quite necessarily given the ages of their actors Creator/ChristopherLee and Ian [=McDiarmid=]. However, the quality of the effect has resulted in UncannyValley for some.
** In ''Film/RogueOne'', Creator/PeterCushing's head was digitally placed on the head of another actor in his role as Grand Moff Tarkin. At the end, the head of young Creator/CarrieFisher as Princess Leia was digitally placed on the head of another actor during a brief scene where the Princess receives the stolen plans for the Death Star.
* ''Film/TerminatorSalvation'' had this to feature Creator/ArnoldSchwarzenegger in spite of him being Governor of California at the time, by pasting a replica of his face in [[Film/TheTerminator the original movie]] onto a T-800. ''Film/TerminatorGenisys'' did the same for "younger" versions of the T-800 (though in the case of one that fights naked, the CG artists took it one step further and placed an entire digital torso).
* In ''Film/{{Titanic|1997}}'' when Jack and Rose are running down a flooded hallway, their faces are superimposed over stunt doubles.. It's noticeable, though, as the sequence was longer and in slow motion.
* A rather impressive example in ''Film/TronLegacy'' where Creator/JeffBridges' 20-year-younger head is digitally re-created. Jeff Bridges performed motion capture for the younger CG face, but another actor entirely filled the glowy shoes.

[[folder:Live-Action TV]]
* In the ''Series/BuffyTheVampireSlayer'' episode "Doppelgangland", where Willow's head was placed on her stunt double's body so she could interact with her vampire self in a few scenes.
* ''Series/TheGeorgeLopezShow'' did this [[StylisticSuck incredibly obviously]] in its flashbacks, with the adult actors' heads pasted onto child actors' bodies.
** Subverted in a couple of old photographs of George, where they used an actual child's head.
* Subverted with a segment on ''Series/LateNight With Creator/JimmyFallon'' titled "Head Swap", which is introduced as this trope, but the theme song gets derailed into a RandomEventsPlot that takes up the entire segment. See an example [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=88nkygS4V9I here]].
* Nancy Marchand (who played Livia Soprano in ''Series/TheSopranos'') died in the interim between filming seasons 2 and 3, leading the producers to have to drop a story arc and [[TheCharacterDiedWithHim kill her character off]]. In the second episode of the third season, "Proshai, Livushka", the producers combined this with a stunt double and alternate takes of dialogue to give her one last scene, at a cost of $250,000. The results were... less than convincing.
* In an episode of ''Series/That70sShow'', where after getting high, [[TheDitz Kelso]] sees Kitty's and Red's heads on each other's bodies.
* In ''Series/DoctorWho'', this has been used numerous times to revive Classic Doctors for cameos whose actors aren't young/alive enough to convincingly portray their version of the character. Drew some criticism in the significant shot of them all standing together in the ending of "Day of the Doctor", which involved [[SpecialEffectsFailure a waxwork Tom Baker head that looked nothing like him and some neck attachment problems]]. Well-received when reviving the First and Fourth Doctor for cameos in the "Save the Day" trailer, "Name of the Doctor" and "The Witch's Familiar", though.

[[folder:Music Videos]]
* In the video for the Music/{{Aerosmith}} song "Pink" the band member's faces are put on various random people's bodies.
* Used to rather disturbing effect in the Music/AphexTwin video "Windowlicker", putting his bearded face on several bikini-clad girls.
* The video for the Basement Jaxx song "Where's Your Head At?" has the band members faces superimposed onto the heads of monkeys; the plot being about a mad scientist's plan to make a monkey band.
* Done to eerie effect in the video for Music/WeirdAlYankovic's "[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ss_BmTGv43M Perform This Way]]", a parody of Music/LadyGaga which put Al's head on a woman's body.
* Music/{{Korn}}'s video for "Word Up" has their faces put onto the bodies of five dogs.
* Wet Wet Wet:
** The video for the song "[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwKeNIUbMsM Strange]]" sees the band members having their heads swapped onto various types of bodies, including a pregnant woman, a contortionist and a child, by two Japanese women. At the end of the video, the tables are turned, and the two women end up with their heads swapped onto the bodies of a footballer and a male bodybuilder.
** The video for "[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xLnapb-30hA CNR]]" is made with enlarged footage of real faces spliced onto bodies which are a mix of filmed actors and other animation techniques, creating the effect of a world in which everyone has giant heads and mostly fixed expressions.

[[folder:Web Original]]
* A really ''bad'' one done by a girl who was trying to lie about knowing Creator/DominicMonaghan in real life resulted in the {{meme|ticMutation}} phrase "[[https://fanlore.org/wiki/My_hed_iz_pastede_on_yay My hed iz pastede on yay]]".
* Basically, with enough Photoshop skills, the "[[http://knowyourmeme.com/memes/face-swap Face Swap]]" meme is this.

!!In-Universe Examples:
* In ''Literature/RisingSun'', and its film adaptation, a computer programmer notices that the head of an alleged murderer caught on video has a blue halo, suggesting that his face had been digitally inserted. She demonstrates the technology on Creator/SeanConnery's and Wesley Snipes' characters, swapping their heads in the computer.
* Done in-universe in ''Film/TheRunningMan'' movie. Since the heroes cannot be found, the producers of the evil game contest use stunt doubles for the final fight and digitally put the heroes faces on them.
* ''Series/SeaQuestDSV'' has a variant on this, due to dignitaries being lost, they create the illusion of them touring the ship by digitally grafting their faces onto computer generated bodies that are touring the ship, buying them some time.
* ''Series/{{Sliders}}'' has an in-universe example (the show was made before this became commonplace); in a universe where criminals are tried and executed live on television, a corrupt TV host killed someone on camera and then framed another guy by editing his head onto his own body.
* Done in-universe in ''Film/StarshipTroopers3Marauder'', Sky Marshal Omar Anoke is lost, and Admiral Enola Phid is able to make it appear that Omar Anoke is still alive and well in the Federation using computers to put Anoke's image over her on a [=FedNet=] broadcast.
* Used as part of TheInfiltration in ''[[Literature/XWingSeries X-Wing: Wraith Squadron]]''. An enemy corvette captain was vain enough to keep his CaptainsLog in full 3-D hologram, so when the Wraiths seize his ship, their technical expert is able to program an audio-visual overlay for the team's thespian when he needs to call their "employers." This does lead to some tense moments as the actor worries if the programming will be able to keep up with his [[LargeHam extravagant hand gestures]], or glitch out and fail at the worst moment.
* In the ''Series/StarTrekDeepSpaceNine'' episode "Meridian", Kira and Odo find out that one of Quark's customers has requested a holobrothel session with [[KissMeImVirtual a duplicate of Kira]]. They hack the program so that the customer is instead greeted by Kira's body topped off with [[ButterFace Quark's head]].
* This is done in the [[Recap/BlackMirrorTheNationalAnthem first episode]] of ''Series/BlackMirror'', to fool kidnappers into believing that their demands had been met. [[spoiler:It doesn't work.]]