->''"To express oneself badly is not only faulty as far as the language goes, but does some harm to the soul."''
-->--'''Socrates''', ''[[Creator/{{Plato}} Phaedo]]''

Socrates, commonly considered the father of philosophy (though not the first one to practice it by any stretch), was an Athenian philosopher who lived from 469-399 BCE, when he was executed in the wake of UsefulNotes/ThePeloponnesianWar (of which, interestingly, he was a veteran, having served with distinction at Delium in an earlier phase of the war). The earlier philosophers are, in fact, known as the "pre-Socratic philosophers".

He disapproved of writing, and so is known chiefly through the writings of his student Creator/{{Plato}}. (Another of his students, Creator/{{Xenophon}}, also wrote about him, but his works are less known.) Socrates taught and inspired many prominent young Athenians, from the aforementioned Plato to Alcibiades. (Plato even devoted a good chunk of his ''Literature/{{Symposium}}'' to defending against the common charge that Socrates had an affair with Alcibiades).

The story goes that the Oracle at Delphi described Socrates as the wisest man in Greece, and Socrates, a simple bricklayer, set out to disprove this claim by seeking out all the most knowledgeable men in Greece and demonstrating that they knew more than he did. It always backfired, because Socrates, possessing basic reasoning skills, could always see and point out the massive holes in everyone's claims. For example, he tried to get Euthyphro, an esteemed religious expert, to put forth a workable definition of "piety". None of Euthyphro's attempts held up under scrutiny, and eventually he gave up and went away. In the end, Socrates agreed with the Oracle, even if reluctantly, saying that if he really ''did'' know more than all other men, it was only because he was aware of how much he did ''not'' know.

Take everything you read about Socrates with a grain of salt: Plato was very fond of putting his own words in his teacher's mouth, and it's hard to tell how much of Socrates's dialogue in Plato's works is Socrates's words and how much is Plato's. (This is described academically as the "Socratic problem".) The ''Literature/ApologyOfSocrates'' is usually considered the most faithful work, and it covers Socrates's trial and conviction on charges of corrupting the youth and introducing new gods. If one reads between the lines in ''Literature/TheRepublic'' and ''Literature/{{Symposium}}'', it's quite possible that Socrates was guilty on both counts, though he vigorously denied the charges in court.

!!Socrates is associated with the following tropes:
* ActuallyPrettyFunny: He reportedly found Creator/{{Aristophanes}}' caricature of him in ''Theatre/TheClouds'' amusing.
* ArmorPiercingQuestion: His specialty, although it has been argued that Socrates' questions sometimes pierce [[TheWarOnStraw straw armour]].
%%* BadassBeard
%%* BaldOfAwesome
* BarefootLoon: How he's portrayed in ''Theatre/TheClouds''.
* BarefootSage: One of his best-known characteristics. He's probably the UrExample of the trope. Overlaps with DoesNotLikeShoes.
* BeautyEqualsGoodness: In a time when many Greeks genuinely believed this (good looks could allegedly even be used as exonerating evidence in court), Socrates was a major [[AvertedTrope aversion]].
%%* ComplimentBackfire: Some people just ''can't'' take a compliment...
%%* ConstantlyCurious
%%* CoolOldGuy
* TheCynic: ''So'' much. He was even an immediate influence to the original [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynicism#Influences Greek Cynics]].
* DiesWideOpen: Plato's account of Socrates' execution states that the philosopher died with his eyes (and mouth) open, and his friend Crito closed them.
%%* DoomedMoralVictor
* DyingMomentOfAwesome: His trial and execution.
* EccentricMentor: Possibly the UrExample; one of the wisest and the most eccentric people of his time.
* EverybodyCries: How Socrates' friends reacted at his execution when they witnessed him drink the fatal cup of hemlock. He finally had to ask them to restrain themselves so he could die in peace.
* FaceDeathWithDignity: He wasn't afraid to die, and resisted his friends' attempts to smuggle him out of prison so he could leave Athens and escape to another city.
* TheGadfly: TropeNamer. Some semantic drift.
* GeniusBruiser: Although not as much as his student Creator/{{Plato}} (who was a [[BloodSport pankration]] champion), Socrates did serve with distinction in UsefulNotes/ThePeloponnesianWar, which took no small amount of physical strength. According to some accounts, Socrates [[WorkingClassHero earned his living as a stonecutter]], preferring not to receive money for teaching. No doubt this also required considerable physical strength.
* HonorBeforeReason: Why he chose to stay in jail and be executed instead of escape when he was given the chance--or just leave Athens before he could even be tried.
* IDrankWhat: Implied in the film ''Film/RealGenius'' -- which is the TropeNamer here -- and in other comedies that Socrates accidentally drank the hemlock. But this is averted in RealLife: Socrates knew ''exactly'' what he was doing.
* ILoveYouBecauseICantControlYou: Apparently why Socrates married Xanthippe. In Xenophon's writings, he explicitly compares his marriage to a man who rides unruly horses because if he can handle them, he can handle any horse; a man who can get along with her can get along with anyone.
* {{Irony}}: Socrates may have invented this, and he is certainly the earliest attested practicioner.
* KnowNothingKnowItAll: Possibly the world's greatest ''inversion'' of this trope. A quote often attributed to him is ''"The only thing I know is that I know nothing."''
* MakeUpIsEvil: Make-up is mentioned twice in Xenophon's writings on him: once as something a personified Vice wears (in a legend of Heracles) and once as a fault for which a young wife must be set straight.
* NewMediaAreEvil: Socrates did not approve of reading. He thought it destroyed the memory. The fact just that having decentralized physical memory such as books allows for a greater possible total sum of human knowledge presumably never occurred to him.
* ObfuscatingStupidity: Combine this with ArmorPiercingQuestion and you've got the Socratic method.
* OffingTheMouth: Socrates called himself a [[TheGadfly "Social Gadfly"]] for precisely this reason. He'd say outrageous or taboo things simply to bring them into conversation, while knowing fully well he was putting himself in danger by saying them and, like a gadfly, could be "swatted" at any time. Indeed, he ''was'' eventually executed on charges of corrupting the youth with his words.
* ThePhilosopher: Obviously, but he's not the [[SesquipedalianLoquaciousness sesquipedalian]], "bookish" philosopher.
* ScrewTheRulesImDoingWhatsRight: With regard to [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_of_Salamis Leon of Salamis]]. Socrates refused to obey the orders of the Thirty Tyrants to unjustly arrest Leon and turn him over for execution. Fortunately for Socrates, the Tyrants were swept from power before their wrath could be turned on ''him'' as well.
* SuicideByCop: What his execution might have been; according to Plato's ''The Crito'', Socrates went willingly to his sentence to teach others the value of law in a just society.
* TeacherStudentRomance: With Plato. Much ValuesDissonance ensues for modern readers, such as that the Ancient Greeks had six different kinds of love, each identified with a separate word, and TeacherStudentRomance was effectively one of them.
* TextileWorkIsFeminine: In both Plato's works and Xenophon's, he takes this for granted, and so do the people he talks with.
* WordOfSaintPaul: Plato is the intercessory agent here.

!!Socrates in popular culture
* Socrates got his first ShoutOut while he was still alive; Creator/{{Aristophanes}} lambasted him without mercy in ''Theatre/TheClouds''.
* As a HistoricalDomainCharacter, he appears in several TimeTravel stories.
** In the ''Magazine/DoctorWhoMagazine'' comic "The Chains of Olympus", he [[TalkingTheMonsterToDeath convinces a psychic construct that thinks it's Zeus that it isn't the Greek God]].
** He's one of the people that Film/BillAndTed meet on their journeys.
** He also meets the cast of ''ComicBook/DieAbrafaxe''.
* In his 1968 song "Chateau in Virginia Waters", Music/MarcBolan describes a woman whose "[[CoolOldLady poetess grandmother]]" is "wise just like Socrates".
* In the ''Series/StarTrekTheOriginalSeries'' episode "[[Recap/StarTrekS3E19RequiemForMethuselah Requiem for Methuselah]]", the immortal Flint mentions that Socrates was one of the many historical figures he's encountered.
* He is mentioned in the "Bruces Song", aka "Philosopher's Song" by Creator/MontyPython, a comedy song featured on ''AudioPlay/TheMontyPythonMatchingTieAndHandkerchief'', the live album ''AudioPlay/MontyPythonLiveAtDruryLane'' and in their ConcertFilm ''Film/MontyPythonLiveAtTheHollywoodBowl''.
* He's one of several celebrities mentioned in Music/TheClash's "The Magnificent Seven" (from ''Music/{{Sandinista}}'').
* He appears in two notably bad ''Literature/PercyJacksonAndTheOlympians'' fanfics, ''Fanfic/MoonDaughter'' and ''Fanfic/ThePrayerWarriors'' adventure ''The Evil Gods Part Two''. His roles in these stories [[ArtisticLicenseHistory have very little in common]] with his actual history.
* The supercomputer that advises WesternAnimation/ButchCassidyAndTheSundanceKids is named after him.
* In an episode of ''WesternAnimation/MikeLuAndOg'', his death is mentioned during the Philosophical Society's discussion of suicide.
* The ''WesternAnimation/DangerRangers'' song "Don't Touch That!" cites his death as a good reason to avoid poison.
* The Creator/RosemarySutcliff novel ''The Flowers of Adonis'' is set in AncientGreece during his lifetime, so it's no surprise that he (along with many other people from that era) makes an appearance.
* In the ''Series/{{Supernatural}}'' episode "[[Recap/SupernaturalS08E05BloodBrother Blood Brother]]", Benny tells his maker, "You know what Socrates said about a life unconsidered".
* He's a major character in the ''Literature/{{Thessaly}}'' trilogy.
* In one of the ''Literature/TsarGorokhsDetectiveAgency'' novels, a character drinks poison in order to die like his hero Socrates.
* In 1965, Creator/RobertSilverberg wrote a biography of Socrates intended for high schoolers.
* The web series ''WebVideo/EpicRapBattlesOfHistory'' pits Socrates, along with Creator/FriedrichNietzsche and Creator/{{Voltaire}}, against the Eastern philosophers [[Literature/TheArtOfWar Sun Tzu]], [[Creator/{{Laozi}} Lao Tzu]] and Creator/{{Confucius}}.
* The [[TheDitz ditzy]] scarecrow in ''WesternAnimation/TalesOfTheWizardOfOz'' is [[IronicName ironically named]] Socrates Strawman.
* Socrates gets a mention in ''Literature/TheDresdenFiles'' novel ''Literature/SkinGame''; according to Hades, Socrates is spending his afterlife answering other people's questions.
* The protagonist of ''VisualNovel/SocratesJonesProPhilosopher'' is named after him. [[{{Irony}} Ironically]], Jones knows nothing about philosophy despite coming from a family of philosophy buffs; the story is an EdutainmentGame that allows him to explore the subject.
* Played with in one episode of G.I. Joe which had a minor character named Socrates Aertes, only he was a shipping tycoon.