Digital Rights Management (usually abbreviated "DRM") is a general term for access control mechanisms implemented on digital media to limit what a user can and cannot do with it.

If you hear the word in general conversation, it's most likely specifically referring to the CopyProtection placed by copyright holders on digital audio and video files -- restrictions on converting from one format to another, how many and what kinds of different devices the media can be played on, and so forth. One widespread example of this type of DRM is DVD RegionCoding, which restricts playback of a DVD to a player marked with the same region code as the disc.

In the United States, the UsefulNotes/DigitalMillenniumCopyrightAct outlaws the use of mechanisms for bypassing or circumventing DRM; other jurisdictions' laws vary.

The use of DRM is, to say the least, [[FlameWar highly controversial]]. On the one hand, many large content groups (chief among them the RIAA, MPAA, IFPI, and video game distributors) argue that by preventing unauthorized copying, they ensure that artists are fairly compensated for their work and reduce the availability of illegal [[DigitalPiracyIsEvil pirated content]]. On the other hand, a significant number of individuals and smaller entities (a number of indie record labels, for example) revile DRM as an infringement upon the user's own rights, such as fair use. Opponents seize on missteps like the infamous [[ Sony "rootkit"]], which attempted to implement DRM on audio [=CDs=] by automatically installing software that opened computers to potential exploitation by malware.

What's perhaps proven the most relevant objection, though, is that [=DRMed=] files are usually just plain less useful. For instance, it's often impossible to transfer them from one device to another. That means it's actually ''more'' convenient to have an ''illegal'' file that some nice pirate has already stripped the DRM off of. All moral arguments one way or another aside, it became increasingly clear throughout the '00s that letting the pirates beat you on quality is just ''not'' good for business. This pure market logic is what has finally gotten many big companies who otherwise wholeheartedly embrace the thought behind DRM-- like Apple and Amazon-- to start migrating away from it. [[ Not to mention the people who knew of this fact ten years before it even became so widespread]].

Needless to say, reasoned discussion can be... difficult to come by, and much like the UsefulNotes/ConsoleWars, DRM as [[InternetBackdraft a subject of conversation is best avoided]] if you're not wearing a nice [[FlameWar flame-proof jacket]]. An important issue with DigitalDistribution, since there's no "physical" copy in the first place.

Not to be confused with "[[labelnote:DRM]]Direct Rendering Manager, i.e. component supporting hardware acceleration[[/labelnote]]" in {{Linux}}.

!Types of DRM include:
* CopyProtection - wherein measures are created to prevent users from copying floppies, [=CDs=], [=DVDs=], or other media.
* ContentScramblingSystem (or CSS) - a measure on the software level to provide the same sort of CopyProtection.
* RegionCoding - a piece of software from another locale can't be run on your machine.
* UserOperationProhibitFlag - a user can't skip past certain portions of a video CD or DVD.
* DownloadableContent - in this case, in the sense that if you purchase a game pre-owned, you miss out on various portions of the game which were available to the original owner, unless you pay an 'access fee'.
* Online Authentication - The software needs to connect to an authentication server or else it will refuse to launch.
* So far the only DRM schema to avoid a ton of flak is Steam, but it's not without its vocal opponents and it launched to a shaky start. But aside from the initial online activation, Steam is fairly transparent and even comes with an "Offline Mode" in case there's no network connection so you can still play your games. The only problem is that Valve still allows third party DRM on top of Steam, but this is only a problem from the usual suspects[[labelnote:*]]For the record, Steam's DRM is called SteamWorks, and is not ''just'' for DRM, but also includes native support for Steam achievements and other features[[/labelnote]].
** A major point in their favor is the daily, twice-weekly, and quarterly sales, where games get marked down anywhere from 25-90% off, depending on the title.
** Some games available on Steam are DRM-free, and thus can be played by launching the game executable directly regardless of whether Steam is running or even if you have an Internet connection at all. Examples include ''VideoGame/EtherVapor'', ''VideoGame/LaMulana''[[note]]Although as noted by the developers, this will disable unlocking achievements[[/note]], and ''VideoGame/{{Satazius}}''. However, you are never given official indication as to whether the game you're purchasing is DRM-free, so the only options are to ask other players (e.g. on the game's corresponding Steam forum) or to find out the hard way. Thankfully sites like PC Gaming Wiki have compiled [[ a list of DRM-free games]] available on Steam to make things easier for customers to know what they're purchasing on Steam is DRM-free or not, as well as any features disabled without running the game through Steam.
** Another problem with Steam is that offline mode only works if you switch it on ''before'' losing internet connection, possibly to allow Steam to validate itself and the games and grab some decryption keys before the user goes "off the grid". If you fail to put Steam into offline mode before losing internet connection, you'll find yourself in a hectic dash around wherever you're visiting just to find public [=WiFi=] so you can put Steam into offline mode. Also, offline mode only lasts a fortnight (Valve never mentions this, but it's all over the discussion pages in Steam itself), so if you're going to go without internet for much longer than that, well, make sure you can arrange to get access to the internet before the fortnight is up.
* ''{{Gears of War}} 2'' was the largest game to initially implement the lattermost 'DLC' variety, with a pack of 5 remade multiplayer maps from the first game, but developers have irritably joked about doing the same thing with ''the endings'' of other games - which also, of course, makes them {{unwinnable}} to anyone without the ability to download the missing vital content.
** The Nintendo Wii Speak microphone includes a single-use code to download the Wii Speak channel. Bought it used? No software for you!
* One of the earliest types and by far one of the most ineffective is the CD Key.
* Microsoft Windows' Protected Media Path, to work with DRM-enabled media players.
* Installation Limits, which prevent the game from being installed from the disk after it has been installed a few times.
* [=SecuROM=], which requires the CD to be in at all times when playing the game, although this can be defeated by either using a crack or (in some cases) making an ISO image of the game and mounting it.
** Later versions of [=SecuROM=] added the above-mentioned Installation Limits in the worst possible ways. Multiple users on the same computer each counted as separate installs, and despite what marketing intended uninstalling the game would NOT raise your install limit number.
* By far the most infamous one before [=SecuROM=] is [=StarForce=]. To sum it up, it installs a device driver with the highest security privileges (a Ring 0 driver), disables any SCSI device on your computer (most image mounting tools create a virtual SCSI drive), had a tendency to be unstable (which could crash the OS), Windows Vista was terribly allergic to it in normal mode (or even Safe Mode), and it left a huge security hole in your computer. This is all when it wasn't simply ''destroying your CD drive'' as a result of careless device commands. It also didn't uninstall even if you uninstalled the game that came with it.
** Need more proof the [=StarForce=] developers are pond scum? When Stardock Software, creators of ''VideoGame/GalacticCivilizations'' and ''VideoGame/SinsOfASolarEmpire'', posted an article on their website stating how they felt that using DRM was bad customer relations and how they intended to abstain from adding DRM to any of their titles, [=StarForce=] responded by publishing torrent links to Stardock's games. That's right, they ''actively aided people in pirating the games of a company who refused to use their product''. Whatever your feelings about piracy, to do something like that against a company who refuses to use your product ''out of a desire to please their customers'' just to teach some kind of [[BrokenAesop warped lesson]] smacks of pettiness.
*** As if that wasn't enough, they threatened the first two parties that raised awareness of the damage [=StarForce=] can cause with a lawsuit, claiming that the FBI has already been notified. Because it's the FBI you usually call when somebody's defaming you.
*** Even better, it's becoming an established (and even accepted) practice for people to torrent a game as a sort of informal demo, and fork over money if they like what they see. All [=StarForce=] has provided is [[{{Nice Job Fixing It Villain}} free advertising]].
* Egosoft, the developers of the ''[[Videogame/{{X}} X-Universe]]'' series of space simulators, typically bundles the game with some form of DRM which is later removed, usually a year or two after release. ''X3: Reunion'' came with the infamous [=StarForce=] which was removed in the 2.0 update, and the same was repeated with the Tages DRM in ''X3: Terran Conflict''.
* One of the earliest types of DRM is the infamous "What is word 20 on line 5 in page 30 of the instruction manual?" checks. If you lost the manual or obtained the game without one? You don't get to play! See the CopyProtection article for more information on these "feelies". If you have a copy of the manual's text that does not preserve the exact format of the original (i.e, a transcript instead of a scan of the original pages), then it will be a tedious trial and error ordeal to figure out which word it is. This form of DRM fell out of favor with the advent of people just posting the required information on the Internet.
** {{Creator/Sierra}} spoofed this a bit with an age check "DRM" for its ''VideoGame/LeisureSuitLarry'' games, which simply asked a pop culture question that only an adult would probably know
* The Keurig 2.0 line of coffee machines has a "feature" that will only allow it to work with Keurig-branded coffee pods. Of course, there are workarounds.
* Some brand of printers are designed to accept ink cartridges that match the brand of the printer. Other printers go the extra mile by refusing to work if you try to refill the ink yourself since the manufacturer wants you to spend more money by purchasing a new ink cartridge when the old one runs low on ink. [[labelnote:Info]]It was also discovered that some HP brand ink cartridges have a microchip with an "expiration date" built in so that when said date rolls around, the cartridge no longer works no matter how much ink is left inside.[[/labelnote]] This is a JustifiedTrope in many cases; Printers, particularly laser printers that take toner require, have specific settings and, in the case of laser printers, unique fusing temperatures for each model. Refilled cartridges often get the composition wrong which can and will cause damage to printers.
* Some arcade boards, such as Creator/{{Capcom}}'s CPS-2 hardware, have what are known as "suicide batteries" that are required for the hardware to run. When the batteries run out, the effects may vary from loss of sound or scrambled graphics to straight up preventing the game from running (usually since the ROM is encrypted and the battery is connected to the part of the hardware that decrypts it for use). It is presumed that these batteries exist to curb piracy or as a form of [[ planned obsolescence]]. More info on suicide batteries can be found [[ here]].
* Games For Windows Live was universally hated when it was in use, being seen as a poor attempt at competing Steam that only clogged the launching of the games it had under its banner, like ''VideoGame/GrandTheftAutoIV'' and the Gamebryo ''VideoGame/{{Fallout}}'' games (''[[VideoGame/{{Fallout3}} 3]]'' and ''[[VideoGame/FalloutNewVegas New Vegas]]''). Add to that GFWL's restriction on running {{Game Mod}}s of any kind, and the prolific mod fanbase for both the ''GTA'' and ''Fallout'' series, and the end result is you'll hardly see a soul under the sun that doesn't go around GFWL.
* Arcade games running on Creator/{{Konami}}'s [=eAMUSEMENT=] Participation system must be connected to [=eAMUSEMENT=] servers upon bootup. If the hardware can't connect, the game will refuse to start. Then again, given that many games with [=eAMUSEMENT=] connectivity give you a player file with unlocks, records, and the like, playing the game without a network connection and thus a way to access your data would be a particularly crippling experience, especially if you've made a lot of progress.
* Creator/{{SEGA}}'s arcade games such as ''VideoGame/HatsuneMikuProjectDIVA Arcade'' and ''VideoGame/{{maimai}}'' will [[SelfDestructMechanism brick themselves]] if they go too long without being connected to the network.
* One controversial DRM that appeared in 2015 is Denuvo, though Denuvo insists on calling it [[InsistentTerminology "Anti-tamper Technology"]], which was [[TemptingFate supposedly uncrackable]]. Naturally, it's been cracked in a number of games, with the main complaint being "What if the authentication servers go down?", as well as rumors that it might ruin the lifespan of [=SSD's=] by constantly read/ writing to it, which hasn't gained much traction. It gained a lot of unpopularity when it suddenly showed up in modern games like ''VideoGame/SonicMania'' and later, ''VideoGame/SonicForces''. Publishers do, however, sometimes remove the DRM once it's [[YouHaveOutlivedYourUsefulness outlived its usefulness]], though not every publisher does this.