'''Decimus Junius Juvenalis''' -- generally known as Juvenal -- was a Roman satirist who lived in the first and second centuries AD -- roughly from the time of Nero to the time of Hadrian. He's perhaps best known as the originator of the phrases, "Who will watch the watchmen?"[[note]]''Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?''[[/note]] and "bread and circuses."[[note]]''panem et circenses''[[/note]] He lends his name to the brand of satire known as [[CaptainObvious Juvenalian]], which consists of scathing attacks on people and things the writer considers to be evil.

His {{satire}}s are written from the point of a financially distressed member of the upper classes -- the kind that in Victorian England would have been called "shabby genteel" (or in other words, a literal ImpoverishedPatrician). The narrator saves his bitterest vile for the upstarts, ex-slaves, and foreigners who dominated early Imperial times, but he spears almost everyone and everything: [[StayInTheKitchen upstart women who don't sit at home and spin]], [[OlderThanTheyThink gay men who think they can]] ''[[OlderThanTheyThink marry]]'', uncaring patrons who feed their dependents plain olive oil while keeping the EVOO for themselves, [[ViceCity the teeming, dangerous city that gets worse every day]], the cruel, rapacious Emperor who cares more about the delicacies of his own table than he does about starving soldiers (probably talking about Domitian, regarded by the upper crust--somewhat unfairly[[note]]Domitian was ruthless and kind of nasty, but policy wise he was a decent Emperor; however, he had a habit of disregarding the Senate (still more or less run by patricians) as the powerless snobby social club it by then really was, and after enduring a conspiracy/revolt against him in 89, he unfortunately started to get a bit paranoid and execution-happy. This led to a conspiracy that actually killed him.[[/note]]--as the Nero of his time).

It's usually assumed that the narrator is Juvenal himself, frustrated into invective by the "moral degeneracy" of his time, but a modern AlternativeCharacterInterpretation is that Juvenal was [[PoesLaw actually poking fun at the kind of stuffy, stuck-up old guard that would come up with these things.]] It's plausible, given that Juvenal (like Creator/{{Horace}}) might have been the son of an ex-slave himself. Or he might have been the son of a noble. Nobody really knows.

One previously unknown section of Juvenal's Sixth Satire - the one about women - was discovered in 1905. The section contained such sophisticated obscenity that only one man in the UK was considered erudite enough to translate it.

Juvenalian satire--satire that attacks what the author perceives as social evil through [[TheReasonYouSuckSpeech moral outrage and savage ridicule]]-- is named for him.

His satires survived because they were critical of Pagan Rome, something the average medieval monk approved of.

He is the TropeNamer for BreadAndCircuses and WhoWatchesTheWatchmen.
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