''How Few Remain'' is the first instalment of Creator/HarryTurtledove's ambitious ''Southern Victory'' (AKA ''Literature/Timeline191'') series of AlternateHistory novels, which takes place in a universe where the Confederate States won UsefulNotes/TheAmericanCivilWar, thus dramatically changing the course of history.

In RealLife, Special Order 191 was Confederate general Robert E. Lee's blueprint for troop movements during his 1862 invasion of Maryland, which by happenstance fell into Union hands, encouraging Union commander George [=McClellan=] to press on and fight Lee to a stalemate at the Battle of Antietam, the bloodiest single day of the war, which blunted Lee's momentum and enabled UsefulNotes/AbrahamLincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, thereby ensuring the European Powers would stay out of the war.

But in this universe, [[ForWantOfANail the orders were never intercepted]]... Instead, Lee defeated [=McClellan=], marched on into Philadelphia, and Britain and France officially recognized the Confederacy as a nation-state and mediated a peace settlement. As a result, Lincoln is disgraced rather than assassinated, both Stonewall Jackson and Jeb Stuart survive the war, [[Creator/MarkTwain Samuel Clemens]] stays in San Francisco instead of writing fiction, etc. In short, ButterflyOfDoom ensues.

The story proper picks up in 1881 when resentment of their defeat and geopolitical concerns over the Confederate purchase of Mexican territory prompts U.S. President James G. Blaine to declare a new war on the Confederacy, and follows--in turn--eight [[HistoricalDomainCharacter historical figures]]:
* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stonewall_Jackson Thomas J. Jackson]], old "[[OnlyKnownByTheirNickname Stonewall]]", General-in-Chief of the Confederate Army, is ready and eager to strike at the Yankees once more.
* General [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J.E.B._Stuart J.E.B. Stuart]] defends the new Confederate territories from the Yankees, with the Apaches under [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geronimo Geronimo]] as first his allies and then his foes.
* Colonel [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_A._Custer George A. Custer]], a frustrated Yankee cavalryman, serves on the Great Plains and helps put down a Mormon uprising in Utah.
* UsefulNotes/TheodoreRoosevelt, a wealthy and patriotic young Montana rancher, who raises his own cavalry force known as the "Unauthorized Regiment".
* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Douglass Frederick Douglass]], a former slave and fiery orator, observes the Union forces at war.
* Colonel [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_von_Schlieffen Alfred von Schlieffen]] serves as the German military attaché to the United States.
* [[Creator/MarkTwain Samuel Clemens]] is a [[DeadpanSnarker sharp-witted]] San Francisco [[DaEditor newspaper editor]].
* Former President UsefulNotes/AbrahamLincoln, influenced by the writings of [[DirtyCommunist Karl Marx]], is an orator struggling to keep the Republican Party united in the [[WorkingClassHero cause of the working man]].

Over the next decade, the novel was followed by [[{{Sequelitis}} ten sequels]] that carry the story forward through the UsefulNotes/FirstWorldWar (the ''Great War'' trilogy), the [[GenteelInterbellumSetting interbellum years]] (the ''American Empire'' trilogy), and the UsefulNotes/SecondWorldWar (the ''Settling Accounts'' quadrilogy).

!!Tropes in the novel:

* TheAlcoholic: Ulysses S. Grant, embittered by the outcome of the war, gets a brief scene as an old, drunken vagabond.
* AllohistoricalAllusion: A Turtledove specialty. Overlaps a lot with the {{Historical In Joke}}s.
** There's a Colonel Sherman stationed in San Francisco, who has a rather [[IncrediblyLamePun burnt-up]] attitude toward what [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sherman%27s_March_to_the_Sea he might have done]] in the last war.
** von Schlieffen, at the end, coming up with [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schlieffen_Plan his brilliant new battle-strategy]].
*** ... which wasn't a real strategy, just a thought experiment (just look at that Other Wiki article - not a single primary source, albeit on account of the fact that ''none exists''). But the breadth and depth of the stuff Turtledove touches makes it inevitable he'll fall behind the cutting-edge of historical research ''somewhere'', especially as new research surfaces. Though there was that egregious depiction a WWII Chinese peasant as both liking the Chinese Communist Party and believing that it fights Japan (and that the Guomindang doesn't!) that sounds like it was lifted verbatim from a PRC school-textbook.
* AlternateHistory: And not a very pleasant one either since the on-going rivalry between the two countries just results in being more militaristic, jingoistic, and less self-sufficient.
* AlternateUniverseReedRichardsIsAwesome: Played with by George Custer who rather than being massacred at Little Bighorn rises to prominence by providing the USA with its only conclusive victory of the Second Mexican War ''despite'' having the same GloryHound and LeeroyJenkins tendencies as RealLife.
* AnalogyBackfire: Schlieffen quotes the Latin phrase "Vae Victus" (meaning "Woe to the Conquered", first attributed to Brennus the Gaul after defeating the Romans in battle) when telling President Blaine that he has no choice but to accept defeat. Blaine quickly retorts that it was the ''Romans'', not the Gauls, who ultimately won that conflict.
* AnyoneCanDie: As the end draws near, [[spoiler:Jeb Stuart and Tom Custer]] both die. [[spoiler:Tom]]'s at least is in battle, so it's sad but not surprising, but killing off one of the main characters, out of ''nowhere,'' is a real shock.
* UsefulNotes/TheAmericanCivilWar
* UsefulNotes/AntebellumAmerica: Unlike [[Film/CSATheConfederateStatesOfAmerica some attempts]] to show what the world would be like if the Confederates won, ''How Few Remain'' actually explores socio-economic and cultural issues ''beyond'' those to do with slavery.
* ArtisticLicenseHistory:
** Setting the interception of Special Order 191 as the point of divergence is thought-provoking but actually rather unlikely since in RealLife the main benefit of intercepting it was the chance to hit Lee's isolated forces, which [=McClellan=] immediately squandered by giving Lee an extra 18 hours to reassemble most of his army. Moreover, Lee's forces were already utterly exhausted by months of hard campaigning and outnumbered more than 2:1 in the whole campaign, so whatever their odds of winning another battle, their odds of ''destroying'' the Army of the Potomac and marching on Philadelphia were still insignificant.
** The rather melodramatic RichardNixonTheUsedCarSalesman portrayal of UsefulNotes/UlyssesSGrant as an alcoholic wreck is largely based on DatedHistory founded on hostile rumours with virtually no solid evidence and now considered a myth by most serious historians. At most, Grant may have ''occasionally'' drank too much, which would've been easy for a man who CantHoldHisLiquor in a profession where drinking was common for coping with boredom and stress. This is even more interesting since ''three'' of Turtledove's protagonists--Teddy Roosevelt, Frederick Douglass, and Mark Twain--all idolized Grant in RealLife for his character even more than his generalship.
** By the time of the novel, William S. Rosecrans has risen to General-in-Chief of U.S. forces basically because he [[DamnedByFaintPraise didn't get a chance to fail]] in the last war, yet Ulysses S. Grant's ''victories'' at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Iuka, and Corinth (which had already made him a national hero for capturing an entire Confederate army and forcing them out of southern Kentucky and western Tennessee including Nashville) all receive next-to-no mention as far as 'Remembrance' ideology is concerned even though Rosecrans was merely Grant's ''subordinate'' until more than a month after the series' divergence point. This gets even weirder given how Custer and Roosevelt are lauded in-universe for ''their'' singular success in an otherwise embarrassing war.
* BadassInCharge: Roosevelt and Custer.
* TheCaptain: Custer was born to be the Captain, and will do anything to show people how awesome he is as a commander.
* BoisterousBruiser: According to George Custer, his brother Tom is more of this than he is.
* BrickJoke: Pocahantas, Arkansas.
* BritishTeeth: One of the soldiers in the [[spoiler: raid on San Francisco]] is noted to have a pair of these.
* CallARabbitASmeerp: In-universe variation; Alfred von Schlieffen has a little trouble remembering that they're ''states'' in America, not ''provinces''.
* CavalryOfficer: Custer, Roosevelt, and Stuart all ''love'' being one.
* ColonelBadass: Yet again, Custer and Roosevelt. Eventually, they have to compete.
* CultColony: The Mormons. Plus, having ''Custer'' stationed there...
* DaEditor: Sam Clemens has become one--complete with [[CigarChomper chomping cigars]]. Unlike most instances of this trope, instead of just shouting at people we actually get to see a lot of his editorials. And they're awesome.
* DeadpanSnarker:
** Abe Lincoln basically walks around doing this all the time. Oh, and being a [[ChummyCommies Chummy Commie]].
** Sam Clemens, of course, who seems to speak pure Snark.
* DividedStatesOfAmerica: As a consequence of Confederate victory in the Civil War.
* EarlyBirdCameo: Hosea Blackford, for later in the series. He's just a kid from a mining town who runs into Lincoln on the train. There's also a ''very'' brief appearance by the girl who will later carry the name of Nellie Semproch; she's a child who runs out into the street in Washington, D.C.
* EarlyInstallmentWeirdness: ''How Few Remain'' is the only standalone novel in the entire series, the only one told entirely through the viewpoint of {{Historical Domain Character}}s, and is separated from the rest of the series by a 33-year TimeSkip.
* ExpandedStatesOfAmerica: Expanded ''Confederate'' states that is. The CSA acquires Kentucky and Indian Territory (later Sequoia) from the United States, purchases Cuba from Spain, and later buys Sonora and Chihuahua from Mexico. This last action prompts the U.S. president to declare another war.
* ForWantOfANail: The novel--and [[Literature/Timeline191 the ten-novel series that follows it]]--is all happening because ''one'' tiny detail, the finding of Special Order 191. It's even [[LampshadeHanging lampshaded]] in the prologue, where the messenger who dropped the order is effusively telling the two soldiers who noticed it how grateful he is, and how "this could have cost us the war!"
--> Then, as he rides off, one of them turns to the other and says "[[CrowningMomentOfFunny Lost the whole war? He don't think much of himself and the papers he carries, now does he?]]"
* GatlingGood: Custer dislikes Gatling guns, but gets assigned a whole bunch of them anyway and they play a vital role in gaining him the only US victory of the war.
* GeneralFailure:
** General-in-Chief Rosecrans admits to Schlieffen that he has no coherent plan to defeat the Confederates.
** Custer and Roosevelt triumph in the end not so much through their own genius as because their opponent attempted to used mounted lancers against their Gatling gun emplacement.
* GermanicEfficiency: von Schlieffen is constantly amazed that Americans get anything done.
* GloryHound / GlorySeeker: Custer [[ExactWords would die to be a hero...]]
** In the prologue, he's on the verge of making a one-man charge against the Confederates.
* HeroicBSOD:
** Custer is an ass, but when [[spoiler: Tom is killed while fighting the Brits in Canada]], it's hard not to feel bad for him.
** Douglass shuts down for a bit after having to {{Mercy Kill}} a suffering soldier, despite the man's own cousin thanking him for it.
* HistoricalBadassUpgrade: Turtledove is rather generous to Stonewall Jackson. He was certainly an excellent semi-independent corps commander but also overbearing, uncommunicative, and argumentative with his own subordinates and the kind of guy who wanted to court-marshal Richard B. Garnett for retreating without permission even though Garnett had already attacked bravely and was low on ammo and surrounded on three sides, leading many historians to consider any theoretical promotion for Jackson a prime recipe for ThePeterPrinciple.
* HistoricalDomainCharacter: Aside of the eight main characters, there are ''many'' more, both obvious and obscure.
** Many of the family-members of the main characters (i.e. [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_Custer Tom Custer]], Jeb Stuart Jr.)--but emphatically ''not'' in Sam's case.
** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_G._Blaine James G. Blaine]] (now President of the United States).
** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Longstreet James Longstreet]] (now President of the Confederate States).
** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Rosecrans William Rosecrans]].
** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Pope_%28military_officer%29 John Pope]].
** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orlando_B._Willcox Orlando B. Willcox]].
** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._Porter_Alexander E. Porter Alexander]].
** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_George_Gordon Charles George Gordon]].
** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geronimo Geronimo]].
** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satanta_%28White_Bear%29 Satanata]].
** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulysses_S._Grant Ulysses S. Grant]].
** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brigham_young Brigham Young]].
** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Tecumseh_Sherman William Tecumseh Sherman]].
** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wilkes_Booth The Booth brothers]].
* HeroicWillpower: It has been confirmed that Teddy Roosevelt is made of solid willpower.
* HistoricalInJoke: Too many to count.
** Custer standing at the top of a ridge as the Indians ride toward him, thinking "This could be our last stand" [[spoiler:''This'' time, [[MoreDakka Custer has Gatling guns]]. It goes considerably better for him.]]
** Clemens speaking sarcastically about what might have happened if he'd tried writing fiction.
** Someone telling Roosevelt that he should think about going into politics, which is fulfilled in the subsequent ''[[UsefulNotes/WorldWarI Great War]]'' trilogy where TR has become president (though a good ten years after he did in RealLife.
* {{IKEA Erotica}}: As usual for Turtledove, with the extra {{Squick}} that the man of the couple is ''Mark Twain''.
* InThePastEveryoneWillBeFamous: Given, we're following eight historical figures to begin with, but they do seem to bump into an inordinate number of familiar faces (see HistoricalDomainCharacter, above) even more so than in the rest of the Literature/Timeline191 series, where the famous people rub elbows with an extensive cast of Turtledove originals.
* InvadedStatesOfAmerica: San Francisco is shelled and raided by the British, a British invasion of Montana is defeated in what turns out to be the highlight of the war for the USA, and Northern Maine is ceded to Canada as part of the peace settlement.
* LaResistance: The Mormons in Utah.
* LargeHam: TruthInTelevision for Custer and Roosevelt.
* LoadsAndLoadsOfCharacters: Oh yeah.
* MercyKill: A soldier with his guts hanging out begs Douglass to put him out of his misery, and the man's cousin thanks him for it. He's still badly affected.
* MoreDakka: George Custer. With Gatling guns.
* MilitaryMaverick: Custer comes close, sometimes.
* NonindicativeName: The Second Mexican War doesn't actually involve Mexico at all; the name refers to the fact that the war was sparked by the Confederates acquiring Mexican territory, which the US attempted to stop to prevent them from forming a transcontinental empire.
* NotSoDifferent:
** After coming face to face, [[spoiler:both Jackson and Douglass]] are surprised at how human they find each other--things aren't quite as [[IncrediblyLamePun black and white]] as they thought.
** Custer's constant mockery of the Mormons' polygamy looks much more hypocritical when his affair with a local woman is nipped in the bud by the unexpected arrival of his wife.
* NumberTwo: Tom Custer is this for his older brother.
* OddCouple: Lincoln and Douglass. In the middle of a heated argument, Douglass even declares that they're having a "[[JustForPun Lincoln-Douglass]] [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lincoln%E2%80%93Douglas_debates debate]]"
* OfficerAndAGentleman: Jackson, to the letter.
* OnlyKnownByTheirNickname: Turtledove plays with this in the first section following "Thomas Jackson", knowing that most of the readers won't catch on until someone says, "Hey, Stonewall!"
* OnlySaneMan:
** At times, Lincoln expresses the feeling that he might be one of these. [[CassandraTruth Not that anyone cares.]]
** Mark Twain's newspaper editorials providing running commentary on the events leading up to the war fill the role nicely.
* PromotedToScapegoat: Lincoln gets this treatment from basically everyone for losing the War of Secession.
* {{Pun}}: Roosevelt dubs the coach he uses for going into Helena (the nearest large town to his ranch) "the Helena Handbasket".
* RichardNixonTheUsedCarSalesman:
** Sam Clemens the San Francisco new editor.
** Stonewall Jackson and William Rosecrans, the USA and CSA Generals-in-Chief, respectively.
** James G. Blaine and James Longstreet, the USA and CSA Presidents, respectively.
** Abraham Lincoln the disgraced ex-president and prominent socialist.
** Ulysses S. Grant the poor alcoholic.
* RubberBandHistory:
** Teddy Roosevelt leading a charge somewhere...
** Custer making a LastStand on the Great Plains...
** [[spoiler: Jeb Stuart]] being mortally wounded...
* RuleOfCool: It debatable, but the CSA's success should be taken with a grain of salt considering it's a deeply nepotistic and socially and ethnically divided country still tied to a localized rural economy while the rest of the world is embracing nationalism and the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Industrial_Revolution Second Industrial Revolution]], but hey, Turtledove wanted an American version of the UsefulNotes/FrancoPrussianWar and wrote a pretty damned good one.
* ShownTheirWork: Turtledove ''does'' all the time, so much so that it's easy to forget you're reading a work of fiction.
* SlidingScaleOfAlternateHistoryPlausibility: Type I. It's actually scary how very plausible it is. Even given that many historical characters end up doing [[RubberBandHistory pretty much the same things they did in our universe]], it's remarkably well thought out.
* SpiritualSuccessor: To Turtledove's own [[AlienSpaceBats more outlandish]] ''Literature/TheGunsOfTheSouth''.
* StartMyOwn: When his local recruiting station won't take volunteers, Roosevelt takes it on himself to pull together his own Unauthorized Regiment.
* StartOfDarkness: After being humiliated by the Confederacy again, von Schlieffen offers the USA an alliance with the German Empire, later leading to the USA becoming a brutally ultra-militaristic, German-trained power.
* TookALevelInBadass: Teddy Roosevelt positively ''vaults'' from level to level.
** Douglass has some intense moments in Louisville.
* WhatIf: What if the Confederacy won the Civil War?
* YoungFutureFamousPeople: Most prominently with Theodore Roosevelt, who is 22 years old when the story begins.
----